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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 



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NEW SERIES, VOL. 30. 



V.20 



(?1* 



APRIL 14, 1920— OCTOBER 20, 1920 




WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

1921 






oD- 



*y 



noe 



9B 6 86 5 12 



^ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



American Antiquarian 
Society 

2-013272 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION 



GEORGE H. HAYNES JULIUS H. TUTTLE 

JOHN H. EDMONDS CLARENCE S. BRIGHAM 



THE DAVIS PRESS 

Worcester, Massachusetts 






CONTENTS 



Note of Committee of Publication ..... vii 
Officers and Members of the Society ' . . ' . . . ix-xxv 

SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 14, 1920 

Proceedings 1 

Report of the Council 4 

Obituaries . . . . . . . . . . 12 

A Letter from John Randolph to Thomas Jefferson 

Leonard L. Mackall 17 

William Thornton and Negro Colonization Gaillard Hunt 32 

An Early Account of the Establishment of Jesuit 

Missions in America .... Henry F. DePuy 62 

ANNUAL MEETING, OCTOBER 20, 1920 

Proceedings ...... * ■ 155 

Report of the Council 159 

Obituaries . . . . . 181 

Report of the Treasurer . 187 

Report of the Librarian ........ .. 197 

A Famous Colonial Litigation 

The Case Between Richard Sherman and 

Capt. Robert Keayne, 1642 . . Arthur P. Rugg 217 

The Portraits of Isaiah Thomas . Charles L. Nichols 251 

The Mayflower Compact Arthur Lord 278 

An Artist Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 

Thomas Hovey Gage 295 



i 



LIST OF PLATES 



Facsimile of Title Page, "Vida del P. Francisco de 
Borja", Madrid, 1592 

The Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 



opp. p. 64 



Pastel by Sharpies ■ 


251 


Painted by Greenwood 


254 


Painted by Marchant, after Greenwood 


256 


Miniature, Artist Unknown 


260 


Miniature by Doyle . . . . ■ . 


260 


Miniature by Goodrich . . 


. 262 



COUNCIL 

OF THE 

Jlmetitan J^nftijitartatt ^ottefij 

Elected October 20, 1920. 

president. 
WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Wee* presidents. 
ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
CLARENCE WINTHROP BOWEN, LL.D., of New York, 

N. Y. 

Councillors. 
GRANVILLE STANLEY HALL, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES GRENFILL WASHBURN, A.B., of Worcester, 

Mass. 
FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
HENRY WINCHESTER CUNNINGHAM,A.B., of Milton, 

Mass. 
GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, Litt. D., of Dover, Mass. 
WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT^ LL.D., of New Haven, Conn. 
GEORGE HUBBARD BLAKESLEE, Ph.D., of Worcester, 

Mass. 
HENRY HERBERT EDES, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 
CLARENCE SAUNDERS BRIGHAM, A. M., of Worcester, 

Mass. 

Secretary for $ orefgn Correspondence. 
* JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence, 

WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD, LL.D., of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

TRecording Secretary. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D,, Litt.D., of Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

(Treasurer. 

SAMUEL BAYARD WOODWARD, M.D., of Worcester, 

Mass. 



XII 

October, 1889. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, R. I. 

April, 1890. 

Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1890. 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 

April, 1891. 

Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

October, 1891. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, IVlass. 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., . . . Framingham,Mass. 

April, 1893 

Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . . . New York, N. Y. 

October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . New York, N. Y. 

Albert Shaw, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

April, 1895. 

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

April, 1896. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 

October, 1896. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, LL.D., . ... Plymouth, Mass. 

April, 1897. 
Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., . Paris, France. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt.D., Worcester, Mass. 



\ 
I 



XIII 



April, 1898. 

Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., Dayton, Ohio. 

Waldo Lincoln, A.B., . . . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., . Salem, Mass. 

April, 1899. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conn. 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

George Parker Winship, Litt.D., . Dover, Mass. 

October, 1899. 

Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D., Boston, Mass. 

April, 1900. 

Samuel Utley, LL.B., Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1900. 

Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . Ware, Mass. 

James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

April,* 1901. 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . . . Haverford, Pa. 

Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . New Haven, Oonn. 

October, 1901. 

George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., Winchester, Mass. 

Albert Matthews, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 

October, 1902. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . . Berkeley, Cal. 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 



XIV 

October, 1904. 

Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

William Henry Holmes, .... Washington, D. C. 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . . . Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1907. 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, LL.D., Cambridge,- Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D. New Haven, Conn. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., . Detroit, Mich. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1908. 

William Beer, . New Orleans, La. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . San Juan, Porto Rico 

Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . Ithaca, N. Y. 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1908. 

Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Julius Herbert Tuttle, .... Dedham, Mass. 

Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., . Worcester, Mass. 



XV 



October, 1908. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph. 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., 
Max Farrand, Ph.D., . 
Frederick Webb Hodge, ¥ 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., . 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., . 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 



D., Worcester, Mass. 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 
New Haven, Conn, 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 



' 



April, 1909. 

Samuel Morris Conant, . . 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., 



Pawtucket, R. I. 
Providence, R. I. 
Boston, Mass. 



October, 1909. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., 
Edward Everett Ayer, 
Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A. 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., 
Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., . 
Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. 
. New Haven, Conn. 
B., Milton, Mass. 

, Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



April, 1910. 

Gaillard Hunt, LL.D. . . . . . Washington, D. C. 

Archer Milton Huntington, Litt.D., New York, N. Y. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Albert Henry Whitin, . . . ' Whitinsville, Mass. 



October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, A.M. . 
George Francis Dow, .... 

Charles Evans, 

Homer Gage, M.D., ; 

Samuel Yerplanck Hoffmann, . 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., 



Hartford, Conn. 
Topsfield, Mass. 
Chicago, 111. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Princeton, N. J. 



XVI 



April, 1911, 

Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D., 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D., 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Madison, Wis. 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . . Baltimore, Md. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Northampton , Mass . 
Boston, Mass. 



April, 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., 
Livingston Davis, A.B., .... 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 
Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., 



Urbana, 111. 
Milton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 



October, 1912. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N-*Y. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . . Williamsburg, Va. 

October, 1913. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . Berkeley, Cal. 

Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . . Webster, Mass. 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 

Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C 

April, 1914. 

Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., . Providence, R. I. 

Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D., . . Boston, Mass. 

Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B., Boston, Mass. 

George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., . New York, N. Y. 

Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C 



October, 1914. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . 
Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., . 
Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., 
Charles Francis Jenney, LL.B., 
William Pendleton Palmer, 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., 



Washington, D. C 
Worcester, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Madison, Wis. 



► 



XVII 

April, 1915. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B., Boston, Mass. 

Rev. Samuel Hart, LL.D., . . . Middle town, Conn. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Edwards Huntington, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., . Salem, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1915. 

John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., . . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 

April, 1916. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B., Danvers, Mass. 

Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S., Milton, Mass. 

October, 1916. 

Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . . Minneapolis, Minn. 

William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 

Lawrence Park, Groton, Mass. 

Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B., Louisville, Ky. 

April, 1917. 

*. 

Henry Farr DePuy, . ... . New York, N. Y. 

George Anthony Gaskill, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, . . . . . . . Madison, Wis. 

Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 

Isaac Rand Thomas, ..... Boston, Mass. 

April, 1918. 

James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn . 

Robert Hendre Kelby, .... New York, N. Y. 

John Woodbury, A.B., ... . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1918. 

Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., . Boston, Mass. 

George Watson Cole, . . . New York, N. Y. 

John Henry Edmonds, .... Boston, Mass. 

Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., New York, N. Y. 

Samuel Lyman Munson, .... Albany, N. Y. 



XVIII 



April, 1919. 
James Alton James, Ph.D., . . . 
Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., 
Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., 
Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . 
Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., 
William Roscoe Thayer, LL.D., 
William Thomas, LL.B., . . . 



Evanston, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Bath, Me. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



October, 1919. 

Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Ph.B. Raleigh, N. C. 
Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, A.B., New York, N. Y. 



April, 1920. 

Merrick Lincoln, M.D., . 
George Leander Shepley, A.M., 
James Benjamin Wilbur, . 



Worcester, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
Manchester, Vt. 



October, 1920. 

John Adams Aiken, LL.D., . . . Greenfield, Mass. 
William Gwinn Mather, . . . Cleveland, Ohio. 
Fred Norris Robinson, Ph.D., . . Cambridge, Mass. 
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson, A.B., Charleston, S. C. 



XIX 



FOREIGN MEMBERS. 



BOLIVIA. 

April, 1910. 

NAME 

Manuel Vicente Ballivian, . 

BRAZIL. 

April, 1910. 

Jose Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B., . . 

April, 1919. 

Manuel De Oliveira Lima, . 

BRITISH GUIANA. 

October, 1917. 
James Rodway, ....... Georgetown. 



RESIDENCE 

La Paz. 



Rio de Janeiro. 
Washington, D. C 



CANADA. 

April, 1908. 
Narcisse-Eutrope Dionne, LL.D., . Quebec. 

April, 1910. 

Arthur George Doughty, Litt.D., Ottawa. 
William Lawson Grant, A.M., . . Kingston. 
William Wood, D.C.L., .... Quebec. 

October, 1910. 
George McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . Toronto. 

CHILE. 

April, 1909. 
Jose Toribio Medina, Santiago de Chile. 



XX 



COSTA RICA; 

April, 1919. 
Anastasio Alfaro, San Jose\ 

FRANCE. 

October, 1896. 
Henry Vignaud, Bagneux, Seine, 

October, 1917. 
Jean Jules Jusserand, LL.D., . . Paris. 

April, 1919. 

Seymour De Ricci, Paris. 

GERMAN EMPIRE. 

April, 1875. 
Otto Keller, Ph.D., Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 
Johannes Conrad, LL.D., . . . Halle. 

April, 1910. 
Eduard Seler, Ph.D., Berlin. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

April, 1882. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, D.C.L. . Sussex. 

October, 1892. 
Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D., . Oxford; 
Sir Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 
Hubert Hall, F. S. A London. 

October, 1901. 
Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens. 

October, 1910. 
Alfred Percival Maudslay, D.Sc, London. 

October, 1913. 

Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 



i 



XXI 

October, 1915. 
Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, LL.D., 

London. 

HOLLAND. 

October, 1895. 
Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 

HONDURAS. 

October, 1917. 
Alberto Membreno, Tegucigalpa. 

MEXICO. 

October, 1890. 

Nicolas Leon, Ph.D., Mexico City. 

April, 1907. 
Genaro Garcia, Mexico City. 

NORWAY. 

October, 1906. 
Roald Amundsen, .*'.... Christiania. 

PERU. 

October, 1912. 
Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D., . Washington, D. C. 

October 1920 

Jorge M. Corbacho, ...... Lima. 

PORTUGAL. 

October, 1906. 
Bernardino Machado, Lisbon. 

WEST INDIES. 

April, 1912. 
Frank Cundall, Kingston, Jamaica. 






XXII 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. 



NAME. 



RESIDENCE. 



George Burton Adams, Litt.D., . New Haven, Conri. 

Alfred Lawrence Aiken, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

John Adams Aiken, LL.D., . . Worcester, Mass. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles McLean Andrews, L.H.D., 

Edward Everett Ayer, .... 

Thomas Willing Balch, L.H.D. . 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D.,* 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D. . 

Albert Carlos Bates, A.M.* . 

James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., 

William Beer, . . . . . 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., 



New Haven, Conn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Northampton, Mass. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Portland, Me. 
New Orleans, La. 
Washington, D. C. 



Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 



William Keeney Bixby, LL.D.,* . 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., 

Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B., . 
Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., . 
Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., 



St. Louis, Mo. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Berkeley, Cal. 
* Boston, Mass. 



Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D.,* New York, N. Y. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 
Solon Justus Buck, Ph.D., . . Minneapolis, Minn. 



Signifies life members. 



XXIII 

Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . Ithaca, N. Y. 
Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., Detroit, Mich. 
Edward Channing, Ph.D.,* . . Cambridge, Mass. 
Howard Millar Chapin, A.B.,* . Providence, R. I. 
William Lawrence Clements, B.S., Bay City, Mich. 
George Watson Cole, . . . . . New York, N. Y. 
Reuben Colton, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Morris Conant, . . . Pawtucket, R. I. 
Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, Ph.B., Raleigh,N.C. 
Archibald Cary Coolidge, LL.D.,* Boston, Mass. 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B.,* Milton, Mass. 
Livingston Davis, A.B.,* . . . Milton, Mass. 

Henry Farr DePuy, New York, N. Y. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M.,* Worcester, Mass. 
Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 
George Francis Dow, .... Topsfield, Mass. 

Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., Colorado Springs, Col. 
William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M., ... New York, N. Y. 
Henry Herbert Edes, A.M.,* . . Cambridge, Mass. 
John Henry Edmonds,* .... Boston, Mass. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B. Danvers, Mass. 
Charles Evans, . . . . . . Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D.,* .... New Haven, Conn. 

John Whittemore Farwell, Litt.B.,* Boston, Mass. 
Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . . Washington, D. C. 
Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Madison, Wis. 
William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B. Worcester, Mass. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D.,* Providence, R. I. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B.,* . Worcester, Mass. 
George Anthony Gaskill, A.B.,* . Worcester, Mass. 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . Ware, Mass. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 
Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., . Dayton, Ohio. 



XXIV 



. Worcester, Mass. 
. San Juan, Porto Rico. 
. Concord, N. H. 
. Savannah, Ga. 
. Cambridge, Mass. 
. Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
. New York, N. Y. 
. New York, N. Y. 
. Worcester, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 



Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., 

Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.tyL, 

Otis Grant Hammond, A.M., 

William Harden, .... 

Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 

George Henry Haynes, Ph.D.,* 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . 

Frederick Webb Hodge, 

Samuel Verplanck Hoffman,* 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., . 

William Henry Holmes, 

James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D., 

Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 

Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., . 

Gaillard Hunt, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C 

Archer Milton Huntington, Lnr.D.,New York, N. Y. 

Henry Edwards Huntington, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

James Alton James, Ph.D., . . Evanston, 111. 

John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . Washington, D. C 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B.,* Salem, Mass. 

Charles Francis Jenney, LL.B., . 

Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., 

John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., 

Robert Hendre Kelby, .... 

William Vail Kellen, LL.D., . 

Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, B.A.S.," 

Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt,* . 

George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., 

Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., . 

Alfred Louis Kroeber, Ph.D., 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., 

Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D.,* Boston, Mass. 

John Thomas Lee, Madison, Wis. 

Frederick William Lehmann, LL.D., St. Louis, Mo. 
Merrick Lincoln, M.D., . . . Worcester, Mass. 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B.,* .... Worcester, Mass. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D.,* . . Nahant, Mass. 
Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard,* . Webster, Mass. 



Hyde Park, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Milton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Baltimore, Md. 



XXV 

Arthur Lord, LL.D., .... Plymouth, Mass. 
Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D.,* Paris, France. 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D.,* Cambridge, Mass. 
Alexander George McAdie, A.M., Milton, Mass. 
Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., . Winchester, Mass. 
William MacDonald, LL.D., . . Berkeley, Cal. 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, A.B., New York, N. Y. 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 
John Bach McMaster, LL.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 
William Gwinn Mather, . . . Cleveland, Ohio. 
Albert Matthews, A.B., . . . Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A. B., Framingham, Mass. 
Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D.,* Cambridge, Mass. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D.* . Concord, Mass. 
Edward Sylvester Morse, Sc.D., Salem, Mass. 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., Providence, R. I. 
Samuel Lyman Munson, . . . Albany, N. Y. 
Charles Lemuel NiCHOLs,M.D.,LiTT.D.,*Worcester,Mass. 
Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B.,* Boston, Mass. 
William Pendleton Palmer, . . Cleveland, Ohio. 
Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Charles Edwards Park, D.D., Boston, Mass. 
Lawrence Park,* . . . . . Groton, Mass. 
George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Alfred Claghorn Potter, A.B., Cambridge, Mass. 
Herbert Putnam, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 
Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., . . Madison, Wis. 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D.,* . Boston, Mass. 

Fred Norris Robinson, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D.,* . Worcester, Mass. 
Alexander Samuel Salley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C. 
Marshall Howard Saville, . . New York, N. Y. 
Harold Marsh Sewall, LL.B., . Bath, Me. 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., .... New York, N. Y. 
Robert Kendall Shaw, A.B., . Worcester, Mass. 

George Leander Shepley, A.M., . Providence, R. I. 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., Princeton, N. J. 



XXVI 

Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B.,* . . Framingham,Mass. 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D., Baltimore, Md. 
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson,A.B., Charleston, S. C. 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes, A.B., New York, N. Y. 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., New Haven, Conn. 

Charles Henry Taylor, Jr.,* . Boston, Mass. 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 
William Roscoe Thayer, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . . Haverford, Pa. 
Isaac Rand Thomas,* .... Boston, Mass. 
William Thomas, LL.B., . , . San Francisco, Cal. 

Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Cambridge, Mass. 
Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston, Ph.B, Louisville, Ky. 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. ' 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle,* . . . Dedham, Mass. 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . Williamsburg, Va. 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., . Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., . ,"•"'. . Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D . New Haven, Conn. 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, D.D., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . Boston, Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D., .... Worcester, Mass. 
Albert Henry Whitin .... Whitinsville Mass. 
James Benjamin Wilbur . . Manchester, Vt. 

Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., . . . Washington, D. C. 
George Parker Winship, Litt.D.,* Dover, Mass. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . Boston, Mass. 
John Woodbury, A.B.,* . . . Boston, Mass. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 



1920.] Proceedings. 



PROCEEDINGS 



SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 14, 1920, IN THE HOUSE OF 

THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

THE semi-annual meeting of the American Anti- 
quarian Society was called to order in the house 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
Boston, at 10.45 a. m., April 14, 1920, President 
Lincoln in the chair. 

There were present: 

Reuben Colton, William Eaton Foster, Charles 
Pelham Greenough, Francis Henshaw Dewey, William 
Trowbridge Forbes, Arthur Lord, Waldo Lincoln, 
Edward Sylvester Morse, George Parker Winship, 
Samuel Utley, George Lyman Kittredge, Albert 
Matthews, Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Daniel Berke- 
ley Updike, Clarence Saunders Brigham, Lincoln 
Newton Kinnicutt, Worthington Chauncey Ford, 
Herbert Putnam, Julius Herbert Tuttle, Charles 
Grenfill Washburn, Wilfred Harold Munro, Justin 
Harvey Smith, Henry Winchester Cunningham, Frank 
Farnum Dresser, George Francis Dow, Livingston 
Davis, Archer Butler Hulbert, Rev. Herbert Edwin 
Lombard, Howard Millar Chapin, Samuel Eliot 
Morison, Grenville Howland Norcross, Thomas Hovey 
Gage, Charles Francis Jenney, John Whittemore 
Farwell, Lawrence Waters Jenkins, Rev. Henry 
Bradford Washburn, Alexander George McAdie, 
Nathaniel Thayer Kidder, John Woodbury, George 
Watson Cole, John Henry Edmonds, Leonard Leopold 



2 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Mackall, Samuel Lyman Munson, Harold Marsh 
Sewall, Robert Kendall Shaw, William Roscoe Thayer. 

The Recording Secretary being unable to be present 
on account of sickness, on motion of Mr. Winship, Mr. 
Jenkins was elected acting Recording Secretary for the 
meeting, and the oath was administered to him by 
Grenville H. Norcross. 

The acting Recording Secretary, read the records of 
the last meeting. 

Mr. Cunningham read the Report of the Council. 
On motion of Mr. Norcross it was voted: That the 
Report of the Council be accepted and referred to the 
Committee of Publication. 

The President appointed Messrs. Norcross and Shaw 
a committee to collect, sort and count ballots for new 
members. The committee reported the election of the 
following: 

Resident Members 

Merrick Lincoln, of Worcester, Mass. 
George Leander Shepley, of Providence, R. I. 
James Benjamin Wilbur, of Manchester, Vt. 

The President stated that the roof of the Library 
building was leaking badly and that it was necessary 
that the dome should be covered with copper. It was 
voted: That the Council be authorized to expend such 
a sum of money from the principal funds, available for 
the purpose, as may be necessary to repair the dome of 
the Library building. 

There being no further business the members 
listened to the following papers: 

"A Letter from John Randolph to Thomas Jeffer- 
son" by Leonard L. Mackall, of New York, N. Y. 

"William Thornton and Negro Colonization," by 
Gaillard Hunt, of Washington, D. C. 



1920.] Proceedings. 3 

"An Early Account of the Establishment of Jesuit 
Missions in America, " by Henry F. DePuy, of 
Easton, Md. 

Messrs. Hunt and DePuy being unable to be present, 
their papers were read by Messrs. Putnam and 
Winship, respectively. On motion of Mr. Washburn 
it was voted: That the papers be referred to the 
Committee of Publication. 

It was announced that the members would be enter- 
tained at luncheon by Mr. John W. Farwell, at his 
residence; 457 Beacon Street. 

There being no further business, the meeting was 
dissolved. 

Lawrence W. Jenkins, 

Acting Recording Secretary. 



American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 



IN accordance with the by-laws the Council makes 
its Report to the members on the progress of the 
Society for the past six months. Nothing of especial 
importance has happened that would call for extensive 
comment, and this report will be confined to a simple 
message to the members, to keep them informed on the 
work and aspirations of the Society. These reports 
in the past have often been used by their writers as a 
means of communicating a paper on some historical 
subject, which, though interesting and valuable, was 
not germane to the object of the report, and several 
members have expressed the wish that these reports 
might be more brief and confined to their business 
aspects, and that the essays on special topics might 
appear elsewhere at the meeting as separate communi- 
cations. But when we are fortunate enough to have 
the report written by one of the older members it is of 
great value to have him include his reminiscences of 
early meetings and former members, for this infuses a 
real antiquarian breath, and puts the younger men en 
rapport with the atmosphere and traditions of the 
Society. A good example of this was in October, 
1918,- when the late Andrew McFarland Davis drew 
such a vivid picture of the old-time meetings with 
their devoted attendants sitting on the antique sofas 
and chairs around the Secretary's desk. 

During the past winter the weather has been so 
severe and the means of travel so antiquated and un- 
certain that fewer people than usual have been able to 
go to Worcester and use the treasures in our building. 



1920.] 



Report of the Council. 



Sickness has for a portion of the time deprived the 
Society of the constant and devoted attention of two 
of our leading officials. Our President, started in the 
autumn for a long trip to the Pacific, which was cut 
short by a serious illness in southern California, from 
which he has but recently recovered, and we welcome 
him back to his accustomed chair, where we hope to see 
him for many a year, with renewed health and strength. 
And our beloved Recording Secretary after many 
weeks in a Boston hospital has but just returned to 
his home in Worcester, where he is daily improving, 
and it is a matter of deep regret to us, as I know it is 
to him, that he is not here present with us today. 

The serious financial problems that harass all the 
world have not passed us by, and the heavy increase 
in the cost of all we need affects every department in 
the library. Our coal and all kinds of supplies have 
increased in cost, while our income coming from in- 
vested funds and the generosity of our friends has not 
kept pace with the increase. But even so, we have 
not been without donations and have received addi- 
tions to our funds to an' amount larger than in any 
year since the Centennial Fund of 1912. Following 
Dr. Samuel A. Green's bequest of $5,000, which came 
to hand just at the time of the meeting last October, 
there was a gift of $6,000 from Andrew McFarland 
Davis accompanied by the following letter: 



Cambridge, Dec. 13, 1919. 



Dear Sirs: 



When the portrait of Stephen Salisbury was painted I 
contributed to the Society two thousand dollars. When the 
John and Eliza Davis Fund was established I contributed one 
thousand and at a later date another thousand to that fund. 
It is my desire to have a fund established in the Society bearing 
my name, which shall ultimately be carried on the Treasurer's 
books at a capital sum of not less than ten thousand dollars, 
and in order that this desire may take effect I enclose a check 
for $6,000 (say six thousand dollars) , the annual interest upon 
which I desire to have added to the capital of the fund until the 



6 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

same shall reach ten thousand dollars. ' After that date the 
annual income of the fund to be at the disposal of the Council 
for any current expenses. The allusion to previous contribu- 
tions to the Society has no other bearing on the questions 
involved in the establishment of this fund than their influence 
upon myself. In each instance they represented a desire to 
aid the Society and a belief that it was the last contribution 
that I should feel myself able to make. 

The benefactions of the Davis family are larger 
than those of any except those of the Salisburys and 
Isaiah Thomas. 

In January last our associate William K. Bixby of 
St. Louis wrote that he had deposited to our credit in 
the St. Louis Union Trust Co. the sum of $2,000 the 
interest of which trust would come to the Society each 
year. This gift adds to our already large indebtedness 
to Mr. Bixby for his gifts of valuable historical 
publications. 

From Samuel L. Munson, of Albany, the Society 
has received a donation of $1,000, to be added to the 
invested funds. This gift, all the more welcome 
because it was unsolicited, shows that our efforts to 
preserve Americana for the use of students are 
appreciated. 

From our associate on the Council, Clarence W. 
Bowen, we have received the portraits of Theophilus 
Chandler and his wife, painted by Winthrop Chandler 
about 1770. Winthrop Chandler was an early New 
England artist of considerable merit and was the 
brother of Theophilus and the Reverend Thomas 
Bradbury Chandler. He was born in Woodstock, 
Conn., in 1747, and died in Thompson, Conn., in 
1790. Some of his portraits in oils are preserved in 
each of these towns and in Worcester and Petersham, 
Mass. 

This gift from Mr. Bowen is especially appreciated, 
as the Society at the present time is anxious to acquire 
early American portraits. In the old building on 
Lincoln Square there was little room for pictures, and 
those which we had seemed a large collection. But in 



1920.] Report of the Council. 7 

the new building, with its abundant wall space, 
excellent lighting and fine setting for portraits, we 
could hang to advantage many paintings. It seems 
quite strange that this Society, which for one hundred 
and eight years has been the object of many valuable 
gifts, has not received more colonial portraits by the 
better-known artists. Today we do not possess a 
single example by Stuart, Copley, Peale, Savage, 
Trumbull or a dozen other well-known painters who 
flourished previous to 1820. Therefore the Society 
stands ready to receive gifts of this character. It is 
an excellent opportunity for members and friends to 
place their old American portraits where they will be 
preserved and valued and where they can be seen by 
students. Often owners of such paintings have no 
direct heirs, or even if they have, they cannot see into 
the future and know whether the portraits may not in 
another generation or two fall into the hands of some- 
one who will care little for them. And in this connec- 
tion it seems eminently proper that this Society 
should make a collection of reproductions of all early 
American portraits, perhaps even coming down to the 
time of the Civil War which marked a period of great 
change in the character of this country. Almost all 
the early portraits have been photographed and most 
of them can be obtained of a uniform size (8 x 10), and 
these could be mounted on cards and placed alphabeti- 
cally in a cabinet. Were it generally known that we 
were making such a collection, gifts would come to us. 
The writer knows of one gentlemen in Boston who now 
stands ready to donate a large number of these 
pictures. And if it were known that we had them, 
students and investigators would come to us to see 
them. 

If we confined ourselves to portraits of Americans, 
we should be in a better position to preserve them, 
than are the great art museums that must collect 
pictures on all subjects and must lay stress on the 
artistic character of the picture more than on the 



8 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

subject, and must also consider the question of re- 
arranging their collections from time to time, and 
possibly relegating to the storeroom or the cellar, such 
pictures as do not meet the ideas of the trustees or the 
public of the moment. 

The Librarian reports that work in the Library has 
progressed satisfactorily during the winter. He states 
that a large number of gaps in the genealogical col- 
lection have been filled and that several valuable 
newspaper files have been obtained as will be chron- 
icled in his report at the annual meeting. Miss 
Louise Colegrove, who. has been an assistant in the 
Library since 1908, has left to take a position with the 
Worcester Commercial High School, her place for the 
present being filled by Miss Emma F. Waite. 

A large collection of books, including several rare 
early imprints, has been received from the bequest of 
the late Dr. Samuel A. Green. According to the 
seventh article of the codicil to his will it was stated: 
"I hereby give and bequeath to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society such of my books as it may select, 
to the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, 
such of my books as it may thereafter select; to the 
Newberry Library of Chicago, such of my books as it 
may thereafter select, and the remainder of my books 
to the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society. " 

The material selected by us totaled 144 books and 
219 pamphlets. Richard Ward Greene, just before 
leaving for Nassau where he died, gave to the Library, 
ninety volumes relating to South American history, 
and since his death there has been turned over by his 
estate, with the consent of Mrs. Greene, 110 volumes. 
This latter collection consisted chiefly of standard 
works on recent American history, and included a 
number of volumes from the library of our late asso- 
ciate, John Davis Washburn, the father of Mrs. 
Greene. 

The Proceedings are somewhat in arrears and the 
Society is sorely in need of a member who will take the 



1920.] Report of the Council 9 

place of the late Franklin P. Rice, whose knowledge 
of printing and whose interest in publication affairs 
made him of great benefit in the issuing of the Pro- 
ceedings. The issue covering the meeting of April, 
1919, is now in the bindery and will be sent to members 
very shortly. With a little effort and with an active 
chairman of the publication committee, it would not 
require much trouble to publish the October issue, and 
then the Proceedings of the semi-annual meetings 
could be brought out within two or three months after 
the meetings are held. The increased cost of printing, 
however, means that more money will have to be 
devoted to publication than in previous years if the 
same standard is adhered to. 

Three members have died in the last half year: 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, of Canton, Mass., on January 
31; Richard Ward Greene of Worcester, on March 7; 
Andrew McFarland Davis, of Cambridge, on March 29. 

Rev. Mr. Jenks a graduate of Harvard in the Class 
of 1863, was a Unitarian minister, and a member of 
several learned societies. He was elected to member- 
ship in April, 1901, was* always interested in the 
Society, and a regular attendant at the meetings until 
ill health restricted his activities. The death of Mr. 
Greene is a great loss to the Society. Ever since his 
election to membership in October, 1916, and even 
before it, he was always ready to help the Library with 
work and with gifts. Because of his South American 
connections he was much interested in this field and 
presented many volumes of rarity and value relating 
to Chili, Bolivia, and Peru, his gift of the long file of 
the early Peruvian newspaper El Mercurio Peruano 
being of especial note. Having inherited a large 
collection of papers of the Greene family of Rhode 
Island, he had all of them sent to the Library some two 
years ago, and spent many hours of his time sorting 
and arranging them. The papers relating to Rhode 
Island were turned over to the R. I. Historical Society, 



10 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

and the South American papers, chiefly the papers of 
Hon. Samuel Larned, charge d'affaires at Peru and 
Bolivia from 1828 to 1837, were presented to this 
Society. 

The death of Andrew McFarland Davis removes a 
most distinguished member and steadfast supporter 
and friend. At the time of his death he was the third 
in seniority on our membership list having been 
elected in April, 1882. His activity in historical 
research and his interest in Worcester made him a 
conspicuous candidate for administering the Society's 
affairs, and he was successively a councillor, since 
1904, recording' secretary from 1906 to 1909, and a 
vice-president since 1909. He was a constant contrib- 
utor of historical literature to the Library, a frequent 
writer for the Proceedings and, as has been mentioned 
above in this Report, a generous donor to our funds. 

At the meeting of the Council, held April 13, 1920, 
the following minute, prepared by Mr. Lincoln, was 
read and adopted: — 

The death of Andrew McFarland Davis, senior Vice- 
President of the Society and a member of the Council since 
1904, has deprived the Society and Council of one of its most 
liberal, enthusiastic and valuable members. 

While health permitted he was a constant attendant at the 
Society's meetings, and never missed a meeting of the Council 
if possible to be present, even coming from a considerable 
distance while recording secretary, such was his conscientious 
regard for the obligations of that office. 

Ever ready with advice as to the conduct of the affairs of 
the Society, and unsparing of criticism, when he disapproved 
of any proposed action, yet his advice and criticism were given 
in such a kindly spirit that he never gave offense, and rather 
increased the respect and affection with which he was regarded 
by the other members of the Council. 

His satisfaction with the management of the Society's 
affairs was shown by his liberal gifts. With his brothers he 
established in 1900, the John and Eliza Davis Fund in memory 
of his parents. In 1906 he gave the library an oil portrait of 
Mr. Stephen Salisbury, Jr., by Vinton, but modestly declined 
to have his name mentioned as the donor, and, being recording 
secretary, was able to see that his wishes were respected. He 



1920.] Report of the Council. 11 

was again a liberal contributor to the John and Eliza Davis 
Fund in 1912, and his recent gift of six thousand dollars 
($6,000), but a few weeks before his death, bears renewed 
testimony to his interest in the Society and to his conviction 
that it was worthy of his support. 

His death has left a vacancy in our hearts which cannot be 
filled, and, with gratitude that he was spared to us so long, we 
place on record this testimonial of our loving appreciation of 
the faithfulness with which he performed his duties as a 
member both of the Council and of the Society. 

We have now upon our rolls fifteen who have been 
members for thirty years and six of these for thirty- 
five years. Of these last " venerable" gentlemen, one 
is the senior senator from Massachusetts; two of 
them (Messrs. Colton and Edes) are constant and 
devoted in their attendance at our meetings as they 
have been formany years, and, having become members 
in comparative youth, they may easily complete a 
half century upon our rolls. 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, 

For the Council. 



12 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

OBITUARIES 



ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS 

There can have been few of our members who have 
had greater inherited interest in our Society than our 
late associate Andrew McFarland Davis. His father, 
Governor Davis, was for thirty years, Councillor, 
Vice-President and President; on the distaff side, his 
grandfather, Dr. Bancroft, was a charter member(1812) 
and a Councillor or Vice-President for nearly twenty 
years, while his uncle, George Bancroft, was long a 
Vice-President and his elder brother, John Chandler 
Bancroft Davis, was one of our members. At the time 
of his death, Mr. Davis's name stood third in point of 
seniority on the roll of our membership. 

Born in Worcester on the thirtieth of December, 
1833, Andrew McFarland Davis was the son of 
Governor John and Eliza (Bancroft) Davis. His 
earliest inclination was toward a naval career. Being 
appointed Midshipman, he cruised more than once in 
the Mediterranean and other foreign waters, but the 
service at that time was at a low ebb, and finding that 
promotion would be slow, and that the life was not all 
that his youthful fancy had painted it, he resigned, 
and turning his thoughts in the direction of science, 
entered the Lawrence Scientific School, from which 
he graduated in 1854, He soon identified himself with 
railway affairs, especially with the Erie Road, bringing 
out the first freight schedule ever used in the United 
States. He was also employed in civil engineering in 
the South and Middle West, but after a short time, 
decided to study law, and was admitted to both the 
New York and Massachusetts Bars. Opportunity 
offering for him to enter into partnership with his 
brother, Horace, in the rapidly increasing business 
enterprises of California, he betook himself to San 
Francisco, where he identified himself with the best 



1920.] Obituaries. 13 

interests of the city, serving on the School Committee 
and becoming President of the Board of Education. 

About 1890, Mr. Davis returned to his native State 
and settled permanently in Cambridge. For a few 
years he was Vice-President of the Prudential Fire 
Insurance Company of New York, with offices in 
Boston, but thereafter retired wholly from active 
business. 

Fuller leisure enabled him to devote himself to the 
antiquarian and historical pursuits which, although a 
man of uncommon catholicity of taste, were, after all, 
dearest to his heart. He was a frequent contributor to 
the Proceedings of our Society, as is shown by the 
following List: 

Journey of Moncacht-Ape* 1883 

The Colony of Nox 1887 

The First Scholarship at Harvard 1887 

The Cambridge Press 1888 

Site of the First College Building at Cambridge 1 888 

Early College Buildings at Cambridge 1890 

The Lady Mowlson Scholarship 1893 

Law of Adultery and Punishments 1895 

Legislation with the Land Bank of 1740 1896 

The General Court and Land Bank Litigants 1897 

Benjamin Apthorp Gould 1897 

Massachusetts Bay Currency 1899 

Andros's Proclamation Money 1900 

The Fund at Boston in New England 1903 

Emergent Treasury-Supply in Massachusetts 1905 

Was it Andros? 1907 

The Shays Rebellion 1911 

He also wrote several papers for the Narrative and 
Critical History of America, the Proceedings of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society and the Publications 
of The Colonial Society of Massachusetts. In 1903, 
he published "The Confiscation of John Chandler's 
Estate," and % printed several papers connected with 
Harvard College in addition to volumes on Massachu- 
setts Currency and Banking and similar subjects. 

Mr. Davis married Henrietta Parker Whitney and 
was survived by two sons and two daughters. 



14 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

In 1893, he received the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts from Harvard in recognition of his historical 
achievement and in 1895, he was elected to honorary 
membership in the Harvard Chapter of Phi Beta 
Kappa, a noteworthy fact in connection with the 
latter honor being that his maternal grandfather, Dr. 
Bancroft (H. C. 1778) was one of the earliest members 
of the same chapter, in which also were enrolled Mr. 
Davis's brother, Horace, (H. C. 1849), his sons, 
Bancroft Gherardi (1885) and Horace Andrew (1891) 
and his grandson, Hallowell Davis (1918;, while his 
father (Yale 1812) was a member of the Yale Chapter. 

The limits of this sketch give us little space to 
speak of Mr. Davis's character. In addition to his 
intellectual gifts he possessed business sagacity and 
acumen; and his father certainly bequeathed to him 
the qualities which endued the Governor with the 
well-known sobriquet of "Honest John." He was a 
most generous giver and the principles, the sterling 
integrity, the high aims and ideals which we of New 
England love to feel are peculiarly exemplified in her 
descendants, were in him strikingly apparent. 

Mr. Davis died in Cambridge on the twenty-ninth 
of March, 1920. To him indeed was granted the 
"liberty to that only which is good, just and honest. " 

H. H. E. 

RICHARD WARD GREENE 

Richard Ward Greene, the son of Charles Collins 
Greene and Nieves Carmen Haviland Greene, was 
born at Timaya, Chile, South America, December 5, 
1861, and died at the hospital at Nassau, Bahama 
Islands, March 7, 1920, after only a few days illness. 
He was a descendant of the distinguished Greene 
family of Rhode Island, of which the pioneer was Dr. 
John Greene, a native of England, who came to Mass- 
achusetts about 1635 and afterward followed Roger 
Williams to Providence, R. I. General Nathanael 



1920.] Obituaries. 15 

Greene of Revolutionary fame was in his ancestral 
line, and "The Forge" at Potowomut, built by the son 
of Dr. John Greene, became Richard Ward Greene's 
summer residence. Mr. Greene's father was a native 
of East Greenwich, R. I., but going to Chile at a 
comparatively early age, as a mining engineer, he 
married and remained there the greater part of his 
life, serving his country as United States Consul for 
many years. 

Richard Ward Greene was one of a large family and 
his father, wishing that one of his sons should know by 
early education and environment the results of what 
his ancestors had helped to create, and thus prepare 
him to maintain the family name and tradition in the 
old family home, sent him to New England when a 
mere boy, to be educated. The schools of Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts contributed to this educa- 
tion and he entered the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute in 1883. Being offered a position in the 
insurance office of Hon. John D. Washburn, in 
Worcester, he left the Polytechnic, and the next year, 
1884, became a partner in the firm at the early age of 
twenty-three, and in 1906, after the death of his 
senior partner, became head of the firm. He married 
April 23, 1884, Edith Putnam Washburn, the only 
daughter of Hon. John D.Washburn,who survives him. 

Through early association with family records which 
were closely associated with the history of Rhode 
Island, and through living a part of each year in the 
old colonial family home, which contained much of 
historic and antiquarian value, he became deeply 
interested in colonial history, in early American 
portraiture, manuscripts and autograph letters, and 
acquired the true antiquarian enthusiasm for all that 
pertained to Golonial days and to the early history of 
our country. In 1916, he was elected a member of the 
American Antiquarian Society; in 1917, an honorary 
member of the Rhode Island Historical Society; and in 
1918, a Trustee of the Worcester Art Museum. A few 



16 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

weeks before his death, he had prepared plans for the 
restoration of the old Salisbury colonial mansion in 
Worcester, wishing to preserve it as a type of early 
colonial architecture and to make it, through acquisi- 
tions, a true reproduction of an early New England 
home. 

Although Richard Ward Greene was a compara- 
tively recent member of our own Society, he brought 
to it an enthusiasm, an interest, and a knowledge 
relating to Spanish South America, which were highly 
appreciated and promised much for the future. 

L. N. K. 

HENRY FITCH JENKS 

Henry Fitch Jenks was born in Boston on October 
17, 1842, and died in Canton on January 21, 1920. 
He was the son of John Henry and Mary Fitch Jenks. 
He was graduated frorn^ the Boston Latin School in 
1859, from Harvard College in 1863 and from Harvard 
Divinity School in 1866. In 1867 he was ordained, 
and held pastorates at Fitchburg, Charleston, S. C, 
Revere, Lawrence, and lastly in 1885 at Canton, where 
he officiated as minister of the First Congregational 
Parish (Unitarian) until 1904 when he was made pastor 
emeritus. 

Mr. Jenks was a member of many religious, genea- 
logical, educational and historical societies. He was 
vice-president of the Boston Latin School Association, 
charter member of the Bostonian Society, trustee of 
the Canton Public Library and member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. To this Society, he was 
elected in 1901, and was a frequent attendant at the 
meetings until the last few years. He was the editor 
of the historical Catalogue of the Boston Latin School, 
and published several sermons, historical sketches and 
contributions to periodicals. He married on March 1, 
1881, Lavinia H. Angier of Belfast, Maine, who with 
three sons survived him. C. S. B. 



1920.] Letter jrom J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 17 



A LETTER FROM THE VIRGINIA LOYALIST 

JOHN RANDOLPH TO THOMAS JEFFERSON 

WRITTEN IN LONDON IN 1779 



BY LEONARD L. MACKALL 

WHEN our President asked me to read a paper to- 
day, no doubt he hoped that I would produce one 
of those elaborately documented compositions, consist- 
ing of a quasi-legible text resting cautiously on a rein- 
forced concrete foundation of bibliographical notes and 
other ballast, of which I have been guilty in print on 
various occasions and in very various fields. But this 
time circumstances have combined to prevent such a 
consummation — whether devoutly to be wished or 
not — and so, even at the risk of a great gain in interest, 
I shall take but a few moments of your time by reading 
what seems a very interesting and hitherto entirely 
unknown letter to Jefferson, written by his kinsman 1 
and friend, John Randolph, not "of Roanoke," but 
the Loyalist Attorney-General of Virginia, father of 
Edmund Randolph, the Patriot. 

With rare exceptions, Latin quotations are no 
longer well received in polite society, but it is still 
customary for bibliophiles to cite the words of old 
Terentianus Maurus: "Habent sua fata libelli;" and 
it is well known that the fate of manuscripts is often 
still more strange than that of books. The present 
document qualifies in both classes. 

Several years ago a catalogue of a well-known 
London firm dealing in books and manuscripts offered 



iJoha Randolph'a father, Sir John Randolph.waa a brother of Isham Randolph, whose 
daughter Jane waa the mother of Thomas Jefferson. 



18 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

two copies of Tucker's Life of Jefferson (London, 
1837,) the first being described 2 as.* "With a long 
A. L. S., 5 pp., 4 to, from John Randolph to Thomas 
Jefferson, on the affairs of the period (1773 [sic]) 
inserted"; and hence priced at 12s. 6d. — or 4s. more 
than the other! So I ordered the expensive copy, and 
was indeed much surprised when I received it and read 
the letter (which was loosely inserted and readily 
detached.) 

Our John Randolph is described in Wirt's Patrick 
Henry 3 as "in person and manners among the most 
elegant gentlemen in the colony, and in his profes- 
sion, one of the most splendid ornaments of the 
bar. He was a polite scholar, as well as a profound 
lawyer, and his eloquence also was of a high order; 
His voice, action, style, were stately, and uncommonly 
impressive, . . gigantic as he was in relation to other 
men" [except Patrick Henry in criminal cases]. As 
the (last) Royal Attorney-General of Virginia, he 
considered that his oath of office and his honor 
required him to support the Royal policy and the 
Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, who indeed reported 
to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in Dec. 
1774, that: u there are but too few even of the 
Council, and only the King's Attorney-General of all 
the Officers of Govt, who have discovered the least 
disposition to aid govt., contenting themselves with 
not subscribing associations, but at the same time 
adhering strictly to them and therefore giving 
encouragement to them." 4 

In short Randolph was a conscientious Royalist and 



*No. 1255 in Catalogue 292 (June, 1912) of Magga Bros. 

'Sketches of the Life & o. of Patrick Henry by Wm. Wirt, Phila. 1817, p. 74. 

♦Dunmore's despatch, Williamsburg (Va.), Dec. 24, 17<U, in Public Record Office, 
London, as no. 23 in C. O. 5/1353, page 59. (formerly: S.T. O. Va. 195). From the 
Geo. Bancroft Transcripts (N. Y. Public Library), Virginia Papers (Series II) vol. II 
(1768-75)p. 527 the above passage was used for a paraphrase in Chas. R. Lingley's The 
Transition in Va. from Colony to Commonwealth (Columbia Univ. Studies in History, 
Economics & c, vol. 36, no. 2) N. Y. 1910, p. 118. The Secretary of the Public Record 
Office has now kindly compared my transcript of the Bancroft transcript with the 
original, and also given me the present press mark, as above. 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 19 

Loyalist, one of that large group of men, many of 
them noble characters, whom, in spite of Sabine's 
book, it was the custom to simply damn with no 
praise at all, until the comparatively recent researches 
of Van Tyne and others at length inaugurated a 
fairer method of procedure. 

One of the more recent and most valuable publica- 
tions in this whole field is unfortunately little known 
and but rarely accessible, since it was privately printed, 
not for sale, and (as I have only just succeeded in 
ascertaining) the edition was limited to one hundred 
copies, all told. I refer to Mrs. Whitelaw Reid's 
handsome quarto: The Royal Commission on the 
Losses and Services oj American Loyalists 1783 to 1785 
being the Notes of Mr. Daniel Parker Coke, M. P., one 
oj the Commissioners during that period. Edited by 
Hugh Edward Egerton, Beit Professor oj Colonial 
History in the University oj Oxford. Oxjord, printed 
jor Presentation to the Members oj The Roxburghe Club, 
1915, pp. lv, 422. 8 Mrs. ReM not only printed this 
volume in memory of her husband (a member of the 
Roxburghe Club), but she also gave the original 
manuscripts on which it is based (from the Sir Thomas 
Phillipps sale of May 1913, no. 24424) to the New 
York Public Library. She generously presented a 
copy of the book to our Society also. 

In connection with the claim of the Loyalist, 
Bernard Carey, Mrs. Reid's book carefully prints 6 

•With Mrs. Reid's permission, the Controller of the Univ. Press, Oxford, has answered 
my questions as follows (from his records) : 100 copies were originally printed in April 
1915; of these 55 were lost when the "Arabic" was torpedoed, Aug. 19, 1915. To 
replace these the whole book was entirely reset and 55 copies reprinted (finished Feb. 
1916) without any change whatever, but a special printed slip was inserted, referring to 
the loss and the reprinting but giving no dates or figures. I have given these letters to 
the N. Y. Public Library, to be kept with their oopy of the book. There are now 
(Nov. 1920) further copies of the book in the following Libraries: Harvard Univ., 
Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Athenaeum, Yale Univ., N. Y. Hist. Soc, Grolier Club, Am. 
Geographical Soc, Johns Hopkins Univ., Library of Congr^, Dept. of Historical 
Rescaroh of the Carnegie Institution (Wash.), W. J. DeRenne Georgia Library 
(Savannah; cf. Ga. Historical Quarterly, II, 82), Public Archives of Canada (Ottawa). 
Only two of these (M. H. S. and L. C.) are recorded in J. T. Gerould's useful census 
of Roxburghe Club Publications in Am. Libraries (Papers & Proceedings of the Am. 
Library Institute, for 1917, pp. 169-178). 

"Page 24, from MS. 1, 85. 



20 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

the testimony, on Oct. 30, 1783, of our John Randloph, 
from which it appears that he was " Chairman of a 
Genl. Meeting of the American Loyalists out of whom 
a Committee was formed for the purpose of enquiring 
into the Claims of the Loyalists from that Province " 
i. e. Virginia. It is well known that Randolph went 
to England in (October), 1775; and it is also well known 
that Randolph's fondness for Virginia remained so 
strong that his dying wish was that he be buried there 
in the Chapel of William and Mary College, by the 
side of his father and brother — and his daughter Mrs. 
Wormeley, carried out this wish, as soon as practicable 
after his death in 1784. 

We have recently learned that Randolph studied 
law in London, being admitted to the Middle Temple 
on Apr. 8, 1745, and was duly called to the bar on 
Feb. 9, 1750 ; 7 but almost nothing definite seems to be 
known about him during the whole period of his last 
residence in England, except that he spent some time 
at the Scotch house of Lord Dunmore, that he lived 
in straightened circumstances financially, receiving a 
pension of only a hundred pounds, and that he died at 
Brompton, London, Jan. 31, 1784. He was born in 
Virginia in 1727. 

In the opinion of Washington he was probably the 
real author of those spurious Letters from General 
Washington to several of his Friends in the Year 1776. 
In which are set forth a fairer and fuller View of 
American Politics than ever yet transpired, Or the 
Public could be made acquainted with through any other 
Channel, published by J. Bew, London, in May or 
June, 1777, soon reprinted in America, and now 
accessible in Worthington C. Ford's standard Writings 
of Washington, and better still in his admirable later 8 

*cf. C. E. A. Bedwell's list of Am. Middle Templars, in Am. Hist. Rev. XXV, 683 
(July 1920). 

^he Spurious Letters attributed to Washington, with a Bibliographical Note by 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Brooklyn, N. Y.: Privately Printed, 1889, pp. 166; 
500 copies printed. The remainder of this publication of the Historical Printing Club 
ia now for sale by the N. Y. Public Library. 



1920.] Letter jrom J, Randolph to T. Jefferson. 21 

separate edition with a valuable preface and full notes 
quoting similar but genuine passages. The object of 
this book was of course to show Washington's fondness 
for the mother country, or, as Washington himself 
expressed it 9 "to paint his inclinations as at variance 
with his professions and his duty;" but Col. Tench 
Tilghman, then in his military family and "well 
known to possess Washington's confidence" recorded 
in writing in 1778 that he suspected "Jack Randolph 
for the author, as the letters contain a knowledge of 
his family affairs that none but a Virginian could be 
acquainted with. The sentiments are noble, and 
such as the General himself often expresses. I have 
heard him declare a thousand times, and he does it 
every day in the most public company, that inde- - 
pendence was farthest of anything from his thoughts, 
and that he never entertained the idea until he plainly 
saw that absolute conquest was the aim, and uncon- 
ditional submission the terms which Great Britain 
meant to grant. 10 " ♦ 

Historians can scarcely regard any forgery as a 
permissible means to any*" end, and yet, if Randolph 
did write the spurious Washington letters, his inten- 
tions were no doubt really good. For he constantly 
had much at heart the hope of a reconciliation between 
England and America, and the earnest desire to aid in 
bringing it about as soon as possible. Ford calls 
attention to a manuscript at Drayton House, 
Northamptonshire, in the possession of the family of 
Lord George Germaine, dated 4 August, 1780, 
unsigned but endorsed "Mr. Randolph's Plan of 
Accomodation" as being "undoubtedly drawn up and 
submitted to the British ministry by the loyalist 



•This expression is here quoted from Washington's foi^al repudiation of the spuriouB 
letters in the form of a letter to the then Seer, of State, Timothy Pickering, dated: 
3 March 1797. Ford (Sp. Letters, p. 26) says that it "is written by Timothy Pickering, 
and merely signed by the President." Various other comments by Washington to 
similar effect are also quoted by Ford, e. g. pp. 1 1, 13, 15, 24, 26. 

"Tench Tilghman to James Tilghman, Valley Forge, 24 April 1778, quoted by Ford , 
Writings of Washington IV, 134, and Spurious Letters p. 32. 



22 American Antiquarian Society [Apr. 

refugee from Virginia. " n Some such political accom- 
modation was the avowed object of the letter of 
1779, which I am about to read. Randolph may also 
have written the anonymous pamphlet Considerations 
on the Present State of Virginia, Printed in the Year 
M,DCC,LXXIV, just reprinted by the Bibliographer of 
Virginia, Earl Gregg Swem, 12 from the only known 
copy (in the New York Public Library) on the title- 
page of which his name as author is written in an 
apparently contemporary hand. Randolph's 1779 
letter says "I put my own thoughts in Writing that 
I might see how they would stand on paper/' but it 
makes no mention of their publication. Is not this 
omission perhaps significant? There is at least no 
striking resemblance between the letter and the 
(earlier) pamphlet. 

Though Jefferson was seventeen years younger than 
Randolph, they had been very intimate friends for 
many years, and he remained a close friend of the 
family after Randofph's death. In 1771 Jefferson 
recorded in amusingly ultra-formal style an agreement 
with Randolph whereby, if Jefferson died first, then 
Randolph was to get £800 worth of Jefferson's 
books; but if Randolph died first, then Jefferson was to 
get Randolph's violin and music or £60 worth of his 
books! When they approached the parting of the 
political ways Jefferson wrote to Randolph, 25 Aug. 
1775; " Looking with fondness towards a reconcilia- 
tion with Grt. Britain, I cannot help hoping you may 



WFord, Sp. Letters p. 34. No doubt the reference is to Report of the Historical MSS. 
Commission, 9th Report, Part III, Appendix (1884) p. 103. The new edition entitled: 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Report on the MSS. in the possession of Mrs. Stopford-Sackville of 
Drayton House, Northamptonshire, vol. II (1910) p. 174 states further that the Ran- 
dolph MS (marked alao "Brompton Row") forms 22 pages. 

"Considerations on the Present State of Virginia, attributed to John Randolph, 
Attorney General, and Considerations on the Present State of Virginia Examined by 
Robert Carter Nicholas, Edited by Earl Gregg Swem, Assist. Librarian, Va. State Libr., 
Sixty-three copies printed for Charles F. Heartman, in New York City, 1919 (Heartman's 
Historical Series No. 32). Swem'a Preface refers to Va. Mag. of Hist. & Biogr. XV, 
149 (Oct. 1907) besides Conway's Edm. Randolph, and the Recolleotiona of Ralph Ran- 
dolph Wormeley, Rear-Admiral, R. N., N. Y. 1879 (priv. pr.) cf. also Am. Hist. Abs. 
Ann. Rept. for 1892 p. 115. 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 23 

be able to contribute towards expediting the good 
work." and "It would be certainly unwise, by trying 
the event of another campaign, to risk our accepting 
foreign aid, which, perhaps, may not be obtainable, 
but on condition of everlasting avulsion from Great 
Britain. This would be thought a hard condition, to 
those who still wish for reunion with their parent 
country. I am sincerely one of those, and would 
rather be in dependence on Great Britain, properly 
limited, than on any other nation on earth, or than on 
no nation. But I am one of those, too, who rather than 
submit to the rights of legislation for us, assumed by 
the British parliament, and which late experience has 
shown they will so cruelly exercise, would lend my 
hand to sink the whole Island in the ocean. " Later, 
on Nov. 29, 1775, when Randolph had sailed at last 
for England, Jefferson wrote to him again, but more 
sternly. Both these letters were printed in Jefferson's 
Writings in 1829, and are now so readily accessible as 
to make further quotation here superfluous. 

Randolph's Loyalist altitude of course made him 
intensely unpopular with the Virginia patriots. Mrs. 
Randolph assures us 13 that "Americans did come down 
to Williamsburg with an intent to hang him, but were 
prevented: He had done everything in his power to 
oppose their measures;" and the new 1779 letter 
refers expressly to "the Insults I receiv'd" and "the 
unmanly & illiberal Treatment, which the more 
delicate Part of my Family met with" — which shows 
that his wife and two daughters had not been spared. 
It is therefore a real tribute to Randolph's high 



"Page 611 of vol. 58 (from vol. 54 of the originals) of the N. Y. Public Library Trans- 
cripts of the Audit Office (P. It. O.) papers on Am. Loyalist claims, cf. C. M. Andrews, 
Guide to the Materials for Am. Hist, to 1783 in the Public Record Office, II, 259-263 
(Carnegie Institution, Wash. 1914). Pp. 607-616 give the Memorial of Mrs. Ariana 
Randolph, dated Feb. 20, 1784, and also her Evidence on Jan. 31, 1786. I have accepted 
her statement that her husband quitted Virgina in Oct. 1775 and arrived in England in 
Nov., but the further statement that he died on Juno 30, 1784 is certainly a olerical error, 
for the Gentleman's Magazine of Feb. 1784 (p. 152) recorded his death at Brompton on 
Jan. 31st, as usually given. Possibly Jan. 30th may be the correct date. He must have 
been dead be/ore her Memorial was written, Feb. 20th. 



24 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

character and manliness that when it was feared that 
Lord Dunmore might send to Mt. Vernon to seize the 
wife of the new American Commander-in-Chief, Lund 
Washington wrote to the General: " Surely her old 
acquaintance, the Attorney, who with his family is 
on board his ship, would prevent his doing any act of 
that kind." 14 

We now come at last to the new letter from 
Randolph to Jefferson, written in October, 1779. I 
need merely add that the original cover is addressed 
to: " His Excellency Thomas Jefferson Esq. Governor 
of Virginia/' and that the MS. is accompanied by a 
memorandum dated April 23 d , 1840, reading: "I 
found this letter amongst the papers of Sir Edward 
Walpole K. B., directed to His Excellency Thomas- 
Jefferson, &c." and signed: J. W. Keppel. Evidently 
it had never left England, and remained there 
unknown. 

The actual words are new, but the sentiments sound, 
mutatis mutandis, strangely similar to much that has 
been written during the present War. 

Dear S r . 

The Letters, with which you some considerable Time ago, 
honour'd me, got to Hand; tho' from their appearance, their 
Contents were known to many, before they reach'd the Person, 
for whom they were intended. The gloomy Cloud, which 
hung over our public affairs, & the general Suspicion, which 
prevail'd at that Time, recommended Caution, & prevented my 
answering them. But, as matters now are fully understood, 
& the Ultimatum seems to be fix'd between the contending 
Parties; if You are not unwilling to read, J am under no Appre- 
hension, in delivering my Sentiments to you. 



"Ford's Writings of Washington III,278;also in Sparks 111,196 (who reada:"an act"). 
Probably it was the fact that Randolph and his family were on the same ship with Lord 
Dunmore at this time which led to the current statement that they all returned to 
England together. As noted above Mrs. Randolph testified that her husband and family 
had left Virginia in Oct. 1775, but Dunmore remained there for many months longer, 
as is proved by numerous documents. 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 25 

Mr. J. Power, 16 who is just arriv'd from Virginia, informs 
me, that you have been lately elected Successor to Mr Henry, 
who presided over your Colony for three Years, the utmost 
successive Time allow'd for holding that office. I must take 
the Liberty to say, that your Constituents could not have 
chosen a man of greater abilities to conduct their affairs, than 
you possess; & permit me to add my Hope, that Futurity may 
speak as favourably of your Moderation. 

If a Difference in opinion, was a good Ground for an Inter- 
mission of Friendship, Mankind might justly be said to live in 
a State of Warfare; since the Imperfection of human knowledge, 
has render'd Mens Minds as various, as the Author of their 
Being has shap'd their Persons. The Man who condemns 
another, for thinking differently from himself, sets up his 
Judgment as the Standard of Conception; wounds the great 
Liberty we enjoy, of thinking for ourselves; & tyrannizes over 
the Mind, which Nature intended should be free & unconfin'd. 
That Tyrant, I can not suppose You, to be. The Liberality of 
Sentiment, which ever distinguish'd you amongst your 
acquaintance, when you were upon a Level with them, has not 
I hope, forsaken you since you have been rais'd to a Sphere, 
which has made you, superior to them. Should I therefore 
be so unfortunate, as to make any observations, which may 
not meet with your approbation, for the Honour of your 
Understanding, treat them with Benignity. I will allow you 
in such Case, to consider them, as the overflowings of a mind, 
too zealous in the Cause in which it is engaged ; but I must 
demand of you to admit, that they are the legitimate offspring, 
of an uncorrupted Heart. But, before you pass Sentence, I 
shall call on your Candour, to give them a fair Hearing. 

When our unhappy Dispute commenc'd, (tho it arose from 
Circumstances, which left an opening for an honourable 
accomodation, yet) I saw that it was big with Mischief, & 
portended Ruin & Desolation, Somewhere. I thought that it 
behov'd me to reflect with the utmost Deliberation, on the 
Line of Conduct, which I ought to pursue, on so critical an 
Occasion. I clear'd every avenue to Information, & laid my- 
self open to Conviction, let it come from what Quarter it 



"Evidently this is "Jack Power, Esq.," of Tappahannock, Essex Co., who left Va. in 
June 1779 and arrived in London in Oct., via Holland, according to his Memorial & 
Evidenoe among the Audit Office papers on Am. Loyalist claims, cf. N. Y. Public 
Library Transcripts vol. 59, pp. 98-105 (from vol. 56 of the original) cf. note 13, above. 
Power states that he had practised law from 1763 to 1774 when hia practice had ceased 
due to his unpopularity as Loyalist ;and that he lost" a very good Library and Book cases 
supposed at £200. " He appears as witness in the Reid lloxburghe Club vol. p. 35 from 
MS. I, 135. Perhaps he was related to James Power on whom there is a note in the Va. 
Mag. of Hist. & Biogr. XV, 381 (April 1908). 



26 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

wou'd. I read with avidity every thing which was published 
on the Subject & I put my own Thoughts in Writing, that I 
might see how they wou'd stand on Paper. I found myself 
embarrass'd by a thousand Considerations, acting in direct 
opposition to each other. In this Situation I had no Resource 
left but to submit myself solely to the Dictates of my Reason. 
To that impartial tribunal I appeal' d. There I receiv'd 
Satisfaction; & from her Decision, I am determin'd never to 
depart. 

Si fractus illabatur Orbis, 

Impavidum ferient Ruinse 16 

Adversity is a School, in which few Men wish to be educated; 
yet, it is a Source, from whence the most useful Improvements, 
may be derived. When the Mind shrinks not from its 
approach, it offers a Season for Reflection, calls forth the 
Powers of the Understanding fixes its Principles & inspires a 
Fortitude, which shews the true Dignity of Man. In that 
School I have been tutored; from its Tuition I have drawn 
those advantages; & I am unalterably resolved, that all other 
Motives shall give way, to the fullest & most unequivocal 
Enjoyment of them. 

The Insults I receiv'd from a People (whose Interest I 
always considered as my own) — unrestrained by the Influence 
of Gentlemen of Rank gave me much Uneasiness: But, the 
unmanly & illiberal Treatment, which the more delicate Part 
of my Family met with, I confess, fill'd me with the highest 
Resentment. As there is Nothing which I forget so soon as an 
Injury; & as animosity never rankles in my Bosom, I have 
cast the whole into oblivion. There let it lie buried; for 
Implacability belongs only to the unworthy. 

Independence, it is agreed on all Hands, is the fix'd Purpose 
of your Determination. Annihilation is preferable to a 
Reunion with Great Britain. To support this desirable End, 
you have enter'd into an alliance with France & Spain, to 
reduce the Power of this Country, & make Way for the Glory 
of America. What effect this Connection will have on you, 
or this Kingdom, Time alone can discover; But be it remem- 
berd, that France is perfidious, Spain insignificant, & Great 
Britain formidable. The united Fleets of the House of 
Bourbon, lately cover'd the Seas, & paraded off Plymouth. 
A Descent was threaten'd, & universally expected. The 
british Fleet was then in a distant Part of the Channel, & there 
was nothing remain'd to defend this Kingdom, but the internal 
Strength & Valour of its Inhabitants. The Space of three 
Days remov'd the alarm, by producing a fruitless Departure 



"Horace, Carmina, Bk. 3, Ode 3, lines 7, 8. 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 27 

of this mighty Squadron. Soon after this, the two fleets came 
in Sight of each other, (a great Superiority in Number lying 
on the Side of the Enemy) & a bloody Carnage was expected 
to follow. The british Fleet in the Evening, form'd them- 
selves into a Line of Battle & brought to, imagining that the 
combin'd Fleet, wou'd in the Morning begin the attack; but 
when that Period arrived, there was not an Enemy to be seen, 
from any one of our Ships. On which, our Fleet steer'd into 
Port, & there has continued unmolested, ever since. Individual 
Ships have been taken, but all our valuable Fleets from every 
Quarter of the Globe, for the present year, are arriv'd in 
Safety ; yet, our Ports are filled with French & Spanish Ships, & 
our Gaols with their Subjects. 

Admiral Keppels Engagement off Brest about 15 months 
ago, tho' a shameful one, as he had it in his Power to strike a 
Decisive Blow & omitted it, was converted into a meer Party 
Business here. His Conduct is now, very generally repro- 
bated; The City of London has withheld the Golden Box, 
which the Rage of Party had prepared as a Present for him. 
Yet ill as he is supposed to have behav'd, the french Fleet 
sustained such Damage on that Occasion, that it did not come 
out of Port, for near a twelve Month after. History does not 
furnish us with Instances of greater acts of Heroism, than have 
been exhibited in the Course of the last Summer, in s(,.,ie of 
our naval Engagements. National Party is very much on the 
Decline, & the Safety of the State, seems to supercede all other 
Considerations. 

The Junction of the Spaniards, was more a matter of Joy in 
England, than a Terror. The fingering of their Gold, is no 
small object with a commercial People. When his Catholic 
Majesty's Rescript was deliver'd at St. James's; & became 
known, instead of lowering, the Stocks immediately took a 
Rise. And the Dutch, who have already an immense Property 
in our Funds are still buying in, notwithstanding the various 
Difficulties, with which this Kingdom is surrounded. This 
S r is a Short, but true Narrative of the State of british affairs, 
in Europe. 

It must be confess'd, that the French have gain'd advantages 
in the West Indies; but it may be observ'd, that they have 
recover'd no more than what they lost in the last war. In 
Contests between great Nations, Events must be uncertain, 
& no Party can expect an uninterrupted Series of Success. 
Disappointments sometimes beget Exertions, which may give 
a new Face to affairs. When the Troops, which are to be sent 
for the Protection of our Islands, arrive, & the Ships are on 
float, which the succeeding Spring will produce, there will 
unfold to us, Truths, about which, we at present, may form 



28 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

very different Ideas. The French may boast of their Prowess 
in Destaings Engagement with Barrington, but few think here, 
that the Glory of the british Navy was in any Degree dimin- 
ished in that Encounter. 

How far the French have been useful to you in America, 
you must be better qualified to determine, than myself: Yet, 
I cannot avoid expressing my Wish, that you had never 
entered into any Engagements with them. They are a 
People cover'd with Guile, & their Religion countenances the 
Practice of it on all of a different Persuasion. They are 
educated in an Aversion to the English & hold our Constitution 
in the utmost Detestation. They have the art to insinuate, & 
the Wickedness to betray when they gain an admittance. 
Laws they have none, but such as are prescrib'd by the Will 
of their Prince. This is their only Legislature. They know 
your Coast, are acquainted with your Manners, & no Doubt 
have made Establishments amongst you, A Footing in ye 
Northern Province is what they most devoutly wish to obtain. 
As a means to effect their Purpose, they have suffered you to 
run in Debt to them, & as a Security for the Payment of it, 
they say that your Lands are answerable. If you are not able 
to satisfy their Demands, how will you have it in your Power 
to frustrate this Claim? But if you are able to discharge the 
Debt, how will you recompense them, for the Services, which 
they will urge that they have rendered to you. Your Trade 
is of no Consequence, it is not an object with them. Nothing 
but a Partition of your Country will silence them. When that 
happens, you may bid adieu to all social Happiness; the little 
Finger of France will be more burthensome to you, than the 
whole weight of George the 3 d his Lords & Commons. Can it 
be imagin'd that a Prince, who is a Tyrant in his own Domin- 
ions, can be a Friend to the Rights & Privileges of another 
People? Can it be Policy in him to waste his Blood Treasure, 
in reducing one Rival in order to raise another, more formid- 
able perhaps, than his ancient Competitor? Your good Sense 
I am persuaded, will not suffer you to cherish such an opinion, 
& you cannot be so wanting in Discernment, as not to see the 
base Design of this treacherous Nation. If France engaged 
in this Quarrel, for no other Purpose, than to fight your Battles, 
& vindicate your injured Rights, her Generosity will lead her 
to confer all the Benefit of her Conquests, on you. When you 
become invested with the possession of their acquisitions, you 
may then believe them to be your Friends, but until that 
happens, you ought to consider their Designs as dangerous, & 
not suffer yourselves to be deceived by such an artful & 
despotic People. But let us suppose in theory, what, facts 
I am convinced will not verify, that the Powers now contending 



/■■ 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 29 

with G. Britain are too great for it to withstand. What do 
you imagine will be the Sentiments of the other States of 
Europe on this Subject? These Potentates stand in such a 
Relation to each other, that as a Security to the whole, a 
Ballance of Power must be preserv'd amongst them. G. 
Britain has always held that Ballance. How dangerous a 
Neighbour w'd France become, if her principal opponent & the 
great arbiter of Europe should be overwhelm'd? The Empress 
of Russia sees with a jealous eye, the strides which the French 
are taking towards universal Monarchy. The King of 
Prussia is too old a soldier, to suffer a Rival to strengthen 
himself, on the Ruins of an old & natural ally. The Dutch are 
govern'd too much by their Interest to see it in Danger, & 
never to make an effort to preserve it. The Danes are the 
fast Friends of England. All these Nations wou'd have taken 
a decided Part long before this, had the Situation of G. Britain 
made it necessary: But the Truth is, our Councils are as 
vigorous, our Resources as great & the national Firmness as 
inflexible, as they have ever been, even in the most flourishing 
Periods recorded in the History of this Country. If you 
regard the assertions of a set of men, who are distinguished 
by the appellation of the Opposition, you must I own form a 
different opinion, from that which I have endeavour' d to 
inculcate. They will tell yQU that the Glory of England is 
pass'd away, its Treasures exhausted, & that the Kingdom 
stands on the Brink of inevitable Destruction, owing to the 
weakness & wickedness of administration. Believe not, my 
Friend, such Prophets. The Luxury of this Nation, & of 
Course its Expenses, are unbounded. These Excesses must 
unavoidably make Mankind necessitous. The Department 
of a Minister, is lucrative & alluring. The King, in order to 
silence the Clamour of Party, having frequently chang'd his 
Servants, has by this means excited an Idea, that Noise will 
aways procure a Removal of the Ministry. It is for this 
Reason, that they who have a Chance for the Sucession, ring 
such alarms thro the Nation, in order to throw an odium on 
them, & get them out of their Places; yet these very People 
who are the authors of so much Turbulence, don't think as 
they speak. Some join in the Cry; others suspend their 
opinions, till they receive more convincing Proofs; & a third, 
thinking that Government ought to be supported strengthen 
as far as they can, the Hand of their Rulers. But still, the 
great Machine moves on, the Ministry keep their Places, & 
look as if their Possession w'd be of long Duration. But a 
Change wou'd be of little Service to the Nation; for if it 
silenc'd one Party, it would open the Mouth of another; & 



30 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

the Kingdom be just in the same Situation that it is in, at this 
Time, & has been for many years past. 

If you form an opinion of our public affairs, by the Picture 
which is drawn of them in our daily Exhibitions, I acknowl- 
edge, that you must conceive my account of them to be, 
chimerical. But whoever wishes to avoid Error, must steer 
clear of an english Newspaper. There are of daily Papers 
publish'd in the year, 27. Millions. The Types, the Ink, the 
Paper & a Stamp distinctly pay a Duty to Government. 
Judge then what a Revenue these Publications must produce. 
It is for this Reason, that Ministry throw no Impediment in 
their Way; for punishing the Libels they contain, wou'd reduce 
their Number, & lessen of Course, the Emoluments arising 
from them. I have often thought, that the Toleration of 
such indecent Compositions, was a Reflection on Government 
but it is a Maxim in England, that as soon as Evil produces 
Good, it ceases to be an Evil. 

The short Representation of the british affairs, which I have 
given you above, is intended to prepare you, for one important 
Question, momentous not only to America, & Great Britain, 
but to Europe in General: Wou'd it not be prudent, to 
rescind your Declaration of Independence, be happily reunited 
to your ancient & natural Friend, & enjoy a Peace which I 
most religiously think w'd pass all Understanding? I can 
venture to assure you, that your Independence, will never be 
acknowledg'd by the Legislative Authority of this Kingdom: 
The nation w'd not agree to such a Concession; & your suppos'd 
Friends who are so lavish in your Praise on other occasions, 
wou'd on this, be against you. Every Immunity, which you 
can reasonably ask for, will be granted to you ; the rapacious 
Hand of Taxation will never reach you. Your Laws & Regu- 
lations will be establish'd on the solid Basis of the british 
Constitution; & your Happiness will be attended to, with all 
the Solicitude, which belongs to an affectionate Parent. 
Reflect, I beseech you, on what I have said. Let not the 
flattering Possession of Power, which may be wrested from you 
in a Moment, stand in Competition with the Good of your 
Country, which you have now an opportunity of making, as 
lasting as Time itself. But if you still persist in your Resolu- 
tion, never to listen to the voice of Reconciliation, Remember, 
that I, who know your Situation, & wish you every Degree 
of Happiness, tell you, that what you take to be the End, 
will be only the Beginning of your political misfortunes. 

I must now put a Period to a long letter, the writing of 
which, is a very unusual Labour to me. How you may receive 
it I know not. Be that as it will, I shall enjoy one Consolation, 
which is, a quiet Conscience. I see such Determination in 



1920.] Letter from J. Randolph to T. Jefferson. 31 

Government, to proceed to the last Extremity with you; such 
a Disposition in the Powers of Europe to go to War; & such 
Mischiefs hovering over America, that I shou'd think myself 
an Undutiful Son, & criminally guilty, if I did not impart to 
you, the Distress I feel on your account. Let our opinions 
vary as they will, I shall nevertheless retain a very sincere 
Regard for you. How far your Politics may be blended with 
your Friendships, I cannot tell; but as I have ever preserved 
my Esteem from improper Mixtures, I shall subscribe myself, 
now as I always have done, 

D r . S r . 
Your very affectionate Friend & 
humble Serv't 

John Randolph 
London. 

Cannon Coffee House 
Spring Gardens, 
October 25, 1779 



32 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 



WILLIAM THORNTON AND NEGRO 
COLONIZATION 



BY GAILLARD HUNT 



IN the Caribbean Sea, stretching eastward from 
Porto Rico, lies a group of about one hundred small 
islands, some mere rocks in the sea furnishing no 
sustenance for human beings, and some of larger size 
where a few planters raise sugar and cotton. These 
are the Virgin Islands discovered by Christopher 
Columbus on his second voyage in 1494, and named by 
him in honor of the Eleven Thousand Virgin 
Martyrs of St. Ursula; but this pious name did 
not prevent them from being, in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, the favorite resort of those 
picturesque desperadoes, the pirates of the Spanish 
Main, who found in their numerous inlets and harbors 
which were dangerous to pursuing navigators a safe 
refuge from the consequences of their crimes. The 
largest of the islands is Tortola, the Turtle Dove, a 
beautiful little domain, twenty-four miles long and 
five miles wide, with rich valleys and a range of high 
hills. Travellers seldom go to Tortola now, planting 
is unprofitable, the island is almost deserted; but in 
the eighteenth century it flourished, and a few planters 
and numerous black slaves lived there prosperously 
and contentedly. In 1756 the whole population of the 
island was 460 white persons and 3,864 negro slaves. 1 
Chief among the planters was an English Quaker 



l The Development of the West Indies, by Frank Wesley Pitman, Ph. D., Yale Histori- 
cal Publications, 1917, p. 383. 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization, 33 

named Thornton and over his household presided his 
young wife, Dorcas Downing Zeagurs. 2 

On May 27, 1761, their son William was born. I 
have fixed the year approximately by circumstantial 
evidence; for he never disclosed it and there are no 
vital statistics for Tortola. When William Thornton 
was two years old his father died, and when he was 
five he was sent to his father's relatives, his grand- 
father and aunts, in Lancashire, England, to be 
educated. In 1777, when he was sixteen, he was 
apprenticed to a Doctor Fell of Ulverstone, England, 
to learn the business of a doctor, who was also then an 
apothecary, a dentist and a phlebotomist. Thornton 
attended Doctor Fell's shop, learned to make boluses 
and plasters, how to bleed people and how to pull 
their teeth out, and before he left Doctor Fell he had 
earned several sixpences and shillings with his lancet 
and forceps. After three years with Doctor Fell he 
went to Edinburgh to take the finishing course in 
medicine for which the "[Jniversity at that city was 
famous. He entered in 1781 and took his degree in 
1784. After a brief return to Tortola he went to 
Paris to continue his scientific studies and there he 
learned a great deal and made many pleasant 
acquaintances. By this time he had formed the 
definite idea that he was to be a leader in the world, 
but to obtain this leadership a large private fortune 
was needed and he determined to acquire it by 
marriage. In 1787 he came to America and made a 
considerable stay in Philadelphia and Wilmington. 
It was at this time that he addressed himself to 
Governor John Dickinson, of Delaware, and asked 
the hand of the Governor's daughter in marriage. 
The Governor was rich and had married an heiress 
himself, but he rejected Thornton's overtures because 
he thought his daughter was too young to marry, she 
being only sixteen years old. The lover could not 



'Thornton Papers, Library of Congress MSS. Unless otherwise stated these papers 
are the authority for this paper. 



34 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

wait for her to grow older, and went back to Tortola 
in April, 1788. He intended to settle in America, 
however, and had been naturalized as a citizen of 
Delaware on January 7, 1788. When he reached the 
West Indies he met another heiress, whose initials 
only have been preserved, Miss R. H., and became 
engaged to her. Shortly before the day set for their 
marriage she ran off with another man. This mortify- 
ing circumstance threw Thornton into a fever and he 
was very ill. As soon as he had recovered sufficiently 
to travel, he came back to America to mend his health 
and heart. Neither was permanently broken, for he 
was soon in good physical condition, and in October, 
1790, within a year from the time he was jilted in the 
West Indies, he was married in Philadelphia to Anna 
Maria Brodeau. Two failures to secure heiresses had 
somewhat diminished his matrimonial ambitions, but 
his wife was not portionless. Her mother was a 
French woman, a widow of high social position in 
Philadelphia, clever #nd influential, and Thornton's 
position in Philadelphia, and afterwards in Washing- 
ton, was strengthened by her support. Although her 
daughter was hardly older than Miss Dickinson was 
when the Governor rejected Thornton, Mrs. Brodeau 
was not afraid to entrust her happiness to Thornton's 
care. In fact, she was pleased with the match, for 
she saw that her son-in-law was a remarkable man, 
and she yielded, as others did, to his cfiarm of manner 
and conversation, his sprightliness and enthusiasm 
which made him more like a Frenchman than an 
Englishman. 

At the time of his marriage he was thirty years old, 
of medium fyeight, with regular features, brown hair 
and English complexion, an aquiline nose, active in 
body and abnormally active in mind. There was 
hardly a man in America who had received a scientific 
education equal to his, for the Americans who studied 
abroad usually went through a classical course only, 
but Thornton, having received a rudimentary classical 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 35 

education, had studied medicine and chemistry and 
then botany and other branches of natural science. 
The young man was no adventurer, nor was he 
penniless, for the plantation yielded him an income 
which was, however, not always certain. By nature 
he was a fearless idealist and believed that the New 
World would welcome plans and projects which in 
Europe would go unheeded. 

In 1793 the American Philosophical Society awarded 
him the Magellanic gold medal for his essay entitled 
"Cadmus\ or a Treatise on the Elements of Written 
Language, Illustrated by a Philosophical division of 
Speech, the power of each character, thereby mutually 
fixing the orthography and orthoepy, with an Essay 
on the mode of teaching the surd or deaf, and conse- 
quently dumb, to speak." It was a treatise upon the 
elements of written language and the application of a 
new system of letters and spelling to the teaching of the 
deaf to speak. Much of the argument has become 
familiar to later generations in the literature concern- 
ing Volapuk, Esperanto, *simplified^spellinsan^l visible 
speech. 3 *. <&ij^&&t & 

Before Thornton attracted attention in this field he 
had become the patron, friend and coadjutor of John 
Fitch. 4 He made John Fitch's steaXnboat a success. 
Twenty years later he swore that Robert Fulton had 
stolen the plans of the boat. It was soon after his 
experiments with the steamboat began that he 
invented a steam cannon which drove twenty-four 
bullets successively in two minutes through a plank 
an inch thick, but this rapid-fire gun he considered to 
be more curious than useful. In 1792 his plans for 



'CADMUS, or a Treatise on the Elements of Written Language, Illustrated by a 
Philosophical Division of Speech, the Power of each character therby mutually fixing the 
Orthography and Orthoepy. Cur nescire, pudens prave, quara descire malo? Hors 
Ara. Poet. V. 88. With an Essay on the Mode of Teaching the Surd or Deaf and Conse- 
quently Dumb to Speak. By William Thornton, M.D., Member of the Societies of Scots 
Antiquaries of Edinburg and Perth; the Medical Society and the Society of Natural Hist 
of Edin. the American Philosophical Society, &c, Philadelphia, Printed by R. Aitken & 
Son, No. 22, Market Street, M.DCC.XCIII. 

♦William Thornton and John Fitch, by Gaillard Hunt, in The Nation, May 21, 1914. 



36 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

the new Capitol building at Washington were accepted. 
He had previously designed the Philadelphia Library 
Building. Subsequently, he designed several other 
buildings including some beautiful private houses, a 
few of which are still standing. The history of his 
connection with the Capitol building has been written 
by Glenn Brown. A full account of William Thornton, 
the Architect, has yet to be written. He studied 
architecture for the first time when he drew the plans 
for the Capitol, but architecture was never more than 
a recreation with him. He gave up the practice of 
medicine before he left Philadelphia for Washington 
and never regularly resumed it. The fees were much 
smaller in this country than they were in the West 
Indies, but, apart from that, he felt an aversion for 
many branches of a general practitioner's duties, and 
in those days there were no specialists. He took an 
interest in agriculture and had a farm near Washing- 
ton, but he never followed farming as a profession. 
He was a prolific writer, a printer of pamphlets, a 
contributor to the newspapers, and letters flowed 
from his pen in endless numbers, but he never wrote a 
book and he could not be called an author. His 
writings cover a bewildering multitude of subjects — 
negro colonization and emancipation, a national 
university, landscape gardening, somnambulism, 5 
South American independence, the breeding of horses, 
city building, George Washington, to mention only a 
few. Of no circumstance in his life was he as proud 
as he was of Washington's friendship. The intimate 
association began in Philadelphia in 1792 and when 
Tobias Lear ceased to be Washington's private 
Secretary the following year Thornton aspired to 
succeed him. The President's reply to him saying he 
had chosen his wife's kinsman, Bartholomew Dan- 
dridge, was warm and friendly in tone. Washington 
appointed him a Commissioner of the new federal 

*See in Harper's Weekly for Oct. 1, 1910, "The Remarkable Case of William Kemble," 
based on one of Thornton's papers. 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 37 

district in 1794, moved to the selection, doubtless, 
because he wished him to have oversight of the 
construction of the building he had designed, because 
he believed him to be a genius in planning generally, 
and because he had confidence in him and a personal 
liking for him. He and Commissioner Thornton 
tramped together over the ten miles square and he 
lent a willing ear to Thornton's projects, liking them 
none the less because many of them were Utopian. 
Thornton told him how a philosophical society must 
be founded; how there must be a national university 
on a novel plan which should include mechanical as 
well as classical and scientific education; how there 
must be an agricultural institution on a comprehensive 
scale — that government, art, science, learning, 
mechanics, husbandry, all must have their central 
point in the new city which this modern Cadmus 
hoped to build. 

Thornton fairly revelled in the intimacy with 
Washington. He wrote to his friends in England 
about it; he planned to become Washington's Boswell 
and to record his daily sayings and doings; but he 
appears to have abandoned the idea — at any rate he 
has left us no notes to indicate that he even started to 
carry it out. The friendly letters which Washington 
and the family at Mt. Vernon wrote him survive as 
conclusive proof that he did not exaggerate his 
position. At Washington's request he wrote out his 
ideas on the subject of the national university and 
they were printed in 1796 under the title " Public 
Education." He designed the General's handsome 
house on North Capitol Street between B and C 
streets, and supervised the building, being often 
intrusted by Washington with large sums of money to 
pay for the work as it progressed. He helped 
Washington's nephew, Lewis, in planning his country 
house. Mrs. Washington appealed to him on occasion 
as a physician and often intrusted him with those 



38 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

small household commissions which are a sure sign of 
intimacy. 

After Thornton had served as Commissioner of the 
District of Columbia for five years, the office was 
abolished and he became Superintendent of the 
Patent Office, then under the Department of State, 
serving from 1802 up to the time of his death in 1827. 
His activities as a citizen were numerous. He 
served as a justice of the peace; was an officer in 
the militia; was one of the founders of the Colum- 
bian Institution, the first society for mental improve- 
ment organized in Washington; he was one of the 
organizers of the Washington Assemblies in 1800, 
the first effort to give form to the society of the place; 
he painted amateur portraits; he wrote verses; he 
entertained a great deal. He became interested in 
South American politics and was a correspondent of 
several of the leaders in the struggle for SouthAmeri- 
can independence. In 1815 he printed a pamphlet 
entitled "Outlines of a Constitution for United North 
and South Columbia, Addressed to the Citizens of 
North and South Columbia" — a fantastic plan for 
uniting the whole Western Hemisphere under one 
government with the capital on the Isthmus of 
Darien. He wanted to be a minister to one of the 
South American republics. 

He was a contentious man, and the habit grew on 
him as he grew older. He was a writer of long, 
explanatory, circumstantial letters, all true enough 
but doubtless wearisome to receive. He quarreled 
with his fellow Commissioners of the District, with 
Fulton over the steamboat, with Latrobe over the 
Capitol. He importuned Congress on many subjects, 
the Secretary of State over the Patent Office, the 
President on Appointments to office and public 
questions. He became a man with grievances and 
claims. I have read a great many of these letters and 
they seem convincing that he was right. Neverthe- 
less, I can imagine how sorry his correspondents were 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 39 

to receive them, how reluctantly they read them, and 
how difficult they found it to answer them, knowing, 
as they did, that he would be sure to write more long 
letters in reply. 

He was an unconquerable man and he never grew 
old. When he died on March 28, 1 828, at the age of 67, 
he was still planning, still contending, still hoping for 
that leadership and success which he had resolved 
should be his when he started out in life. 

I have said that Thornton wrote on negro coloniza- 
tion and emancipation, and his connection with this 
subject I shall now develop by several of his surviving 
papers. 

I must turn first to another West Indian, who like 
Thornton was born in the Virgin Islands, who was also 
a Quaker, a physician, an emancipationist and a 
scientist of varied accomplishments and great curiosity. 
John Coakley Lettsom had already made his mark in 
London when Thornton came upon the scene, being 
some seventeen years older than Thornton, and to him 
Thornton appealed for assistance in his plans for 
helping the negroes to be free and the free negroes to 
become useful members of society. 6 For Thornton's 
benefit Lettsom obtained an account from Granville 
Sharp of his experiment at Sierra Leone. Granville 
Sharp was a philanthropist and pamphleteer, a 
sympathizer with the American Revolution, a friend 
of General Oglethorpe and a most effective friend of 
the negroes. It was he, in fact, who brought about 
the litigation in England which resulted in the British 
declaration that a slave became free as soon as he 
landed on British soil. Sharp's letter of October 13, 
1788, to Doctor Lettsom, told how Sierra Leone had 
been bought for a trifling sum from King Tom, a negro 
chief. The King not only sold his territory but his 
subjects as well. He was in the slave trade, and did, 
in fact, sell some of the free negro colonists when their 

•Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late John Coakley Lettson, M.D., LL.D., 
etc., by Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, F. L. S. London, 1817. 



40 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

number became few and they could not resist him. 
To Sierra Leone, Sharp and several others, with the 
aid of the British Government, sent some four hundred 
wretched negroes early in 1787. They were the 
remnant of those American slaves who had been 
incorporated into the British Army and Navy during 
the American Revolution, besides some runaways who 
had found refuge in London. They started on the 
voyage much debilitated by long waiting on ship- 
board and by drunkenness from the rum which was 
served to them as a part of their rations. Only two 
hundred and seventy-six got to Sierra Leone. A few 
months later only one hundred and thirty of these 
were still in the Colony. 

Doctor Lettsom's friend, Henry Smeathman, 7 a 
scientific explorer who had lived for several years on 
the West Coast of Africa, was the originator of the 
Sierra Leone experiment, and when Thornton heard 
in 1786 that Smeathman intended to visit Africa he 
wrote to Lettsom, Nov. 18, 1786, that he would like 
to go with him. He said that he wished to emancipate 
the slaves on the plantation in Tortola, but as only 
half of them, some seventy or eighty, belonged to him 
he would have to take his slaves away. Where could 
he send them? To their own country, naturally, but 
in that country some one must protect them from their 
relatives, the natives, and from their own helplessness. 
Thornton wished to be that protector. Before remov- 
ing his slaves from Tortola he intended to allot to 
them some land and require them to pay him for it 
gradually before they were emancipated. He hoped 
in this way to arouse in them habits of independence. 
He said that in Africa a commonwealth should be 
founded. He worked out his plan in detail. It 



7 Smeathinan wrote: Plan of Settlement to be made near Sierra Leone on the Grain 
Coast of Africa, intended more particularly for the service and happy establishment of 
Blacks and People of Colour to be shipped as freemen under the Direction of the Commit- 
tee for Relieving the Black Poor, and under the Protection of the British Government. 
By Henry Smeathman, Esq., who has resided in that country nearly four years. London 
1786. 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 41 

included, as he was then a Quaker, disarming the 
inhabitants and the making of inviolable treaties of 
peace with all the world. His activities extended to 
the free negroes in America. He told Lettsom, 
February 15, 1787, that he found many free negroes 
in Rhode Island who were desirous of going to the 
Guinea Coast and who approved of his project to 
transport them thither. He learned that there were a 
great many free blacks in Boston. The American 
blacks were anxious to know if Sierra Leone was a 
British colony or an independent settlement. If it 
was a colony they would not go, but if it was inde- 
pendent they would go and Thornton would go with 
them. They changed his plans by insisting upon the 
right to carry arms for their self-defense; otherwise 
they might be captured and reduced to slavery again. 
Thornton could get 2,000 to go with him. The blacks 
in Newport were organized as the " Union Society", 
and more than seventy had signed as ready to join 
him. Going to Boston he grew warmer in his plans. 
May 20, 1787, he wrote that hundreds were ready to 
go from that place. He*- discussed his project with 
Samuel Adams, who approved of it. Thornton wished 
to dedicate himself to "this grand affair, " as he called 
it. Returning to Philadelphia in July, 1788, he was 
still full of his black commonwealth, but the expedition 
to Sierra Leone having sailed, he would wait to hear 
how it turned out. If it failed he would organize 
another expedition. If it succeeded his American 
blacks would join the new settlers. They would go 
in prodigious numbers if the settlement was free and 
not a colony. The free blacks had petitioned the 
legislature of Massachusetts for vessels and equipment 
to take them to Africa. If it was necessary, Thornton 
would fit out transports himself for that purpose. In 
1789 began his correspondence on the subject with 
the French emancipation society, "Les Amis des 
Noirs, " but he appears to have derived only moral 
encouragement from that source. He thought he 



42 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

could do more good in Africa than he could anywhere 
else on the globe, but he must have the " superintend- 
ence of the undertaking." (To Lettsom Nov. 13, 
1789.) He was then a bachelor, and had no ties to 
deter him from personal risk. On June 15, 1790, he 
was still ardent for his plan. After that we hear no 
more of his desire to go to Africa. He was married in 
October of that year. His attention was now 
engrossed by his explorations in the elements of 
written language. He was writing a dictionary of the 
English language, giving all the roots of words and 
their true spelling, which had never been properly 
given. By 1794 he was telling Lettsom about the 
new capital, which he thought would be "one of the 
most elegant cities in the world. u (January 8, 1795.) 
When Thornton was deep in his colonization plans 
he laid them before Samuel Adams, as we have seen, 
and he approved of them, and he found encouragement 
and assistance from James Madison who wrote out 
for him certain considerations which he incorporated 
in his letter to the President of the "Soci6te des Amis 
des Noirs." 



J. DOTY TO WILLIAM THORNTON 

[Tortola] [1786] 
Dear Sir 

I informed you I would transmit to you early intelligence of 
the determination of the members of the House of Assembly 
on your address to them, and the letter to me which accom- 
panied it. I yesterday submitted both to them, and according 
to the usual form, the further consideration of the Subject 
matter was ordered for the next meeting. In the mean-time 
it may not be improper to state to you, the Ideas which this 
Subject seems to have given rise to, in the minds of some of the 
members. It is not extraordinary that a plan, which has for 
its object, the establishing a Colony of free blacks, in a tropical 
climate, for the purpose of Cultivating the usual articles 
which are the produce of the West Indies, and promoting the 
Interests of Freedom among those people, should not be a very 
popular one in this Country. And some of the members of the 
Assembly seem to be of opinion that such an establishment 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 43 

should it be carried into effect and be successful, will eventually 
be highly injurious to the Interests of the West India Islands, 
and therefore ought not to be countenanced by them. There 
are some other Gentlemen, who seem desirous of knowing, to 
whom the Colony intended to be established at Sierra Leone 
is to be made Subject; whether it is to be absolutely a depend- 
ency of Great Britain, or whether it is intended to be only 
placed under the protection of that power, and as to matters 
of Government, Commerce, &c to remain in a state of 
Independency. I must confess it appears to me, that a 
discussion of this subject at large, in this, or any other of the 
Islands, will be a fruitless, and futile, undertaking, as the 
establishing, and ultimate existence and success of such 
Colony, will depend upon causes, which these Islands can 
very little Influence or control, but were this not the case, I 
can conceive that the establishment of a Colony of free 
people of colour in Africa, may not only, not be injurious to the 
Interests of the West India Islands, but may even be rendered 
beneficial to them, for if to the free Blacks who it is intended 
shall be removed from North America to Africa, the plan is so 
extended as that the free people of colour in the Islands may 
be added, the community without an Act of injustice might be 
disencumbered of a class of people, who it is universally 
acknowledged are highly injurious to its Interests. These 
people are, in the Islands, in a situation more ineligible than 
they are on the Continent of North America, and probably 
would most willingly emigrate to another Country whose policy 
would not make it necessary to restrict them, in the rights of 
Citizenship. In the Islands they can scarcely be said legally 
to possess any visible permanent property, in some of them 
they are not allowed to possess the smallest quantity of Land 
in fee, nor beyond a very small number of Slaves, and in others 
where they are permitted by Law to hold a small quantity of 
Land in fee, they are prohibited from planting any, but certain 
Articles of cultivation. In this Island, their legal right to 
hold property within it, is a more liberal one than in most 
others, but even here, they cannot possess more than eight 
Acres of Land, nor more than fifteen Slaves. In one of the 
Windward Islands of this government it is at present or was 
lately in contemplation, to pass a Law, prohibiting any free 
person of Colour, from keeping a Huckstering shop, and from 
retailing Rum and other spirituous liquors, in any of the Towns 
in the Island, and as this business has hitherto constituted a 
principal object of employment with these people, should 
such a Law pass the Legislature, many of them will be deprived 
of the means of subsistence, at least until they have adopted 
some other object of employment. They are not eligible to 



44 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

the holding any publick office of trust, or profit, in many of 
the Islands, nor have they a Vote in the election of any 
publick officer, and in some of the Islands (particularly in the 
foreign) they are prohibited from following any but certain 
Trades and employments. In the French Islands their 
situation is much worse than in the English, if the late revolu- 
tion in the government, has not operated to their advantage, 
and in the Danish & Dutch, they are but little removed from 
mere Slaves. 

Without reasoning as to the Justice of the distinction which 
is universally made between the white Inhabitants and the 
free people of colour, and the very great distance at which tha 
Law has placed the one from the other, it is sufficient that the 
policy of the West Indies, will never suffer these poor people 
to emerge from their present humble state, or to possess the 
equal rights of free Citizenship. To these causes, and their 
consequent poverty it is to be attributed that in general in the 
Islands, they are an Idle, profligate Race, and very Injurious 
to the Interests of the rest of the Community of which they are 
Members, and they probably will ever remain so, until they 
are placed in a situation, where they can enjoy the rights and 
immunities of free citizens. Where the right of possessing 
property to any extent, may operate as a spur to the acquiring 
it by an exertion of honest industry, and where, finding a fair 
reputation will be an essential prerequisite in the acquirement 
of office, and the good opinion of the Community, it will be 
their Interest to be careful of their moral conduct, and to 
preserve a decent appearance. 

The House of Assembly stands adjourned to tuesday next, 
on which day, or at any subsequent meeting, I shall be happy 
in communicating to the members, any further information 
on this Subject, which you shall think proper and necessary to 
be submitted to their consideration. 

I am 

Sir 
Friday Morning with great Respect 

Your most obedient Servant 
J Doty 
Doctor Thornton 



General Outlines of a Settlement on the Coast of Africa 
particularly that part under the Appellation of the Tooth- 
Ivory Coast. In the Language of the Blacks Quaqua. — [by 
Thornton]. 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 45 

This part of the Coast is chosen because it enjoys as good 
Air as any of the Windward Coast, is not so subject to pesti- 
lential Fevers as the Grain Coast, because it does not contain 
large Rivers. 8 

It does not abound so much with Minerals as the Gold 
Coast, therefore the Water will probably be better. It is 
equally luxuriant with any part, for Nature providing always 
with a Bountiful Hand has placed there the largest Animals 
with which we are Acquainted, (the Elephant), and the Sugar 
Cane grows there, naturally, in the most rich manner as Food 
for them. The Natives are much more numerous than on any 
other place on the Windward Coast, for they have generally 
been more peaceable, and have not yet got into the refined 
Species of Traffic i. e. for Men. 

The European powers have no Forts there, & cannot on that 
Account be jealous of a Settlement that promises not to inter- 
fere with their immediate Views. They could be supplied 
with Grain on one side, and Gold Dust for a medium in Traffic 
on the other. 

1. The Country must be visited, and Lands purchased of 
the Natives, making a Settlement in a peaceable manner. 

2. The Courts of England, France, & the States of America 
to be visited that a Treaty of Commerce with them & the 
Africans may be established. This Treaty not to exclude 
them from a free Trade with any other power, or with the 
whole World: And that any Vessel which may be built in 
Africa or owned there, shall have free admittance into the 
ports which receive their Commodities. If any power shall 
encroach upon the Liberties of the Settlement the most formal 
& fixed Resolution shall be taken never more to trade with that 
power till Restitution be made, and the other powers in 
treaty will doubtless protect from Insults their commercial 
Allies. The Americans having no Settlement in the torrid 
Zone would be much benefitted by such a Treaty. No power 
would ever be jealous, as this Settlement would be one founded 
in perfect peace, and therefore incapable of assuming or dic- 
tating to any other. The Articles of Commerce would be, to 
Europe, Cotton, Indigo, Gold Dust, Ivory, Gums, Dying 
Wood, Drugs & Spices; to America the same with the addition 
of Sugar & its products; Cocoa, Coffee &c. as they have no 
Colonies that would interfere with such productions, and as 
their chief dependence is on the Agriculture of their own 
Country, might be supplied with some Manufactures of Africa. 



•There are instances where the Rivers on the Grain Goast have risen during the Rainy 
SeaBon 150 feet perpendicular from the Bed and when the Sun dries them up the Stench is 
intolerable.— Bennett. [Note in the MS]. 



46 American Antiquarian Society [Apr. 

3. Blacks who are now free in America & Europe, or who 
may be made free in the West Indies hereafter, to be taken to 
the New Settlement carrying with them such Utensils as will 
be requisite to cultivate the Lands, and also to form the 
necessaries of Life. The West India Negroes will be well 
acquainted with the culture of Sugar, Cotton, Indigo, Cocoa, 
Ginger, Coffee, Rice, Corn, (Indian & Guinea) and raising 
such live Stock as is peculiarly adapted to the torrid Zone. 
The Negroes of the Northern Countries, who have been 
amongst Christians (a sect which the poor West India Negroes 
know little of, except by Name) would be easily induced to 
live a regular Life, and by their Example the rest, as well as the 
Natives, might become a sober religious People. The 
northern Negroes too, by the Example of Industry which they 
have been accustomed to behold in the lower Classes of the 
White Inhabitants of those Countries would easily, by 
introducing their acquired Habits & Customs, bring to 
Industrious Lives the ignorant & slothful of the warm Country 
of Africa. 

4. The Lands already purchased from the Natives might be 
divided into portions or Estates according to the number of 
their Family. These might be taxed in a very light degree, 
for the support of — 

5. Schools & religious Houses, which are to be raised by the 
public Stock. 

6. Such a Trade might be opened with the Africans that 
into this Settlement great Riches would be drained from the 
other parts, and the European Powers, particularly Great 
Britain & France and also the States of America, would find 
their Advantage in opening an extensive Commerce with it. 

7. A Code of Laws to be framed for the mutual good of 
each Member of the Community which Code must be signed 
by every Individual, and executed by the Sentence of a 
Majority of Judges, a Jury, or single Judge, according to the 
nature of the Crime and Circumstances. 

8. That such valuable Vegetable productions, as do not 
naturally grow in that part of Africa, be imported to the most 
proper nurseries appointed for the general Good of the Com- 
munity, and their culture could then be extended with the 
demand. 

9th To buy the Slaves that are brought from different parts 
and more fully to answer the purpose particular Ships may be 
stationed upon the Coast to receive them, and prevent their 
being offered to trading Vessels, and to free every person thus 
purchased, making him a member of the Community and 
giving equal privileges with the rest. If he have a Wife, or 
she a Husband, or they have Children or Friends in the 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 47 

Country whence they were brought, by having permission to 
return and invite such Friends or any other persons to this 
Settlement of Peace, and paying their own Ransom by working 
or by Commerce, with Interest, the Community would increase 
rapidly, and as any province is rich only by the number of its 
Inhabitants such a Settlement would doubtless soon acquire 
an immense property. By this mode Thousands would 
annually be rescued from the most oppressive slavery, or 
Death, would be adopted into a Family of Peace on Earth, 
and taught Doctrines of Him, the King of Kings who has 
promised peace to his followers, in Heaven. The price which 
each would give for his Freedom would so much exceed any 
Sum that could be offered with Advantage by the Slave 
Traders, that in a little time the Traffic would cease. What 
heavenly pleasure must dilate every Breast that has been 
instrumental in delivering from oppression the poor defenceless 
Captive, and restoring tranquillity to his Family. The 
power that created you as Instruments would never leave you ! 
What happiness awaits him who calls a Soul from Bondage 
under the promise of the most high, but my Friends what 
infinity of happiness shall be theirs who deliver from bondage 
& call unto Christ so many Thousand Souls! 

W. T. 

To the Black Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, assembled at one 
of their stated Meetings in Philadelphia. [Draft by Thornton]. 

It is in Contemplation by the English to make a free Settle- 
ment of Blacks on the Coast of Africa, which they have already 
begun, and have purchased a Tract of Land twenty Miles 
square at Sierra Leone for the intended Settlers. 9 They are 
desirous of knowing if any of the Blacks of this Country be 
willing to return to that Region which their Fathers originally 
possessed, and finding many in Boston, Providence and Rhode 
Island very desirous of embarking for Africa, wish also to be 
informed if any of the Blacks in Pennsylvania are inclined to 
settle there. They would on landing be entitled to Estates, 
or certain Tracts of Land, and possess them for ever. 

The Place intended for this Settlement is at the mouth of 
the River of Sierra Leone, which is navigable back 240 Miles. 
It is situated in about 10 Degrees East Long: of Tenerif, and 
8 Deg: North Lat: Sir George Young of the British Navy 
who visited this Place gives the following Account of it. "St. 
George's Bay, in which the first Township is formed, is, 



•See Substance of the Report delivered by the Court of Directors of the Sierra Leone 
Company to the General Court of Propietora on Thursday the 27th March, 1794. Lon- 
don, 1794. 



48 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

without exception, as fine a Harbour as any in the World; 
that the Mountains abound with Brooks of fresh Water; and 
are covered with the most noble Forests of all kinds of Timber, 
and with perpetual verduer; that when he ascended those 
Mountains, and looked about him he had never been so agree- 
ably struck before with beautiful Landscapes of Wood and 
Water; and that he found the Air so cool upon the Mountain 
that he could have borne his great Coat with pleasure." 

The Blacks who form this Settlement should be a free and 
independent People, governed by their own Laws, and by 
Officers of their own election. Their Ports would be open to 
trade with the whole World, whereby they would have the 
Advantage of procuring every thing at the cheapest Rate, 
which would not be the Case were the Settlement monopolized 
as a dependent Colony, by any power either of Europe or 
America; but it is imagined the Slave Trade will be soon 
abolished, and that the Europeans and Americans will 
co-operate in the establishment of this laudable Undertaking. 

It is requested that those who may be disposed to embark 
for Africa will sign their Names, Ages, Trades and Families, 
&c, in the following, or a similar manner. 

Names Ages Trades Families 

The immediate Exports from Africa to Europe would be 
Gold Dust, Ivory, Cotton, Dying Woods, Gums, Drugs, 
Spices, Fruits and Preserves, Wood for Cabinets, &c. Oil of 
Palms &c, Indigo, Tobacco, Rice and Wax; to America the 
same, except the four last Articles, but with the Addition of 
Cocoa, Coffee, Sugar & its products &c, as the Americans have 
no Colonies with which such productions would interfere. 

WILLIAM THORNTON TO ETIENNE CLAVIERE [1788] 

Mons. r [fitienne] Clavi6re 
President de la Societe des Amis des Noirs 
Respected Friend 

Thy Letter with which I was lately honored is truly inter- 
esting & I perused it with must satisfaction, and think myself 
highly obligated for this favour: I am happy that your Nation 
while engaged in a noble struggle for her own Privileges was not 
inattentive to the rights and happiness of the most oppressed 
of the human Race. While the Voice of Liberty was heard 
in every Street, and acclamations of Joy rent the Heavens, 
you listened to the voice of humanity, in the midst of gladness, 
the cry of the afflicted in a distant Land pierced each Heart of 
Benevolence. The Sum of your Happiness is not yet complete 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 49 

for Tears of Sorrow continue to flow from the Eyes of Slaves, 
and the God of Man cannot delight in the freedom of one who 
binds another to administer to his pleasures. Let that 
nobleness of Character which has distinguished your People 
rouse you to assert for the Africans those privileges that are 
claimed so loudly by the French! then will their solemn 
appeals to Heaven and to Earth for the Rights of Man be 
marked with consistency, requiring that all Men are equally 
entitled by Nature to the same Favours! Thus shall each 
name that dignifies your Society do honor to human Nature, 
and when the Trumpet of Fame has done sounding the names 
of Heroes, your Names will be heard with secret Joy in the 
most remote Ages, and Time will hand them over to Eternity. 

I am happy that you approve of the Men with whom I 
propose to form a Settlement in Africa, though you think it 
will be necessary to form a concert of opinions and of actions 
between the different powers of Europe in favour of the plan 
previous to the attempt to form the Establishment : if however 
we consider that even with all the disadvantages of inexper- 
ienced Superintendents, appointed over a lawless Banditti and 
not very satisfactorily equipped, the English made an Essay, 
and as I have lately been informed not unsuccessfully, we 
might, with reason, hope that with such Men as I had the 
honor of proposing to you, properly provided with Necessaries 
& Arms, a free Settlement might be established upon the most 
solid Basis; for it does not appear that either the continuance 
of Slavery in other places, or even the Slave Trade affected the 
Settlers at Sierra Leone materially and, as the Traders seek 
only to take the Men, not the Country, they would have no 
Inducements to attack the free Blacks who were trained to 
Arms, and who were determined to sell their liberty only with 
their loss of Life. The Blacks of the Eastern States of North 
America still continue anxious to embark for Africa. They 
even addressed the Legislature of Massachusetts, and received 
an Answer truly worthy of that noble-spirited People, signify- 
ing that they were willing to grant the prayer of their Petition, 
in furnishing Ships with Stores, Implements of Labour, and 
Necessaries for the Coast of Africa, as soon as a proper place 
could be secured to them, either by Grants made by the 
African Princes, or in Consequence of Negotiations with any 
of the European Powers. 

I am incapable of expressing my admiration of your spirited 
and excellent address to the Bailliages or Districts entitled to 
send Delegates to the states Gen 1 : It speaks the Language 
of Magnanimity, but though its justice may stare every slave 
dealer in the Face, and each sleeping Conscience be awaked to 
its Sense of Guilt, it withdraws behind the impenetrable Veil 



50 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of Interest, and the Mind is afraid to give way to conviction. 
A total and immediate abolition of Slavery may indeed be 
pregnant with some Danger to Society, but there can be no 
inconvenience in a gradual Emancipation to commence as 
soon as general Safety will permit it. You expect the abolition 
of the Trade: I sincerely hope that the Voice of a few Slave 
Traders, the most despicable of human Beings will not be 
suffered to dictate the most unchristian of practices to your 
enlightened Nation so justly famed for humanity and 
generosity : But whether or no you succeed in thispraiseworthy 
attempt to abolish a traffic in the human Species let me urge 
the immediate consideration of the plan for forming a Settle- 
ment in Africa. The English will no doubt co-operate with 
you, and the Americans are willing, What can be urged against 
it that will not shrink before Resolution? If the Colonies 
preserve their unjust Titles to hold Slaves, how will they 
interfere with Africa? If the Slave Trade be still permitted 
even on every part of the Coast, what Madman would run 
headlong into danger to take them, knowing the dispositions 
of regularly disciplined Men in Arms especially if the terror of 
retaliation in Slavery were threatened by the Victors on both 
sides? If you be afraid that the surrounding Kings might be 
instigated by the Traders to destroy and captivate the Settlers, 
Laws might without difficulty be enacted to prevent under 
pain of Death any Traders from making Slaves within a few 
Degrees North and South of the Settlement — Prudence is to be 
admired, but no difficulties ought to overcome the Minds of 
Men engaged in the Cause of Virtue. Liberty is now alive: 
Let her not die till she visit another Quarter of the Earth — You 
are not immortal, and know not who shall succeed you. The 
Sun shineth today — to-morrow may never come.— No politi- 
cal objection can be urged against the Plan. The Manufac- 
turing Nations of Europe, particularly .France and England, 
will be benefitted by procuring raw materials, at a cheaper 
rate, exchanging for them manufactured articles. America 
also will find great advantages in the Productions of Africa. 
The immediate Exports from Africa to Europe would be gold 
Dust, Ivory, Cotton, Dying Woods, Gums, Drugs, Spices, 
Fruits and Preserves, Wood for Cabinets &c. Oil of Palms &c. 
Indigo, Tobacco, Rice & Wax; to America the same, except 
the four last Articles, but with the addition of Sugar and its 
products, Cocoa, Coffee, &c. as they have no Colonies with 
which such productions would interfere. 

The Planters in the West Indies particularly the Sugar 
Planters cannot for many Years be affected by the exportation 
of any tropical Productions from Africa to Europe for the 
expense of Sugar Works would be too great for a new Settle- 



1920.] W, Thornton and Negro Colonization. 51 

ment, and were Sugar after that as cheap in Africa as in the 
East Indies it would bear so heavy a Duty that the Revenue 
of either France or England would be much increased by its 
Importation; however if these nations should regard more the 
Interest of the West India Planters than the increase of their 
Revenues though at the expense of the Subjects resident in 
either Kingdom, they might lay such high Duties on the 
African Sugar as to be prohibitory, or at least equivalent to a 
Bounty on West India Sugars, till true policy should open the 
Eyes of European Politicians, and force them to urge the 
eternal abolition of Slavery. 

Reasons in favour of the immediate Settlement of Africa 
may be collected from the Sentiments of many in this Country. 
I will give you upon this Subject the Opinion of a Gentleman 
from one of the most respectable States in the Union — a 
Gentleman who does honor not to America only, but to 
human Nature — a Gentleman of the first Abilities, and whose 
Voice has ever been listened to with uncommon attention in 
the Councils of this Nation. His own Words are the best 
adapted to his Sentiments. [Insert the note by M r .M.] 

' 'Without inquiring into the practicability or the most proper 
means of establishing a settlement of freed blacks on the Coast 
of Africa, it may be remarked as one motive to the benevolent 
experiment that if such an asylum was provided, it might 
prove a great encouragement to manumission in the Southern 
parts of the U. S. and even afford the best hope yet presented 
of putting an end to the slavery in which not less than 600,000 
unhappy negroes are now involved. 

"In all the Southern States of N. America, the laws permit 
masters, under certain precautions to manumit their slaves. 
But the continuance of such a permission in some of the States 
is rendered precarious by the ill effects suffered from freedmen 
who retain the vices and habits of slaves. The same considera- 
tion becomes an objection with many humane master ag at . 
an exertion of their legal right of freeing their slaves. It is 
found in fact that neither the good of the Society, nor the 
happiness of the individuals restored to freedom is promoted 
by such a change in their condition. 

"In order to render this design eligible as well to the Society 
as to the Slaves, it would be necessary that a compleat incor- 
poration of the latter into the former should result from the act 
of manumission. This is rendered impossible by the prejudice 
of the whites, prejudices which proceeding principally from the 
difference of colour must be considered as permanent and 
insuperable. 

"It only remains then that some proper external receptacle 
be provided for the slaves who obtain their liberty. The 



52 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

interior wilderness of America, and the Coast of Africa seem to 
present the most obvious alternative. The former is liable 
to great if not invincible objections. If the settlement were 
attempted at a considerable distance from the White Frontier, 
it would be destroyed by the Savages who have a peculiar 
antipathy to the blacks. If the attempt were made in the 
neighbourhood of the White Settlements, peace would not long 
be expected to remain between Societies, distinguished by 
such characteristic marks, and retaining the feelings inspired 
by their former relation of oppressors & oppressed. The result 
then is that an experiment for providing such an external 
establishment for the blacks as might induce the humanity of 
Masters, and by degrees both the humanity & policy of the 
Governments, to forward the abolition of slavery in America, 
ought to be pursued on the Coast of Africa or in some other 
foreign situation. 10 " 

Such is his Opinion, and he further intimated that Slavery 
is not likely to be ever abolished in the Southern States of 
America till an Asylum be provided to which the manumitted 
Blacks may be sent. 

I have only to add my sincere Wishes that the honorable and 
benevolent Society over which thou presidest may concur with 
me in Sentiment respecting the propriety of adopting a plan of 
immediately commencing this Settlement, as it may beside 
other beneficial Effects have that of forwarding the abolition 
of not only the Slave Trade, but Slavery itself, teaching the 
European Nations that Slavery is not necessary for raising the 
productions of the torrid Zone, and teaching the Kings of 
Africa that their Kingdoms would be much richer by a Sale of 
their Commodities, than by a sale of their Inhabitants; that a 
King who sells his Subjects to enrich himself is (according to 
Montesquieu) like one who cuts down his Trees to pick off the 
Fruits. 

Nothing I hope will subdue your Minds! Great is your 
Cause, and may Heaven prosper your Society! You defend 
not imaginary Titles; you plead not the cause of an Individ- 
ual or a Family; you support not the honorary dignities of a 
Kingdom; but you disinterestedly raise your Voice in favour of 
many Nations, to preserve the Lives of many Millions, and in 
defence of the dearest rights of Man!! — 

I am with the greatest regard & esteem 

thy respectful Friend 

W:T. 



10 This insertion is in James Madison's handwriting. 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization, 53 

Suggestion to Buy Porto Rico for Free Negroes. 
Draft, by Thornton [1802] 

About the year 88, at the time that the Government of 
England was engaged in settling a free Colony at Sierra Leone 
the Americans in New England were desirous of sending all 
the free Blacks from that Country and offered Ships and every 
necessary for their support. The Blacks likewise were 
desirous of fixing in any Country where they might enjoy the 
rights & privileges of free-men, which they knew could not, 
consistently with the policy of the American Government, be 
accorded to them while so large a portion of the Black people 
remained in a State of Slavery. But without they had 
returned to Africa there was no place in which they could find 
the contemplated Asylum. If an Island had been in the 
possession of the Americans it would have served this valuable 
purpose. The English made a Settlement, which some 
French Privateers destroyed, and which humanity has to 
lament; but Virtue generally perseveres in the plans she has 
commenced, because she seldom commences them without 
considering attentively the end. They again sent settlers 
and it is thought they will amply repay the trouble and expense 
incurred. The same Causes that induced the Inhabitants of 
Boston to desire a place of settlement for the Blacks still 
exist, and we yet possess no place that can without various 
objections be dedicated to this end. But the mere settlement 
of the Blacks is perhaps not a sufficient inducement to the 
Government of America to engage in the establishment af a 
Colony, for it has been considered by many wise men as 
incurring a great expense, & subjecting any Nation to the Evils 
of foreign warfare. It is in part true, but only as it relates to 
certain European powers. With respect to us is it materially 
different, and though we are at present but in the infancy of 
our political Existence we are considered as so important in 
the Scale of Nations that were we even now to possess one or 
more Islands no Nation would presume to molest us, because 
our weight thrown into any Scale would outbalance the 
advantages of opposition to any of our National Measures; 
especially if there were not direct aggression on the rights & 
privileges of others; and though it might be extremely difficult 
for the Americans at any other time to obtain from the Court 
of Spain, or any other Nation an Island in the West Indies, 
especially of sufficient importance to be worthy of being 
possessed by one of the most extensive Nations in the world, 
yet at this time it would not be difficult to induce the Court of 
Spain to cede to us, what is not important to them, I mean the 



54 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Island of Porto Rico, for it is an annual expense to the Spanish 
Government of above 150,000 Dolk Other motives might 
tend to induce them to grant us this Island which may he 
enumerated. During a War, & the present particularly, the 
English may make prize of it, if they know the Americans wish 
it, may sell it to them, thereby depriving the Spaniards not 
only of our Friendship but also of the Island & the Money we 
would give. It is not however the policy of England to grant 
the Americans an Island for the very Idea of giving us more 
strength in the American Archipelago is contrary to their 
national policy, not only on acct. of increasing our Seamen ft 
consequently our naval power, but of being her competitors 
in the Sugar Market: but this policy would give way to the 
consideration of our obtaining from the Spaniards what was 
refused by them, and the National Jealousies between the two 
Courts would at this time work mutually to our Advantage. 
If the English had wished for Porto Rico, or any, or all, of the 
Spanish Islands, & other Settlements, they could at any time 
have obtained them, as well as the french Settlements, but the 
Merchants of England who have lent Money to the Jamaica 
Planters, on their Estates, and the Planters who at great 
Expense have settled Sugar Estates, would oppose the Inten- 
tion of Government, if a Disposition were shown to extend 
their Colonies in such rich & fertile Islands, where a competi- 
tion would diminish the value of their settled possessions-and 
these rich merchants ft planters who possess Boroughs in 
England and send by their extensive Patronage & Influence 
many Members to parliament do not express their wishes 
without being heard by the royal or Ministerial Ear. The 
French Islands have been repeatedly taken by the English and 
restored at the conclusion of the War, but if retained they 
would only have thrown the same quantity of Sugar into a 
different Channel without actually increasing it & there could 
be less objection to their being retained. If the American 
Government were opposed to purchasing the Island there is no 
doubt it would be ceded by our giving way in the Settlement 
of our Western Limits of Louisiana — for if a serious demand 
were to be made of the Rio Bravo or Rio del Norte as our 
Boundary, the Spaniards would be extremely adverse to a 
Dispute, & would be equally or more adverse to the relinquish- 
ment of a Territory that contains the richest Gold Mines in 
the world, which are situated in the Mountains of the Province 
of Texas, and several Rich ones in the neighborhood of S ta . Fe, 
besides some of the richest Silver Mines in the world-rather 
than permit such a cession of Territory there is no Doubt they 
would give the two Floridas & Porto Rico : the last however is 
the richest most beautiful most pleasant & healthy Island in 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 55 

the same Latitude or between the Tropics in the world. It is 
likewise very extensive in fertile Land, and contains more 
really rich Land proper for Canes & at the same time in a 
healthy situation than all the other possessions of this Govern- 
ment, if even what is mentioned above were ceded to us. 
Porto Rico contains Ports that are very extensive & very safe. 
It is more easy of access to our Ships than any Settlement we 
can form, as they can run thither & back with the Trade Wind, 
without beating up or tacking. If the Government possess that 
Island and make it a free Port it would give, independent of 
the produce, an astonishing revenue, and if a free Port, it 
would prevent the Jealousies that it might otherwise excite. 
If the Government were even adverse to this Island being 
considered as an object of exchange for such a. portion of 
Louisiana as we may have a right to claim, and were also adverse 
to making a purchase of it, would any Objection arise to their 
acceptance of its Sovereignty, and permit a private Company 
to purchase the Island under the Sanction of the American 
Government, permitting every proprietor to hold his Land, 
and the Company taking possession only of the Crown Lands. 
Upon these Principles the English the Danes the Dutch & 
others have established Settlements which have been so pro- 
ductive as to give immense revenues. 

Draft of a Letter to a Newspaper. 
By Thornton [1816?] 
Mess". Editors 

The Cause of the Blacks has called forth the energetic power 
of England, & Cruisers have been sent to the Coast of Africa 
to put a Stop to that inhuman trafic, that has so long disgraced 
the most enlightened Nations of Europe. Such evidences 
have been produced that we find it is impossible to deny that 
many of our own People are engaged very deeply in this 
Business, furnishing under different Flags, the Spaniards of 
Cuba, with Slaves, who again wait for convenient opportuni- 
ties to send them to Missouri, & thus many thousands have 
been introduced in the very teeth of the Constitution; against 
law, against humanity, against every rule of right & every 
principle of Christianity, at the very time that we are tickling 
the vanity of each other, in orations on our freedom & declara- 
tion of common rights, & at the very time that we are 
immolating those poor wretches, who listening to our 4 th . of 
July flights, declare that "whatever is praiseworthy in Massa, 
is certainly praisworthy in his Slave!" 

The Eye of Heaven is not blinded with Gold-dust, & the 
Day of reckoning is drawing near. Has a single Individual 



56 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

dared to stand forth the Champion of the Oppressed: has he 
dared to recommend to Congress that a law should be passed 
to take to the Coast of Barbary every Man captured on board 
the Slave-trading Vessels who was engaged directly or in- 
directly in making Slaves or trading in them; & that such 
Individuals should be exchanged to ransom the innocent 
Captives of the Barbarians! — We are seeking for a President. 
Give me the Name of such a Champion of humanity, & I 
would write Night & Day to blazon forth his Virtues, and to 
make him the Ruler of the People. I would have none of your 
cold-blooded, tardy-thinking and calculating Characters. I 
would have the warm-hearted the noble-minded & generous 
Being who would dare to stem the torrent of opposition, and 
whose Virtues would rise against every attack, with a bolder 
crest: for in this land there is still great virtue, but it lies in a 
latent State. It requires to be brought forth, & to be fostered. 
It would, under the cherishing influence of a great master- 
spirit, be productive of effects that cannot be contemplated by 
the puny Soul! The North Americans would thus be distin- 
guished as a great, a generous, a virtuous, & magnanimous 
People. It would then be an honor to be called by such an 
Appellation. At present we look not for good and enlightened 
Men to fill our offices, but for men of money, of influence in 
Elections, of intrigue, to help forward our contemptible views 
of self-interest. Even parties are created, without knowing 
why they are to be enlisted on this or that side, and without 
seeing the causes that tend to ultimate results, of which they 
remain as ignorant as if the wood-and-wire worked here were 
to dance puppets in the moon! If an Envoy be sent to a 
foreign Country, it is not for what he is expected to do there; 
but to pay for electioneering services performed here, or to be 
performed. He may be old to superannuation, he may be 
deaf & dumb,-that is, incapable of understanding, or speaking 
intelligbly a word of the People to whom he is sent. — What 
impositions are these upon the Community! Can no man be 
found who has honesty enough to call upon the actors in these 
base desertions of common Sense! No, we have no men, or 
few who dare write, & fewer still who dare publish what is 
written : for all the Papers that obtain extensive circultaion are 
in the pay of Government. The Laws are to be published in 
each of these papers, not for the benefit of the People, but to 
pay the vile hirelings who are as much bought & sold, as the 
hack-lawyers, that will plead in favor of any villain, in a cause, 
known to be iniquitous, for a fee. I speak to you Citizens, 
without your accustomed homage, & I call upon you to publish 
what I write if you have any of the spirit of 76. It was then 
that men dared to think, and to write. It was then that those 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 57 

bold and home Truths were told in the Pages of Common 
Sense. But the Times have changed, & I call upon you my 
Countrymen to resume your native energies. 

When this Country declared its Independence the Inhabi- 
tants were but ab fc two millions & a half, of which nearly a 
Million were slaves. We were then without Ships, without 
Money, without Arms, without ammunition: and yet the whole 
power of England was insufficient to subject us to an uncon- 
ditional Submission to parliamentary decrees. We became 
independent! England was at the commencement of the 
Struggle nearly free from Debt : at the end of the war they were 
involved in a debt of 500,000,000 SterR . The great men of 
this Country & many others thought it impossible that 
England could long sustain such a burthen of Taxes as were 
requisite to pay the interest of this enormous Debt. But 
England has since that sustained a War against all the powers 
of Christendom & when engaged with all Europe, we, to 
obtain a redress of some grievances, threw our power into the 
Scale against England. She sustained the whole! and put 
down, finally, the power of France, that had forced the rest of 
Europe to succumb. That Nation, England, that seemed 
unappalled by a combination of all the powers of the World, 
pretends now, in perfect peace, to dread the effects that will be 
likely to result from an effort of the Emperor of Russia to 
humble the pride and power of the Turks, if unopposed by the 
rest of Europe! Has England any thing to fear even if 
Alexander were to make Constantinople his winter's, & St. 
Petersburgh his summer's, residence? His Empire would be 
assailable, in so many points, that he would never be able to 
defend it. He would prepare only for revolutions, for when 
men are placed under Rulers acting only as Vicegerents, they 
are apt to break the Clue of power and wind up a Ball for 
themselves. The East Indies will become independent of 
Great Britain — New Holland will become independent — The 
Cape of good-hope will become independent, but all these 
speaking the English Language will give such advantages to 
our Commerce as to render us in a few years the most potent 
Nation in the World. 

[December, 1816.] 

To the honorable Henry Clay, Chairman of the Assembly for 
promoting the establishment of a free and independ*. Nation 
of Blacks in Africa [draft by Thornton.] 

Sir 

My public Duties did not permit my personal attendance 
at the meeting lately held for this praise-worthy object but I 
have heard with unspeakable satisfaction of the respectability 



58 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of the meeting & of the unanimity of benevolence with which 
this Subject was discussed. It is a Subject that has long 
impressed my mind as one of the most momentous; for it 
involves the happiness of millions of our FellovvBeings; and as 
the Government of America was the first to provide against 
the extension of Slavery it is with inexpressible pleasure that 
I view among its most respectable Citizens a zealous desire to 
restore to their Country the Descendents of the Africans who 
have obtained their freedom among us. It has been thought 
by many that they would depart with reluctance for the 
region of their forefathers, but the feelings of human nature 
are the same in all. Let those who prejudge the feelings of the 
Blacks apply the Case to themselves, and ask if they were 
carried into Slavery among the Barbary Powers or other 
savages, and by degrees had gained their freedom, and a 
desire were expressed by the Barbarians that the emancipated 
& their descend 13 should be restored to their original country, 
could there be a hesitation in those to whom such a proposal 
should be made in embracing the offer, especially if they were 
to have lands presented to them, and were to be assisted in 
forming a free Government? It is impossible on this subject, 
if well considered, to offer a doubt. But lest any should judge 
from expressions that may have escaped from contented 
Individuals, I will mention a Fact in favor of this contemplated 
Establishment that cannot fail to make some Impression. 

In the winter of 1786-7 I was travelling in Rhode Island & 
Massachusetts. I found many free Blacks & having been 
engaged in a correspondence with some of the members of the 
Sierra Leone Society of London, among whom were some of my 
Friends I was desirous of knowing what number of free Blacks 
in Mass. & R.I. could be found, desirous of joining in that 
Settlement. I made my wish known to some of the elder 
Blacks who informed me they would call Meetings that they 
might be informed of the contemplated object of such a 
Settlement. They assembled in hundreds, in one of the 
places of worship & in the most orderly and decent manner, 
heard all I had to say. They were delighted with the prospect, 
and in a few Weeks informed me that two thousand were 
willing to accompany me. I made this known to some of the 
Member of the Assembly of Massach ts who expressed a desire 
of aiding in sending them out of the Country, and I had no 
doubt from the ardour with which the proposal of taking them 
away entirely, was advocated, that the Legislature would 
have furnished then with Ships, with provisions, Tools &c. 
and many of the members promised that every requisite would 
cheerfully be granted. When however I explained to them the 
intention of taking the Blacks to Sierra Leone — then Members 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 59 

of the Legislature expressed an unwillingness to send them out 
of the limits of the U.S., & wished a Settlement to be made in 
the most southern part of the back Country between the 
whites & Indians. I informed them that I would never be 
instrumental in placing those men, who were now comparative- 
ly happy & in a state of protection, between the Indians & 
Savages on their Borders, where they would become a prey to 
both; besides I was confident the Blacks could have no motive 
for wishing such a change; for if they should prove capable of 
defending themselves ag st all their Enemies, & should preserve 
their political freedom, could they ever hope to be rec d as 
representatives in our Assemblies? Could they ever be 
treated with an equality in a country where many of their 
Colour were still held in Slavery? It would be morally 
impossible, but if possible it would be politically dangerous. 
We thus parted, but I had still a hope that the Day would 
arrive when other views of this Subject would open to the 
mind a prospect of such unbounded good to that miserable 
race, that all minor Considerations would vanish. Happily 
the Day has arrived, and I hope that the holy zeal with which 
this Business has commenced may never feel a check; for most 
fortunately for the cause of humanity, the Cause of self 
Interest has nothing to fear from its advancement. 

I laid before the World in 1804 a Letter containing a plan 
for emancipating the Blacks, a copy of which I take the 
liberty of presenting with this. 11 It is however a Subject 
distinct from the one now under contemplation. This is on 
the mode of establishing them as a free, distinct, & independent 
people. Without attempting to combat the various opinions 
that prevail on this Subject, I think it sufficient to give my 
own but I offer my Sentiments upon this great Subject with 
the utmost deference. The Almighty in that wisdom that 
Man cannot pretend to scan, has destined Africa to be the 
Country of the Blacks. They lived in a state of Nature, 
enjoying the fruits & natural productions of one of the most 
fertile regions of the Earth — till America was discovered. 
The rich mines of Silver & Gold found there induced the 
nations of Europe who possessed themsevles of these inex- 
haustible sources of Wealth after sacrificing millions of poor 
Indians, to import Africans to work their mines & cultivate 
their lands. These People have been subject to cruelties, at 
which human Nature has long shuddered. Their sufferings 
have made impressions that have roused the activity of many 
benevolent & highly distinguished Characters. The Slave 



"Political Economy founded in Justice and Humanity in a letter to a friend by W. T 
Washington, 1804. Printed by Samuel Harrison Smith. 



60 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Trade has been abolished, many humane Persons have 
liberated their Slaves, and more would follow them if such 
provision were made for their future destiny as would be likely 
to ensure a prospect of felicity. An Establishment was made 
by the English at Sierra Leone, on one of the finest rivers, & in 
the richest country in Africa. This settlement flourished till 
broken up by the French through a mistaken Jealousy. It is 
revived, & hopes of its advancement entertained. The 
liberal policy of those enlightened Characters who commenced 
that Establishment of free Blacks would doubtless induce 
them cordially to assist in extending it to the free Blacks of 
this Country, & of all others. To join those already in some 
degree established would offer advantages to each; but this 
is only under the supposition that the Settlement is to be 
considered as appertaining to not only a free but compleatly 
independent People : and in no respect whatever to be viewed 
as a Colony. If they should be settled as a Colony, they 
would be restricted by regulations to trade with particular 
nations, & would be subjected to oppressive Duties. They 
might be considered as free but not independent. In an 
establishment of this kind, where provision should be made for 
unborn Millions, every movement should be correspondent. 
Let the Sovereignty of five hundred miles square be purchased 
of the natives of Africa, by discreet and competent agents and 
let this region be recorded by our Government as a free gift 
forever to the people who may settle thereon. The price of 
purchase may perhaps be small in comparison to the immensity 
of the Object & particularly if the surrounding People be 
informed that nothing but good is contemplated. But instead 
of thousands were it to cost us millions it would be unworthy 
of the Consider", of a great & magnanimous People, who have 
not hesitated to sacrifice more than a hundred Millions in 
asserting National Principles in defence of private Rights; 
especially when this great Cause is a beneficent retribution for 
long sustained injuries inflicted on the Innocent; & to blot from 
the records of Eternity the highest stigma of humanity. 
After purchasing the Country let it be surveyed in the same 
manner as our own back Countries, & the fee simple only 
be disposed of by degrees that the Settlers may be kept 
compact, and be thereby more capable of defending them- 
selves & their flocks from the incursions of the Savages 
& from the beasts of the wilderness. A form of republican 
Govern*, would be prepared for them — and they ought for a 
while to be protected by a due force. Every Advantage should 
be accorded to them, that an orderly & reasonable people 
could desire. Public Schools & places of worship should be 
established. Whatever would tend to their advancement in 



1920.] W. Thornton and Negro Colonization. 61 

this world, & preparation for the next should be solicitously 
fostered — and if with all our Care such a people should be 
produced as might reasonably be expected to arise from such 
preparatory Steps, they would bless the humble Instruments 
of this great work; — for when the surrounding Nations of 
Africa now wrapt in miserable Ignorance should incline to join 
their emancipated Brethren they would fjnd them truly 
emancipated — not from the chains of Slavery alone, but from 
the thraldom of the Mind. They would find them enjoying 
the light of Christianity — and able to instruct their fellow men 
in the precepts of divine wisdom. Thus would Slavery, the 
darkest stain on Christian Professors, be finally rendered 
subservient to the work of heaven & the poor Africans be in a 
manner repaid for the long sufferings of their unhappy 
children. The wilderness would flourish in Arts, Agriculture 
& Science, their Ports would be open to the whole world, the 
Native African would be taught the principles of Christianity 
& be happy; thus millions unnumbered in singing halelujahs 
to our God, would bless the Children of the West! 

W: T: 



62 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 



AN EARLY ACCOUNT 

OF THE ESTABLISHMENT 

OF JESUIT MISSIONS IN AMERICA 



BY HENRY F. DEPUY 



FEW subjects in American history have had more 
careful study from eminent scholars both historically 
and bibliographically than the Jesuit missions in 
North America. The Jesuits were by no means the 
first mssionaries to the new world, but they had a 
system of reports to the head of the order and many of 
these reports were printed for public distribution. 
These reports from the fact that they contain des- 
criptions of the country and its inhabitants are among 
the most important sources of our early history. It 
is therefore with good reason that these books and 
anything relating to the Jesuit missions have been 
sought with avidity by historians, libraries and collec- 
tors. The discovery of hitherto unknown books or 
manuscripts relating to these Missions is today an 
event of importance both historically and bibliograph- 
ically. It is the purpose of this paper to call attention 
to an authoritative source of information as to the 
Jesuit missions till now almost entirely unknown to 
American investigators — the Life of Francisco de 
Borja, the third General of the Jesuits, written by 
Father Ribadeneyra and printed in Madrid in 1592. 
The complete title and collation of this book is: 

Vida del P. Francisco de Borja, que fue Duque de Gandia, y 
despues Religisos y III. General dela Compania de Iesvs. 
Escrita por el P. Pedro de Ribadeneyra de la misma Compania 
Dirigida al Catolico Rey Don Felipe II nuestro Senor. [cut] 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 63 

Con privilegio real En Madrid, En Casa de'P. Madrigal. 
Ano de 1592. Esta tassada en papel en cinco Reales, y 19 
mrs. 

Quarto; ff [12], 237 [3]; 193 x 140 mm. 

Father Pedro de Ribadeneyra, the author, was born 
in Toledo, November the first, 1527, and died at 
Madrid on the twenty-second of September, 1611. 
He served in several important posts in the Company 
of Jesus, and besides other works was the author of 
the Lives of Loyola, Laynez, and Borgia the first 
three Generals of the Order. 

The " Vida de Borja" was first printed in Madrid in 
1592, the foregoing being the title to the first edition. 
The other editions that I have been able to trace are: 
Verdun, 1596, in French; Douai, 1596 and 1603, in 
French; Florence, 1600, in Italian; Ingolstadt, 1613, 
in German; Mentz, 1603, in Latin; Rome, 1616, in 
Italian, cited by Backer; and Antwerp, 1598; 
Mayence, 1613; Douai, 1603; Lyons, 1609, cited by 
Nicolas Antonio. These are all separate editions of 
the Life of Borgia. The three "Vidas" of Loyola, 
Laynez and Borgia appear together in several editions, 
the earliest being 1594. Perez Pastor in Bibliografia 
Madrilena, Madrid, 1891, gives the interesting infor- 
mation about this edition of 1594, that the Duke of 
Gandia, son of Francisco de Borgia, gave 1500 reals 
to assist the printing "de ce livre. " This sums up the 
bibliographical information that I have found in 
regard to the book. As to the book itself, I have not 
been able to locate a copy of any edition in any public 
library in America. The British Museum catalogue 
has two editions, Madrid 1592 (imperfect) and Mentz 
1603. 

The copy which I owned and from which the 
chapters quoted in this article are taken is now in the 
library of Mr. Henry E. Huntington. I obtained it 
through Mr. Robert Dodd, and a name on the title 
indicates that in the early part of the 19th century it 
was the property of Alfred Hennen df New Orleans. 



64 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

It contains four chapters on the establishment of 
Jesuit missions in America. They are as follows: 

"The Entrance of the Company into the West Indies, and 
the death of nine of them in Florida, Chapter VI. 

"Our men go to Peru and to New Spain, Chapter VII. 

"The Death which the heretics gave to thirty-nine of the 
company who were going to Brazil. Chapter X. 

"Concerning twelve others of the Company who likewise 
died at the hands of the heretics." Chapter XI. 

These chapters are, as far as I know, the earliest 
printed accounts of the Florida mission. . There are 
earlier accounts of the South American missions; and 
in this connection it is worthy of remark that although 
Ribadeneyra distinctly says in Chapter VI: "When 
Father Francisco was first General of the Company 
none of the Company had entered the West Indies 
which were subject to the Crown of Castile. They 
had only sent forth and scattered our men through the 
East Indies" etc. Yet it is undoubtedly a fact that 
there were Jesuit missionaries in South America prior 
to 1550. I am indebted to Mr. Eames for the three 
titles as follows: 

(1) Avisi Particolari delle Indiedi Portugallo, Roma, 1552, 
(This contains seven letters from Jesuit missionaries in Brazil. 
1549-1551.) 

(2) Novi Avisi di piu lochi de l'lndia et massime de Brasil 
receuuti quest' anno del M. D. LIII, Roma, 1553. (Contains 
eleven letters from Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, 1551-1552.) 

(3) Copia de unas Cartas de algunos padres y hermanos dela 
compania de Jesus que escrivieron dela India, Japon, y Brasil, 
[Lisbon,] 1555. (Contains four letters from Jesuit missionaries 
in Brazil written in 1555.) 

All three are in the Lenox collection of the New York 
Public Library, and all were printed before Francisco 
de Borgia became General of the Company in 1565. 

It is remarkable that in studying the history of the 
Jesuit missions scholars should have failed to consult 
the life of the General of the Order under whom they 
were established. It seems hardly credible that a 







V I DA 

DEL. P. FRANCISCO 

de Borja , que fue Duque de 
Gadia,ydefpues Religiofo y.III. 

General dela Compania de 
i e s v s. 

EfcritApor el P. Pedroje Ribadeneyra^ 
•* de Umifma Qomfiknia. 

Dirigida al Catolico Rey Don Fclipe.1 1. v 
nueftroSerior. 




CON PRIVILEGIO REjL 



EN MADRID, 

En cafa de P. Madrigal; Alio de i $ 9 2. 

£ft<} tajftido enpapel en cinco ^ale^y 19. mrj. 



-:- •---: T»- — .-- -s. »«•— « r»i. t Omit 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 65 

book of that character, which went through at least 
ten editions in twenty-four years, should be extremely 
rare. Yet no reference is made to it by Shea or 
O'Callaghan, who were both intensely interested in 
the subject, and who were both members of the Order. 
Buckingham Smith is supposed to have ransacked 
Madrid for early books and documents relating to 
Florida and evidently did not discover it. The facts 
given in the chapter on Florida are simply confirma- 
tory, though in more detail, of the account given by 
Shea in his chapter on Ancient Florida in Winsor's 
Narrative and Critical History, Volume 2. Shea cites 
as his authority a letter of Menendez dated in October 
1566, and printed in Madrid, 1710 [Winsor II, 279.] 
In fact, I have been able to learn of but one American 
reference to this book. This morning, our associate 
Mr. George Parker Winship, has called my attention 
to the fact that it was cited in 1905 in a footnote on 
p. 266 of Woodbury Lowery: "Spanish Settlements 
within the limits of the United States; Florida, 1562- 
1574." 

The story of the attempt to establish the mission in 
Florida as told by Father Ribadeneyra is well worth 
reprinting. I have had it translated by a well-known 
student of Spanish literature and give it entire. 

The Entrance of the Company into the West Indies, 
and the Death of Nine of them in Florida 

Chapter VI 

When Father Francisco was first General (of the Company) 
none of the Company had entered the West Indies, (which 
were) subject to the crown of Castile. They had only sent 
forth and scattered our men through the East Indies, and 
arrived at the gates of China, and founded houses and churches 
in Japan, with the result that is known. There were many in 
the Company to whom our Lord had given an ardent desire to 
die for him, and a particular aptitude to labor in (fol. 140a) 
the West Indies, in the same manner in which their other 
companions and brethren labored in the East Indies. And 



66 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

they implored our Lord that he might open the gates for them 
and fulfil in them his desires. And the charity and zeal for the 
glory of God our Lord, with which Father Francisco was 
burning, was so great that he had, even before he became 
General, offered up many prayers, sacrifices and penances for 
this purpose. The Lord heard them and waited (for the most 
opportune time) until the Father was appointed General, in 
order that by his hand and to his contentment he might send, 
for this enterprise, the fathers and brethren who should seem 
best to him. Almost at the same time or a little later, which 
was on May 3, 1566, he induced the Catholic King don Felipe 
to write a letter, in which, among other things, he said: on 
account of the good reports which we have of persons in the 
Company, and of the good they have done and are doing in 
these Kingdoms, I have desired that an order be given that 
some of the Company be sent to our Indies of the Atlantic 
Ocean. And in order that the necessity for such persons shall 
constantly be increased and that our Lord may be served by 
the said father's going to those parts, on account of the 
Christianity and kindness they have and because they are 
persons fit for the conversion of those natives, and on account 
of the devotion I have to the said company (fol, 141) I desire 
that some of them go to those regions. I therefore beg you and 
charge you to appoint and command 24 persons of the Com- 
pany to go to our said Indies to wherever our Council shall 
indicate to them. That they shall be learned persons of good 
life and example and such as you may judge fitting for such an 
undertaking. For besides the service which you will do to the 
Lord in this matter, I shall receive great satisfaction and I 
shall command that they be provided with everything neces- 
sary. In addition, that country to which they may go will 
receive great happiness and benefit through their arrival. 

In fulfillment of what the King commanded, father Fran- 
cisco chose some fathers of the Company for this mission. The 
first were the fathers Maestro Pedro Martinez (who was an 
Aragonese from the town of Teurel) and Juan Rogel, and the 
brother Francisco de Villareal, who left in that same year on 
July 28th for Florida, where they arrived on September 24th 
of the said year. And our Lord was pleased to receive as the 
first fruits of the Company the first one of the Company who 
set his foot on that new world. For Father Martinez in 
leaping ashore in the Floridas in order to preach and to give 
news of the Gospel to the barbarous natives who were (fol. 
141a) on the sea-shore, was beaten to the ground with the 
clubs they carried, and seizing him, half dead, they threw him 
into the sea, our Lord thus giving him as a reward for the 
hardships he had suffered in the Company in his religious and 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 67 

exemplary life, so happy a death and the grace of dying for his 
love. But this frightened neither his companions nor the 
others of his Brethren who had remained in Europe, nor did 
this death of Padre Martinez intimidate them; on the contrary 
it animated them more, knowing that they were more easily 
able to attain in Florida what they desired, which was to die 
for Christ. And so in the year 1568 Father Francisco, in 
order to continue the work they had undertaken, sent eleven 
of the Company, the Superior of whom was Father Juan 
Baptista de Segura; these were to be joined by father Rogel and 
brother Francisco or Villareal, companions of father Pedro 
Martinez, who, after the latter's death, retired to the port of 
Habana, and had already returned to Florida, whither the 
eleven fathers and brothers departed from Saulucar on March 
13, 1568. There went with them a Cacique or chief of the 
country of Florida, whom the Governor Pedro Melendez had 
brought with him from Florida to Spain. And having been 
instructed in the matters of our holy religion, (fol. 142) he 
received with great expressions of joy and happiness the 
waters of holy baptism and was called don Luys. For it was 
believed that because he was familiar with that country and a 
high personage who had many relations, that he would be able 
to help our men in the conversion of his subjects and friends, 
as he had promised to do. 

Father Baptista de Segura and seven of his companions 
having arrived in Florida (for the rest of them remained in 
Habana), they courageously penetrated the country, guided 
by don Luys, without permitting a single Spanish soldier to 
accompany them, altho many had offered to do so. They 
wore their ornaments (vestments) and whatever was necessary 
for saying mass, and some devotional books. They passed 
through great deserts and swamps, of which there are many in 
that country. Their provisions were soon exhausted and they 
had to support themselves on the herbs they found in the fields 
and on the water they found in the pools. They arrived in 
the country of don Luys, which was a considerable distance 
from the sea and from every human shelter, and was inhabited 
by naked savages. Don Luys informed them that they should 
await him in a half deserted village, and he went to another, 
where his people were, five leagues further on. (fol. 142a) And 
when the fathers had waited six days longer then had been 
agreed upon, father Baptista de Segura sent a father and one 
of the brethren to learn why he did not come and whether he 
wished that they should come to where he was. On arriving 
(whether it be because don Luys had apostatized and returned 
to his idolatries and was confused, or because he had already 
planned and plotted the wickedness), he and his relatives 



68 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

fell upon the padre and the brother and killed them. And at 
dawn of the following day, with don Luys as captain and 
guide, they fell upon and killed the rest of them, whom they 
found, all six of them, kneeling, and awaiting death with joy 
and devotion. Then they stripped them of their garments, 
stole their ornaments and altar accessories, put on the clothes 
of the dead and danced in their intoxication. Three of them 
went to open a little chest of the fathers, thinking to find some 
valuables in it. But they found in it a book of the holy Scrip- 
ture, a missal, and devotional books, rosaries, images, hair 
cloth, disciplines and a sacred crucifix, which they looked upon 
very intently, and as they looked, they fell suddenly dead. 
Those of their companions, who were present, were so wonder 
struck (fol. 143) and amazed at what they saw, that without 
touching a thing they each went their way. All this was 
seen and noted by a Spanish boy, whom the father's had with 
them, and whose life was spared because he was a boy and 
because they knew that he could not preach to them. He 
remained a captive among them for several years until the 
Lord freed him from such a barbarous, fierce nation, and he 
related what we have just told. 

Those who died there for the propagation of our holy faith 
were: father Baptista de Segura, a native of Toledo (who, 
because of his virtues and his religious life had been much 
loved in Spain by father Francisco); father Luys de Quiros, 
and the brethren Gabriel Gomez, Cauallos, Juan Baptista 
Mendez, Pedro de Linares, Christoual Redondo, and Gabriel 
de Solis. I have set down their names here in order that the 
memory of these fortunate clerics may be preserved, who in 
their zeal for souls shed their blood with such constancy and 
joy. 

And for the same reason I here wish to mention father 
Francisco Lopez, who, in the previous year, 1567, in going from 
the College of Cochin to Goa with three companions, fell into 
the hands of the moors, (fol. 143a) He was known to them on 
account of the tonsure he wore, and was importuned by them 
to forsake the faith of Jesus Christ. But as, with great 
confidence and fortitude he persevered in the love and confes- 
sion of his Lord and offered himself to every kind of torment 
and death for it, the barbarians pierced his side with a lance 
and decapitated him; and so he passed from this brief and 
miserable life to the reward of eternal happiness. Of his three 
companions, one was captured by the Moors; the other two 
disappeared. 

This was in the year 1567, in which father Francisco sent 
fathers Pedro Domenech, and Geronymo Mur to Oran to 
assist Pedro Luys de Borja, his brother, Master of the Knights 



/ 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 69 

of Montesa (who was Governor and Captain General of that 
city for King Philip, and who is now Viceroy and Captain 
General of Cataluna), and to help the soldiers and men in his 
charge in their spiritual affairs and matters appertaining to our 
ministry, as they did for some years while they were there, to 
the advantage of both soldiers and people. (Fol. 144) 

Our Men go to Peru and to New Spain 
Chapter VII 

In this year, 1567, King Philip wrote another letter to 
father Francisco, in which he said: On account of the need 
there is in the province of Peru for clerics to attend to the 
conversion and instruction of the natives and on account of the 
devotion which his majesty has for the Company, he begs and 
charges him that he order twenty monks of the Company to 
go to Peru. They are to occupy themselves in the conversion 
and instruction of the Indians, and are to build houses and 
colleges, for he will command that they be supplied with every- 
thing necessary for their journey. In fulfilment of this, in 
the same year 1567, there departed from the port of San Lucar 
on November 2, fathers Geronimo de Portillo (who goes as 
Provincial), father Antonio Alvarez (who died in Panama), 
father Maestro Luys Lopez, and father Miguel de Fuentes, 
beside the brothers Diego dq Bracamonte, Juan Garcia de 
Yanguas, Francisco de Medina and Pedro Lobet. These were 
the first of the Company to enter Peru, and they built houses, 
founded colleges and opened schools, in which were taught 
and are taught today the sciences and faculties which the 
Company is wont to teach to the great benefit of the youth and 
of the Spaniards who reside in that very extensive Kingdom, 
and of the Indians themselves, who are converted to our holy 
faith through the teaching of the fathers. 

So much was the Lord our God pleased with the going of 
these fathers and brethren of ours to Peru, and so favorable 
the beginnings of their preaching, that the Catholic King, 
don Felipe, was induced to ask the Company to send more 
people. And so on March 19, 1659, there left with don 
Francisco or Toledo (who went as Viceroy to Peru), the 
fathers Bartolome Hernandez, Juan Garcia, the Maestro 
Barzana, Hernan Sanchez, Rodrigo Alvarez, and the brothers 
Sebastian Amador, Juan de Zufiiga, Juan Gomez, Antonio 
Martinez, Juan de Casasola, Diego Ortun, Diego Martinez 
(of whom father Juan Garcia died in Panama), and afterwards 
in the year 1571, on June 8, there left for the same province of 
Peru, fathers Joseph de Acosta and Andres Lopez and brother 



I 



70 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Diego Martinez. On June 23, 1572 at the same instance and 
command of his Majesty there left for New Spain fourteen 
fathers (fol. 145) and brethren, who were the first of the 
Company who entered into that province. They took with 
them, as their Provincial, father Doctor Pedro Sanchez (who, 
having been Rector of the University of Aleald, and holding a 
chair therein, had entered the Company some years before), 
and with him were the fathers Diego Lopez, Diego de Fonseca, 
Pedro Diaz, Concha, Baca, Camargo, and the brethren Juan 
Sanchez, Mercado, Curiel, Matilla, Bartolome Larios, Lope 
Nauarro, Martin Goncalez; whom I have wished to name with 
the rest in this chapter in order that there may remain a 
memorial of the first of the Company who went to enlighten, 
with the light of the holy gospel, the souls of the dwellers in 
this new world, who were captives under the tyranny of Satan. 
These fathers and brethren having reached New Spain, settled 
in the city of Mexico, the chief city of that Kingdom, and 
afterwards were spread and scattered in other cities and 
provinces, to the great edification and benefit of the natives 
and of the Spainards who reside in it, the number of our people 
being increased every year by those who were sent thither. 

How the divine goodness has been served by the agency of 
the members of the Company in the Western Indies of Peru 
and of New Spain (fol. 145a) by helping the other clerics in 
the conversion of the heathen, and in the education of those 
already converted, and by the reformation of the customs of the 
Spanish colonists, and by the teaching of youth and by all the 
other works of charity, (all this) I do not wish to mention here, 
because it is so well known, and because it is too long for a 
brief narrative. This was the beginning and the first entry 
of the Company into the Kingdom of Peru and of New Spain, 
subject to the crown of Castile; which (Kingdoms) were, 
closed for its sons (i. e. sons of the company), until the Lord 
through the prayers of father Francisco, who was then Presi- 
dent General, opened them, as we have just related. But here, 
in Europe, the Company also extended its activities and 
founded colleges in various provinces as will be seen in the 
following chapters. 

The Death Which The Heretics Gave to Thirty-nine of 
The Company Who Were Going to Brazil 

Chapter X 

Not only did our Lord God increase the Company that we 
have on earth by increasing the number of colleges and 
founding new houses in various Provinces (as we have seen), 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 71 

but he cherished and favored it much more by peopling 
Heaven with its sons and by enriching and augmenting the 
Company of those who already enjoy the rewards of their 
victories, giving to their brethren new victories and crowns, 
as he did in the year 1570, by a notable event which I wish to 
relate here. Because it is not just that we pass in silence an 
inestimable benefit which the Company received from the 
hands of the Lord, by means of certain French heretics, who, 
in hatred of our holy Catholic faith, killed fifty-one of its sons, 
father Francisco being then President General. For one of 
the greatest fruits that the Company has reaped from the 
labor and industry of our people (who go among the heathen 
and heretics, enlightening them and converting them to our 
holy faith), has been that many of them have shed their blood 
for the very faith which they were preaching, and that they 
have confirmed (fob 152) the truth of their doctrine by their 
deaths. This has happened in many places and at different 
times. Among them is the one I here relate. Father Francis- 
co sent father Ignacio de Azeuedo, a Portuguese of the city of 
Puerto (a man no less illustrious in holiness than in blood) to 
the province of Brazil to visit and console those of the Com- 
pany who were there, and to note what their needs are to carry 
on the enterprise that had been begun, and to convert that 
barbarous people to our holy Religion. The father went 
thither and performed his duty well; then went to Rome to 
report to the General what he had done, and the extreme need 
there was in Brazil of persons to cultivate that deserted vine- 
yard, since for lack of workers, many souls were being lost. 
It seemed (fitting) to father Francisco to send father Ignacio 
de Azevedo again as Provincial to Brazil, with a goodly number 
of fathers and brethren to help him in that spiritual conquest. 
And he commissioned him to take with him from the 
provinces of Spain some who were desirous and inclined for 
that opportunity; and that he should receive others into the 
Company who may request it, if they should have a desire to 
accompany him and offer their lives to the Lord for the benefit 
and conversion of the Brazils, for there were not so many 
qualified clerics who could go to Brazil without leaving other 
enterprises of much service to our Lord, upon which they were 
now engaged. Likewise it was fitting that some of those who 
are to go should be young, in order to accustom themselves 
the more readily to the climate and to the living in the new 
country, and to learn the language of the natives. The Pro- 
vincial Azevedo brought together sixty-nine of the Company, 
in compliance with the order that he had received. He 
distributed them in three vessels: in one, called the Santiago, 
he took with him forty-four; in another went others, and as 



72 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

their Superior, father Pedro Diaz, in another went the rest. 
They left Lisbon on June 5, with Don Luys de Vasconcelos, a 
valiant Christian Knight, who with the three vessels and four 
others went as Governor of Brazil, and well pleased he was to 
have in his company so many and such clerics. They went on 
their voyage with as much good fellowship as if each one of 
the vessels were a college of the Company. They had their 
appointed hours of prayer, of examination of conscience, of 
reading at table, prayed each day their litanies and the Salve 
Regina to our Lady ; instructed the sailors, soldiers and passen- 
gers in Christian Doctrine, and preached to them, read the 
lives of the Saints and gave them (fol. 153) rosaries, images, 
beads that had been blessed, devout and profitable books 
instead of those that were not so, and which they took from 
them with kindly words. With this harmony and concord all 
the vessels reached the Island of Madeira, where it was 
necessary that the Santiago, which bore father Ignacio de 
Azevedo and his companions, had to separate from the rest, 
and went alone to the island of La Palma, one of the Canaries. 
Being obliged to leave, father Ignacio called all his companions 
and told them he believed that on that voyage there would not 
be lacking heretical corsairs who would pursue them, and for 
all that might happen it was fitting that all should be well 
prepared and resolved to die for Christ. And if, by chance, 
there should be anyone among them who should not have this 
spirit and courage, and should wish to remain with the other 
vessels, that he would be pleased that he do so. Among all 
the forty-four whom he brought, there were only four (who 
were novices and afterwards went out of the Company) who 
showed any weakness, and plainly said that as men they 
feared that danger which the father had placed before them, 
and begged him that he leave them on the island of Madeira, 
and so they remained. The rest of them offered themselves 
to any hardship and danger, and followed their Provincial; 
and they (fol. 153a) and the rest who went in the vessel, 
confessed themselves at the advice of the father before sailing 
from the port, and received the body of Christ our Lord on the 
eve of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul. The father 
distributed among them some Agnus Dei and some holy 
articles that he had brought from Rome. All prepared them- 
selves and armed themselves for any danger of death. 

Those who went with father Ignacio de Azevedo, took leave 
of the others, their brethren who remained with father Pedro 
Diaz and in the other vessel, with extraordinary tenderness 
and an abundance of tears, like those who devined that they 
were never to see each other again till the other life. And sailing 
around the Canaries their familiar conversations were about 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 73 

martyrdom, and speaking among themselves, said: O if it 
should only please God our Lord that upon this sea, we should 
meet with someone who, for the cause of the Catholic faith 
would take our lives! What a happy fate and what a joyous 
day it would be for us, and of how many and how cruel enemies 
we should free ourselves with this one enemy of our bodies! 
While engaged in these conversations, rinding themselves very 
near the port of La Palma, they saw bearing down upon them 
five French vessels, in which was Jaques Soria, a famous 
corsair, and subject of the Queen of Navarre; he and his (fol. 
154) Queen professed heresy and were capital enemies of the 
Catholics. He came in a large, powerful galleon with much 
artillery and many men. Father Ignacio, when he saw the 
danger, knew that this was what his heart had previously told 
him and what the Lord had given him to understand. And 
after encouraging his people to fight and die for the faith, 
showing them that they could not fail to gain the victory, 
either conquering their enemies or dying at the hands of the 
heretics for Jesus Christ, he drew forth a portrait of our Lady, 
painted by Saint Lucas, which he had brought from Rome, 
and turning to his companions who were singing the Litany, 
and with copious tears asking the Lord for mercy and for 
forgiveness of their sins, and with cheerful mien and courageous 
heart, said to them: Up, my dear brethren! My heart 
tells me that on this day, just as we are, we are all to go to 
dwell in Heaven with Jesus Christ, our Redeemer, and with 
the glorious Virgin Mary, his mother and all that blessed 
company. Do you not see how greatly we are favored, for 
instead of Brazil we are making port in Heaven? Let us 
pray, brethren, and bear in mind that this is the last hour that 
God gives us, to deserve and prepare ourselves to die for love 
of him. (fol. 154a) All raised their hands, and with eyes 
filled with tears raised to heaven, said in a loud voice: "Let 
it be so, Lord : may thy holy will be fulfilled in us, for we are 
all here ready to give our blood for you." To be brief, the 
heretics came and grappled with the Santiago and although 
there was some resistance and there were some deaths among 
the enemy, they boarded the ship and overpowered it. And 
when Jaques Soria learned that there were fathers of the 
Company of Jesus on board, he commanded that they be 
all killed, without sparing anyone, saying in a loud voice: 
" Kill, Kill the Papists who are going to sow false doctrine in 
Brazil." And though he had spared the lives of two secular 
clerks and other fathers of Saint Francis who had fallen into 
his hands a few days before, so great was the hatred and rage 
he had against the Jesuits (for so he called the members of the 
Company), that he did not wish to pardon any, although many 



74 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of them were young and novices. After the vessel had been 
captured Jacques himself approached with his galleon and 
cried: "Throw these dogs of Jesuits, these papists and 
enemies of ours into the sea." As soon as they heard this 
command of their captain, his heretical soldiers, (Calvinists, 
like himself) grappled with our men, and stripping them of 
their poor cassocks, and giving them many wounds, especially 
to those (fol. 155) who were priests and wore the tonsure, and 
cutting off the arms of some of them, threw them into the sea. 
But because father Ignacio de Azevedo like a valiant soldier 
of God and a priest and Captain of the others, was encouraging 
them with the image of our Lady in his hands and saying: 
"Let us die cheerfully, brethren, for the service of God and for 
the confession of his faith which these, his enemies, impugn," 
one of the heretics slashed his holy head so fiercely that it was 
cleft open to the brain. And the valiant priest without 
withdrawing nor moving from the spot awaited the blow; and 
there they gave him three lance thrusts, so that he fell, saying 
in a loud voice: "May men and angels be my witness that I 
die in defence of the holy Roman Church and all that it 
confesses and teaches." And turning to his companions and 
embracing them with singular charity and cheerfulness, he 
said: "Children of my heart, have no fear of death; be 
grateful for the mercy which God shows you in giving you the 
fortitude to die for Him, and since we have so faithful a witness, 
and so liberal a remunerator, let us not be faint-hearted nor 
weak to fight the battles of the Lord. " And having said these 
words, he expired. The heretics attempted to wrest from his 
hands the image of our Lady, but were unable to do so. 
Brother Benito de Castro, who, bearing a crucifix in his hand 
and showing it, said : "lama Catholic and son of the Roman 
Church," him they pierced with three shots of an arquebus. 
And seeing that he was still upright and continuing in his 
confession, they gave him many sword-thrusts, and before he 
expired, they cast him into the sea. Another brother, named 
Manuel Alvarez, who was burning with living flames for the 
love of Gd and desired to die for him, and who rebuked the 
heretics for their blindness, him they wounded in the face, and 
being stretched on the ground, they broke his legs and arms. 
They did not kill him, in order that he might suffer greater 
pain, and he, turning his peaceful eyes upon his brethren, said : 
"Envy me, I beg you, brethren, and do not pity me, for I 
confess that I never deserved of God so much good as he does 
me in these torments and this death. Fifteen years I have 
been in the Company, and for ten years I have wished and 
prepared myself for this voyage to Brazil and with this happy 
death I consider myself well rewarded by God and the 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 75 

Company for all my services." And breathing his last breath, 
they cast him into the sea. And because they found two 
brethren kneeling in prayer before the images which they 
(the heretics) so hated, they attacked them with diabolical 
rage and fury, breaking the skull of (fol. 156) one of them with 
the pommel of a sword, and scattering his brains, so that he 
fell dead. This brother's name was Bias Ribero. The other 
brother, who was named Diego de Fonseca, received such a 
dagger-thrust in the mouth that it severed his tongue, and 
crushed his jaw-bone. And father Diego de Andrada (who, 
father Azevedo being dead, was the chief and head of the rest), 
because they saw that he was a priest and had confessed some 
of his companions, and was encouraging them, saying: "Pre- 
pare your souls, my brethren, for your redemption is close at 
hand, " him, after giving him many stabs, they cast, still living, 
into the sea. While this was happening two of the brethren 
named Gregorio Escrivano and Alvaro Mendez were sick in 
their beds, and though they might have concealed their fear 
and remained quiet, yet with the desire they had of dying for 
Christ, they arose as best they could and putting on their 
cassocks, with bare feet and half naked, they joined their 
brethren, that they might not lose so good an opportunity, 
and so they died with them. The heretics had carried another 
brother named Simon de Acosta to the galleon of Jaques, 
thinking that he was the son of some gentleman or titled 
personage, for he had this appearance and was only 18 years 
old, and of good manners. Jaques called him aside and asked 
him whether he also (fol. 156a) belonged to the Jesuit priests. 
And though by denying it he could have escaped with his life, 
he would not, but rather confessed that he was a companion in 
religion and a brother of those who died for the Catholic, 
Apostolic and Roman faith. This so enraged Jaques that he 
had him beheaded and cast into the sea. In this manner the 
heretics, on account of their hatred and abhorrence of our holy 
religion, killed thirty-nine fathers and brethren of our Com- 
pany. It is not right that we should keep silent as to their 
names, for they are written in the book of life. They were: 
the Provincial Ignacio de Azevedo, Diego de Andrada, Antonio 
Suarez, Benito de Castro, Juan Fernandez de Lisboa, 
Francisco Alvarez Covillo, Domingo Hernandez, Manuel 
Alvarez, Juan de Mayorga, Aragonese; Alonso de Valera, of 
the Kingdom of Toledo, Gonzalo Enriquez Diacono, Juan 
Fernandez de Braga, Alexo Delgado, Luis Correa of Evora, 
Manuel Rodriguez de Halconete, Simon Lopez, Manuel 
Hernandez, Alvaro Mendez, Pedro Munoz, Francisco Magal- 
lanes, Nicolas Diney de Verganza, Gaspar Alvarez, Bias 
Ribero de Braga, Antonio Hernandez de Montemayor, 



76 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Manuel Pacheco, Pedro de Fontaura, Simon de Acosta, 
Andrez Gonzalez (fol. 157) de Viana, Amaro Vaz, Diego Perez 
de Mizca, Juan de Baeza, Marcos Caldera, Antonio Correa del 
Puerto, Hernan Sanchez of the province of Castile, Gregorio 
Escrivano of Logrofio, Francisco Perez Godoy of Torrijos, 
Juan de Zafra of Toledo, Juan de San Martin, native of Illescas 
and Estevan Zurayre Vizcaino. The latter was a very artless 
man, and when he left. Plasencia for this voyage he said to 
father Joseph de Acosta, who was his confessor, that he was 
going cheerfully to Brazil, because he was certain that he was 
to die a martyr. And being asked how he knew it, he replied 
that God had revealed it to him. So that of forty of the 
Company who were in that vessel, one man alone, Juan Sanchez 
escaped death, and it was in this manner. When the heretics 
separated the men, putting on one side those who were to be 
killed and on the other those who were to be spared, they 
examined their hands and garments. And when they saw 
that the brother was young, that his hands were dirty and 
callous and that he wore a short beggarly jacket, they asked 
him whether he was the cook, he answered yes, which was the 
truth. They therefore kept him to make use of him in the 
kitchen (fol. 157a) and he remained with them until they 
returned to France, where our Lord freed him of their control, 
that he might be a witness and relate to us what we have here 
told of the death of his companions, although not he alone, 
but many others were present and afterwards gave an account 
of all that had happened. But in order that the number 
should be exact, and that there should be forty crowns for the 
forty of the company who had entered into the vessel with the 
purpose of dying for Jesus Christ, in place of this brother Juan 
Sanchez, who escaped, the Lord gave us another who was 
called San Juan, a virtuous and upright youth, and nephew of 
the Ship's captain. He took such a liking to the brethren of 
the Company, that he asked to be admitted to it. And 
although father Ignacio did not receive him, he never left his 
side, nor did he cease to take part in the prayers and penance 
of the brethren, and he considered himself as one of them, 
and as such was treated. At the time when the heretics 
separated those of the company from the secular persons, he 
passed over to their side (i. e. of the fathers), and without a 
word allowed himself to be lead to death, in order, by this 
means, to enter into the Company of the blessed in Heaven. 
So that if we count San Juan as one of the Company, there 
were forty (fol. 158) who died. And if we do not consider 
him as such (for he had not yet been admitted) there were 
thirty-nine. All the rest of them the heretics spared. For 
they were all corsairs and heretics; in so far as they were 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 77 

corsairs they wished to rob and not kill ; and in so far as they 
were heretics, to kill and rob those who made any resistance. 
With these they wage a war with fire and swords (as they say) 
and proclaim that, because of them, their false gospel no 
longer prevails and rules in the world. 



Concerning Twelve Others op the Company Who 
Likewise Died at The Hands of The Heretics 

Chapter XI 

We must not forget the other fathers and brethren whom we 
left on the Island of Madeira with father Pedro Diaz, for they 
are no less worthy of memory than those who are already gone. 
But passing over in silence the hardships which they and those 
in the other vessel suffered in their voyage (which was long 
and dangerous), let us mention only what is to our purpose. 
After having been fifteen months at sea, and on the Islands of 
Barlovento, San Domingo and Cuba, with frightful storms 
and (fol. 158a) many dangers, and arriving at the Island of 
Terceiva, fourteen of the Company with father Diaz were 
taken on the leading ship of the Governor, don Luys dfi 
Vasconcelos. The latter was obliged to leave the other ships 
he had, on account of the many men who had left him and 
others who had died, and withthose who were left manned one 
vessel, with which he sailed, on Sept. 6, 1571, from the Island 
of Terceira for Brazil. After sailing with prosperous winds 
for eight days, they suddenly discovered five vessels, four 
French (commanded by Juan Cadavillo, a Frenchman and 
great heretic, and as cruel an enemy of the Catholics as 
Jaques Soria) and one English, and all of them heretical 
corsairs and capital enemies of our holy religion. Don Luys 
at once recognized his danger and exhorted his men to fight 
valiantly for their faith and their lives. Those of the Com- 
pany he admonished with earnestness to make their peace with 
God if they wished to fight well and hoped to be favored. 
The Governor confessed first, and after him the soldiers and 
the others, and there was time to do it, for night had inter- 
vened a short time after our ship discovered thoseof theenemy. 
But in the morning, at dawn (fol. 159) the heretical corsairs 
fell upon them, and though they met with great resistance and 
lost many men, they boarded the vessel and overcame it. 
In the battle, which was very bitterly contested, they first 
killed the Governor, who, fighting valiantly, fell pierced by 
two shots, and received many other wounds, and, without 
being recognized by his enemies, was stripped and cast into the 



78 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

sea. The Captain having been killed, the enemies overcame 
the ship and took possession of it, and entering with great fury 
into a little cabin where father Castro was hearing the penance 
of the master of the vessel, who was severely wounded and 
about to die. On seeing him (father Castro) they recognized 
that he was a Catholic priest and that he was adminstering 
the sacrement of the confession, which they so much hated. 
They fell upon him with great rage and killed him. They did 
the same to father Pedro Diaz, who up to that time had like- 
wise been confessing, and who had hastened up to where father 
Castro and brother Caspar Goes were. As the latter was a 
youth of tender years the father had ordered him not to part 
from his side. The other eleven who remained alive 
encouraged one another to be constant and to die cheerfully 
for the Catholic faith. The heretics, after (fol. 159a) striking 
them with their fists, insulting and maltreating them, bound 
their hands behind their backs and locked them up in a 
compartment and placed guards over them. But because 
brother Miguel Aragones, as his hands were being tied, 
uttered a groan of pain (for he was badly wounded in the arm) 
they threw him, and another brother who was by his side, 
into the sea. The rest remained bound that night, listening 
to the greatest insults and reproaches, and to frightful blas- 
phemies against God our Lord and his Church, as they were 
uttered by those infernal furies. Day having come, the first 
prayer the heretics made was to condemn to death all Jesuits, 
their enemies, for so they call them and for such they hold 
all members of the Company. At first they resolved to hang 
them all to the yards of the vessel, but afterwards, thnking 
they might get great wealth of gold and silver from them, 
(which they thought they were bringing to Brazil to adorn the 
Churches), they gave up their plan, until, realizing that they 
were disappointed, they attacked them with the greatest 
barbarity, insulted them and beat them with clubs, calling 
them dogs, thieves, Papists (fol. 160) and enemies of God. 
Those of the Company neither defended themselves, nor did 
they avoid death, but meek as lambs they permitted them- 
selves to be cast into the sea. Five of the fortunate brethren 
who knew how to swim, came together, and being in the water 
encouraged one another to die, until strength and breath 
failing them, they said: "Tibi soli peccaui," and three of 
them expired. Of the other two, one, named Diego Hernandez 
swam so long till he reached one of the smaller French vessels 
which was lagging behind, and into which he was taken up and 
sheltered by the will of the Lord. The other, who was named 
Sebastian Lopez remained in the sea that night, which was 
very dark and much rain was falling. But seeing a light on 



1920.] Jesuit Missions in America. 79 

one of the vessels about half a league off, he followed it till he 
reached it, and entreated those on the vessel to help him and 
take him on board. But he found only cruel words and 
worse deeds (as those of the heretics are wont to be) and as a 
last remedy he went to one of the barks or small boats, and 
into it he was received by a man who, although a heretic and 
an enemy, was not so cruel nor furious as the rest, in a word, 
was more human. The latter received him and hid him in a 
corner, giving him (fol. 160a) something to eat and some 
clothing. Twelve men died on this ship: father Pedro Diaz, 
father Francisco de Castro, and the following brethren: 
Alonso Hernandez, Gaspar Gois, Andres Pays, Juan Alvarez, 
another Pedro Diaz, Fernando Alvarez, Miguel Aragones, 
Francisco Paulo, Pedro Hernandez, Diego Carvallo, and the 
two who escaped by swimming( from whom and from others 
this story was learned) were named Sebastian Lopez and 
Diego Hernandez, as we have said. 

This time the heretics were not satisfied with shedding the 
innocent blood of so many servants of God because they 
defended and preached the holy Catholic faith, but they also 
showed their rage and fury against God himself and against 
his Saints. For, having found some relics and images of 
Saints and Agnus Dei and consecrated beads and other 
articles of devotion (which our men carried with them for 
their comfort and consolation and to awaken the piety of the 
faithful in Brazil) the heretics showed their impiety and hatred 
toward them by dragging them about, stamping upon them 
and subjecting them to all the contempt and insult that they 
were able, finally casting them into the sea. So that by his 
own works we may know who he is who guides them and 
induces them to commit such impious, cruel and grievous 
acts. (fol. 161) 

I have dwelt upon this narrative because the martyrdom of 
these fifty-one fathers and brethren of the Company is such an 
exemplary matter for all who read it. And for those of the 
Company, especially, it is an inestimable benefit which we 
have received from the Lord, and a great incentive to imitate 
those who have gone before us, and to seek new opportunites 
to increase and extend throughout the world the light of the 
holy Gospel and to wrest from the claws of Satan the souls 
which Christ our Lord redeemed with his blood, although it 
be at the cost of our own and with the loss of all that the 
world promises and cannot fulfil. But it is now time that we 
again take up the thread of our story and continue what we 
have begun concerning the life of father Francisco. The 
latter, when he received the news of the happy death of those 
his doughty warriors and blessed sons, although on the one 



80 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

hand he felt great sorrow because Brazil had need of them, 
on the other he rejoiced much more on seeing that, in his time, 
the Lord deigned to accept this offering and sacrifice of blood 
which the Company offered him. And with great tenderness 
and feeling he commended the dead and praised their virtues 
and supplicated the Lord that he should give grace to those 
who remained. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 81 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS, 1690-1820. 



Part XII; PENNSYLVANIA (A-N) 



COMPILED BY CLARENCE S. BRIQHAM 

The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found in 
the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give a 
complete check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating files to be found in various libraries, no attempt 
is made to list every issue. In the case of common papers 
which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer files 
are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress " Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by States and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations 



82 American Antiquarian Society. [Apr., 

except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 
1820. 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about fifteen installments, after which the material will be 
gathered into a volume, with an historical introduction, ac- 
knowledgement of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive 
index of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each in- 
stallment will not be made, nor will the names of papers or 
printers be indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material 
will be held in type until after the printing of the final in- 
stallment, the compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 83 



PENNSYLVANIA 

[Allentown] Friedensbothe, 1812-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 28, 1812, by Joseph 
Ehrenfried and Co. [Heinrich Ebner], with the title of 
"Der Friedens-Bothe und Lecha County Anzeiger." 
With the issue of Oct. 6, 1814, the title was altered to 
"Der Friedens-Bothe und Lecha, Northampton, Bucks 
und Montgomery Counties Anzeiger." With the issue 
of Apr. 6, 1815, Heinrich Ebner became sole publisher. 
With the issue of Oct. 3, 1816, the word " Wochentlichen" 
was added to the title before "Anzeiger. " The paper 
was continued until after 1820. 

Lehigh Co. Hist, Soc, Allentown, has Sept. 28, 1812- 
Dec. 29, 1820. Easton Pub. Lib. has Mar. 7, 1816; Jan. 
23, Mar. 27, Aug. 14, Sept. 25, Oct. 9, 16, Nov. 6, 20- 
Dec. 4, 18, 1817; Jan. 7, 14, 28, Feb. 4, Mar. 4, 18, Apr. 
8, 22, 29, May 27, June 10, 25, July 16, Aug. 6, 27, 1819. 
Harvard has Aug. 27 -Sept. 17, 1819. 

[Allentown] Lehigh Centinel, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in June 1817, by Charles L. 
Hiitter. On Nov. 6, 1820, Charles L. Hutter retired and 
the paper, was published by his father, Christian J. Hutter, 
and was so continued until after 1820 ("History of Lehigh 
County", 1914, vol. 1, p. 279). No copy located. 

[Allentown] Northampton Adverteiser, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 20, 1808, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of June 11, 1808, 
no. 17, published by Carl Briickmann, with the title of 
"Northampton Adverteiser und Allentaun Gazette." 
The last issue located is that of Sept. 8, 1809, no. 70. 

Schwenkfelder Hist. Lib., Pennsburg, has June 11, 
July 30, Aug. 20, Sept. 10-24, Oct. 15, Dec. 30, 1808; 
Mar. 10, Apr. 7, June 23, July 28, Sept. 1, 8, 1809. 



84 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Allentown] Unabhaengige Republikaner, 1810- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established July 27, 1810, by Christian 
Jacob Hiitter, with the title of "Der Unabhaengige 
Republikaner.' ' With the issue of July 24, 1812, the 
publisher became Carl L. Hiitter, and the title changed 
to "Der Unabhaengige Republikaner und Lecha County 
Freiheits Freund." With the issue of Apr. 15, 1814, the 
title reverted to "Der Unabhaengige Republikaner" and 
the name of the publisher was given in the imprint as 
Carl Ludwig Hiitter. With the issue of Nov. 2, 1820, 
Georg Hanke became the publisher and continued the 
paper after 1820. 

Lehigh Co. Hist. Soc. has July 27, 1810 -Dec. 28, 1820. 
Mr. Reuben Kolb, Easton, has July 27, 1810 -July 16, 
1813. 

[Beaver] Crisis, 1813-1816. 

Weekly. Established May 22, 1813, by J[ames] & 
A[ndrew] Logan with the title of " The Crisis. " The title 
was enlarged, in May 1814, probably, to "The Crisis, or 
Beaver Gazette," and A. Logan became sole publisher. 
Issues of Dec. 25, 1813, Apr. 30, 1814, Sept. 30, 1815 and 
Apr. 18, 1816 are mentioned in F. S. Reader's "History of 
Newspapers of Beaver County," 1905, p. 13. In 1816, 
the title was changed to "The Beaver Gazette," which 
see. 

A. A. S. has: 
1815. Apr. 22. 

Beaver Gazette, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Crisis, or Beaver Gazette." The 
earliest issue located with the new title of "The Beaver 
Gazette" is that of Jan. 4, 1817, vol, 4, no. 31, published 
by Afndrew] Logan. An issue of Apr. 4, 1818 is mentioned 
in F. S. Reader's "History of Newspapers of Beaver 
County," p. 14, where it is also stated that on Sept. 1, 
1818, this paper was succeeded by the "Western Argus." 
A. A. S. has: 
1817. Jan. 4. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 85 

[Beavertown] Minerva, 1807-1811. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 4, 1807, by John Berry, 
with the title of " Minerva. " The issue of Dec. 19, 1808, 
was printed for the publisher by Joseph Israel. The 
records of the Beaver Council mention John Berry as a 
printer as late as January 1811 (see "History of Beaver 
County," 1888, p. 272, and F. S. Reader, " History of 
Newspapers of Beaver County, " 1905, pp. 8-11). 
No copy located. The issue of Nov. 4, 1807, was owned 
by Abram Bestwick of New Brighton, Pa., m 1905. 

[Beaver] Western Argus, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 1, 1818, by James Logan, 
with the title of "Western Argus," and continued until 
after 1820 (J. H. Bausman, "History of Beaver County," 
1904, vol. 1, no. 456). 

[Beaver-Town] Western Cabinet, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established by Joseph W. White, Sept. 28, 
1811, with the title o£ "Western Cabinet." The last 
issue located is that of Feb. 24, 1812, vol. 1, no. 21. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 28, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1811. Sept. 28. 
Oct. 7, 21. 

1812. Feb. 24. 

Bedford Gazette, 1805-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 21, 1805, by Charles 
M'Dowell, with the title of "The Bedford Gazette," and 
so continued until after 1820. 

Penn. State Lib. has Sept. 21, 1805 -Oct. 26, 1808; 
Nov. -Dec. , 1820. Bedford Gazette Office has 
Sept. 28, Oct. 26, 1805; Oct. 27, 1807. Harvard has 
Aug. 14, Sept. 12, 1810; Aug. 14, 1811. A. A. S. has: 
1808. July 12. 
1810. June 27. 

Aug. 15, 29, 



86 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Bedford] True American, 1813-1820-h 

Weekly. Established in July 1813, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue noted, that of Nov. 9, 1814, vol. 2, 
no. 16, published by Thomas R. Gettys, with the title of 
"The True American " (" History of Bedford, Somerset 
and Fulton Counties", 1884, p. 228.) The issues of Aug. 
7, 1816 and Feb. 3, 1820 have the same title and publisher. 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 7, 1816. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 
Feb. 3, 1820. 

[Bellefonte] American Patriot, 1814-1817. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 15, 1814, by Alexander 
Hamilton, with the title of " American Patriot." The 
last issue was that of Sept. 22, 1817 (J. B. Linn, " History 
of Centre and Clinton Counties," 1883, p. 53). No 
copy located. 

[Bellefonte] Independent Republican, 1816-1817. 

"In September, 1816, Hugh Maxwell removed 'The 
Advocate of the Union' from Mifflinburg, in Union 
County, the name of which he changed to the 'Indepen- 
dent Republican.' He continued this paper not quite a 
year at Bellefonte, and then removed to Lancaster" 
(J. B. Linn, "History of Centre and Clinton Counties," 
1883, p. 56) . No copy located. 

Bellefonte Patriot, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 18, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 24, 1818, 
vol. 1, no. 15, published by W[illiam] Brindle, with the 
title of "Bellefonte Patriot. " Continued until after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 24, 1818. Lib. Congress has 
Apr. 5, 1819. Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 16, 1819. 

Berwick Independent American, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 2, 1818, by William 
Carothers, with the title of "The Berwick Independent 
American." A few of the earliest numbers were pub- 
lished in Nescopeck, directly across the river from 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 87 

Berwick (J. H. Battle, "History of Columbia and 
Montour Counties," 1887, pt. 2, p. 116). In the issue of 
June 2, 1821, vol. 3, no. 52, in the possession of the 
American Antiquarian Society, Carothers states "We 
have now completed the third year's publication. " No 
earlier copy located. 

[Bethany] Wayne County Mirror, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 7, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 28, 
1818, vol. 1, no. 4, published by Manning & Loomis 
(James Manning and Leonard Loomis), with the title of 
"Wayne County Mirror." In May or June, 1818, the 
name of the publishing firm became J. Manning & Co. 
The paper was continued until after 1820. 

Wyoming Hist. Soc. has Mar. 28, Apr. 25, 1818. 
N. J. Hist. Soc. has June 27, Sept. 26, Oct. 10, Nov. 14, 
Dec. 12, 1818; Jan. 16, 1819. 

[Bristol] Aurora, 1799, see under Philadelphia. 

[Brownsville] American Telegraph, 1814-1818. 

Weekly. Established late in 1814 by J[ohn] Bouvier. 
The only issue located, that of July 9, 1817, is numbered 
vol. 3, no. 140, and bears the title of "American Tele- 
graph." In April 1818, Bouvier removed to Uniontown, 
where he united the paper with "The Genius of Liberty." 
A. A. S. has: 
1817. July 9. 

Brownsville Gazette, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. The issue of Jan. 14, 1809, was published by 
John Berry (Ellis, "History of Fayette County," 1882, 
p. 437). Early in 1810, the paper was published by 
William Campbell (Thomas, "History of Printing," 
ed. 1874, vol. 2, p. 301). No copy located. 

[Brownsville] Western Palladium, 1812. 

A paper with this title existed in 1812 (Ellis, "History 
of Fayette County, " 1882, p. 437). No copy located. 



88 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Brownsville] Western Register, 1817-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established early in 1817 by Robert Fee, and 
continued until after 1820. The issue of Mar. 22, 1819, 
is numbered vol. 2, no. 50, and bears the title of "The 
Western Register and Brownsville Gazette. " 
A. A. S. has: 
1819. Mar. 22. 

[Brownsville] Western Repository, 1810. 

Weekly. Published in 1810 by James Alexander 
(Thomas, "History of Printing, " ed. 1874, vol. 2, p. 301, 
and Ellis, "History of Fayette County," 1882, p. 437). 
No copy located. 

[Bustleton] Porcupine's Gazette, 1799, see under Philadelphia. 

Butler Centinel, 1820 +. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 7, 1820, judging from the 
date of an issue of Nov. 18, 1820, vol. 1, no. 7, published 
by Moses & John Sullivan. 

Mr. Peter Duffy, Butler, Pa., has Nov. 18, 1820. 

Butler Palladium, 1818-1820. 

Weekly. Established June 20, 1818, by John 
Galbraith, with the title of "The Butler Palladium and 
Republican Star. " The last issue located is that of Mar. 
27, 1919, vol. 1, no. 41, and the paper was evidently 
succeeded in 1820 by the Butler Centinel. 

Mr. Peter Duffy, Butler, Pa., has Mar. 27, 1819. 

A. A. S. has: 

1818. June 20, 27. 

[Carlisle] American Volunteer 1814- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Sept. 15, 1814, by W[illiam] B. 
& J[ames] Underwood, with the title of "American 
Volunteer. " With the issue of Sept. 8, 1819, the name of 
James Underwood appeared in the imprint as sole 
publisher, but with Sept. 23, 1819, the firm name reverted 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 89 

to W. B. & J. Underwood, and was so continued until 
after 1820. 

Hamilton Lib., Carlisle, has Sept. 15, 1814 -Dec. 28, 
1820. Dickinson College, Carlisle, has Sept. 15, 1814- 
Sept. 5, 1816; Sept. 16, 1819-Dec. 28, 1820. 

[Carlisle] Cumberland Register, 1805-1814. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 20, 1805, by Archibald 
Loudon, with the title of "The Cumberland Register." 
With the issue of Sept. 20, 1809, the title was altered to 
• "Cumberland Register." The last issue located is that 
of Sept. 15, 1813, vol. 8, no. 416, although an issue of 
June 22, 1814 is mentioned in the ''History of Cumberland 
and Adams Counties," 1886, pt. 2, p. 189. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 20, 1805-Sept. 15, 1813. 
Hamilton Lib., Carlisle, has Sept. 20, 1805-Sept. 13, 
1809. A. A. S. has: 
1810. July 11, 18. 

[Carlisle] Eagle, 1799-1802. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 3, 1799, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 10, 1800, 
vol. 1, no. 50, published by John P. Thompson, with the 
title of " The Eagle, or, Carlisle Herald. " The only other 
issue located, that of Mar. 19, 1800, is a fragment with the 
volume numbering and part of the title torn off. This 
paper was succeeded by the "Carlisle Herald, "in the early 
issues of which Thompson advertised in order to obtain 
payment from his subscribers. Thompson established 
"The Frederick-town Herald" June 19, 1802. 

Hamilton Lib., Carlisle, has Mar. 19, 1800. A. A. S. 
has: 

1800. Sept. 10". 

Carlisle Gazette, 1785-1817. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 10, 1785, by Kline & 
Reynolds (George Kline and George Reynolds), with the 
title of ''The Carlisle Gazette, and the Western Repository 
of Knowledge." With the issue of Aug. 3, 1791, George 



90 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Kline became sole publisher. The issues of Dec. 11, 18, 
1793, and Jan. 1, 1794, because of scarcity of paper, were 
printed in small folio and bore the abbreviated title "The 
Carlisle Gazette." With the issue of Jan. 8, 1794, the 
title was changed to "Kline's Carlisle Weekly Gazette." 
From scarcity of paper, the issues from Jan. 22 to Mar. 19, 
1794 again were printed on smaller paper and bore the 
title of "The Carlisle Gazette," but with Mar. 26, 1794, 
the new title of "Kline's Carlisle Weekly Gazette" was 
resumed. With the issue of Aug. 3, 1810, the title was 
changed to " Kline's Weekly Carlisle Gazette. " The last 
issue located is that of Oct. 23, 1817, vol. 33, no. 1710. 
In November 1817, the paper was consolidated with the 
"Spirit of the Times" under a new title of the "Spirit of 
the Times & Carlisle Gazette," which see. Kline died 
Nov. 19, 1820, being described as the "former editor of 
the Carlisle Gazette. " 

Lib. Congress has Aug. 10, 1785 -July 30, 1788; June 9, 
1790; Jan. 7, 1801. Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, 
has Aug. 8, 1787 -Oct. 23, 1817. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Aug. 3, 1791 -Dec. 25, 1793. Harvard has Mar. 4, June 
3-24, July 15, 29, Sept. 2, 1795; Apr. 13, May 11, 18, 
June 8, 22, July 6 -Oct, 12, 26, Nov. 2, 23, 1796 -Mar. 22, 
Apr. 5-19, 1797. Hamilton Lib., Carlisle, has Jan. 7, 
1801 -Dec. 28, 1804. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 16, 1793. 
Colgate Lib., Hamilton,. has Oct. 26, Nov. 23, Dec. 14, 
1803. Washington Co. Hist. Soc, Washington, Pa., 
has Dec. 19, 1806. Penn. State Lib. has Oct. 8, 1813; 
Apr. 29, 1814. A. A. S. has: 
1786. Dec. 27. 



1788. 


Jan. 16. 


1793. 


Nov. 27. 


1794. 


Feb. 5. 




Suppl. Feb. 5. 




July 9. 




Dec. 17. 


1810. 


June 29. 




July 13, 20, 27. 




Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 



1920.] Pennsylvania, 91 

[Carlisle] Kline's Carlisle Gazette, see Carlisle Gazette. 

Carlisle Herald, 1802-1820+. 

Weekly. Established June 30, 1802 ; judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 11, 1802, 
vol. 1, no. 7, published by William Alexander, Jun., with 
the title of " Carlisle Herald." In July 1807, George 
Phillips was admitted to partnership, under the firm 
name of Alexander & Phillips. With the issue of Mar. 30, 
1815, the partnership was dissolved and the paper pub- 
lished by George Phillips and was so continued until after 
1820. 

Hamilton Lib., Carlisle, has Aug. 9, 1805 -May 29, 
1807; Feb. 7, 1812 -Sept. 28, 1815. Penn. State Lib. has 
July 23, 1813 -June 27, 1816. Lib. Congress has Apr. 24, 
1817. A. A. S. has: 



1802. 


Aug. 11. 


1804. 


Feb. 1, 29. 




Mar. 7, 14 


1807. 


Aug. 21. 


1811. 


Feb. 8. 


1815. 


June 22 m . 



Carlisle Patriot, 1819. 

In the "Greensburgh Gazette" of Sept. 17, 1819, is the 
following: "Died at Carlisle, Sept. 2, 1819, Mr. George 
Gangewer, editor of the German 'Carlisle Patriot', in the 
26th year of his age. " No paper with this title has been 
located. The "Carlisle Republican" of Sept. 7, 1819, 
refers to him as "Mr. George Gangewher, late editor of 
the Carlisle Patriot. " 

Carlisle Republican, 1819-1820. 

Weekly. Established May 11, 1819, by Jacob R. 
Stine, with the title of "The Carlisle Republican." It 
succeeded the "Spirit of the Times & Carlisle Gazette" 
and continued its advertisements, but adopted a new 
volume numbering. With the issue of Nov. 9, 1819, 
John M'Farland became the publisher and adopted a new 



92 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

volume numbering. The last issue located is that of 
Oct. 24, 1820, vol. 1, no. 51. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has May 11, 1819 -Oct. 24, 1820. 
Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has Nov. 23, 1819- 
Oct. 6, 1820. 

[Carlisle] Spirit of the Times, 1817-1819. 

Weekly. Removed from Shippensburg and consoli- 
dated with "Kline's Weekly Carlisle Gazette" under the 
title of "Spirit of the Times & Carlisle Gazette," The 
first issue was that of Nov. 10, 1817, vol. 1, no. 1, pub- 
lished by John M'Farland. With the issue of Aug. 17, 

1818, the title was altered to "The Spirit of the Times and 
Carlisle Gazette," but on Dec. 22, 1818, the initial "The" 
was omitted, and on Feb. 9, 1819, "and" was changed 
to " & ". The last issue with this title was that of May 4, 

1819, vol. 2, no. 78, when the title was changed to "The 
Carlisle Republican, " which see. 

H. Kellogg, Meadville, has Nov. 10, 1817 -Apr. 20, 
1819. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Dec. 8, 1817 -Apr. 27, 1819. 
Penn. State Lib. has Jan. 5, 1818. 

[Carlisle] Telegraphe, 1795-1796. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 10, 1795, by Steel and 
M'Clean (James Steel and John S. M'Clean), with the 
title of "The Telegraphe." With the issue of Feb. 16, 
1796, James Steel became sole publisher. The last issue 
located is that of May 3, 1796, vol. 2, no. 65. 

Harvard has Feb. 10, 17, Mar. 3, 10, 24, June 2, 16, 
July 14, 28, Nov. 17, 1795; Jan. 5, Feb. 16, Mar. 1, 22, 
Apr. 5, May 3, 1796. Lib. Congress has Aug. 18, 1795. 

[Carlisle] Times, 1814. 

In "Kline's Weekly Carlisle Gazette" of July 29, 1814, 
it is stated that George Kline would resume the German 
newspaper "The Times", of which he gave two specimen 
numbers a short time before. No copy, however, has 
been located. The Lancaster " Volksf reund " in 1816 



- 



..-.■:. 




__, ::--:*. _ 




___ .- . — - 



x. =. : 



.•; i. 




94 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Chambersburg] Franklin Repository, 1796-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 21, 1796, by Dover & 
Harper (Andrew Dover and Robert Harper), with the 
title of " The Franklin Repository. " It succeeded " The 
Chambersburg Gazette," continuing its advertisements, 
but adopting a new volume numbering. Dover retired in 
about a year, and Robert Harper published the paper 
until 1800, when he transferred it to his brother George K. 
Harper, who continued it until after 1820. 

Franklin Repository office, Chambersburg, has a file, 
although not examined by the compiler. Harvard has 
May 5, 19 -June 2, 23 -July 14, 28 -Aug. 18, Sept. 1-22, 
Oct. 6-27, Nov. 17, 1796 -Mar. 30, Apr. 13, 20, 1797. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 1799, photo. Lib. Congress 
has Nov. 20, 1800; Mar. 26, 1801; Apr. 20, 1811 -Dec. 29, 
1812; Mar. 15, 1814 -Dec. 24, 1815. Wilson College, 
Chambersburg, has July 31, 1804 -Apr. 9, 1805; Oct. 8, 
1805-Mar.8, 1808. .A.A.S.has: 
1801. Sept. 24. 

[Chambersburg] Franklin Republican, 1817- 1820+ . 

Weekly, Established in May 1817, by John Sloan, and 
continued by him until after 1820. Apr. 13, 1819 is num- 
bered Vol. 2, No. 102. 

Penn. State Lib. has April 13, May 25, June 22, 1819. 

Chambersburg Gazette, 1793-1796. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 12, 1793, by Robert 
Harper, with the title of "The Chambersburg Gazette," 
The last issue with this title was that of Apr. 7, 1796, vol. 
3, no. 31, and on Apr. 21, it was succeeded by "The 
Franklin Repository/' published by Robert Harper and 
Andrew Dover. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 17, 1793. Harvard has Feb. 12 - 
Mar. 12, June 11, 18, July 30, Aug. 20, Sept. 3, Nov. 19, 
1795; Feb. 18, Mar. 17- Apr. 7, 1796. A. A. S. has: 
1793. Oct. 24. 
Dec. 26. 
1795. Dec. 3"\ 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 95 

[Chambersburg] Pennsylvania Republican, 1808 - 1809. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 27, 1808, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Mar. 2, 
1808, vol. 1, no. 6, published by Richard White and 
Frederick Goeb, with the title of "Pennsylvania Republi- 
can." In a year or two, William Armor became the 
publisher, changing the title to "The Republican," which 
see. 
A. A. S. has: 
1808. Mar. 2. 

[Chambersburg] Redliche Registrator, 1813-1820+. 

Weekly. It is not known when this paper was estab- 
lished, but George K. Harper was publishing it previous 
to 1813 in connection with his English newspaper. It 
was in German and was called "Der Redliche Registra- 
tor" (I. H. M'Cauley, "Hist. Sketch of Franklin County," 
1878, p. 67). Harper sold it to Frederick W. Schoepflin, 
who announced that his initial issue would appear Dec. 
22, 1813 ("History of Franklin County," 1887, p. 253). 
Schoepflin continued the paper until after 1820. 

In a note in F. Curiiings' "Sketches of a Tour to the 
Western Country," 1810, p. 35, it is stated that a Ger- 
man newspaper was printed at Chambersburg. 

[Chambersburg] Republican, 1809-1815. 

Weekly. A continuation of the " Pennsylvania Repub- 
lican, " without change of volume numbering. The 
only issue located is that of June 26, 1810, vol. 3, no. 120, 
published by William Armor, with the title of "The 
Republican." When Armor first became the publisher, 
or when he retired, is not known. John Hershberger was 
printing at Chambersburg from 1810 to 1815, although in 
German, and is said by local historians to have been the 
publisher of this paper and to have sold it to John McFar - 
land in 1815. McFarland certainly started a paper 
called the "Democratic Republican" on Nov. 7, 1815. 

A. A. S. has: 

. 1810. June 26. 



96 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Chambersburg] Western Advertiser, 1790-1793. 

Weekly. Established July 14, 1790, by William 
Davison, with the title of "The Western Advertiser and 
Chambersburg Weekly Newspaper." In 1793, he ad- 
mitted Robert Harper to partnership. Davison died in 
the fall of 1793, and Robert Harper became sole publisher, 
changing the title of the paper, Sept. 12, 1793, to "The 
Chambersburg Gazette" (I. H. M'Cauley, "Hist. 
Sketch of Franklin County," 1878, p. 64). 

[Chester] Post- Boy, 1817-1820-h 

Weekly. Established Nov. 8, 1817, by Butler & 
Worthington (Steuben Butler and Eliphalet B. 
Worthington), with the title of "Post -Boy," and 
continued after 1820 (Ashmead, "History of Delaware 
Co.," 1884, p. 382). No copy located. Steuben 
Butler established "The Wyoming Herald," at Wilkes- 
barre, Sept. 18, 1818. 

[Chestnut Hill] Chesnuthiller Wochenscrift, 1790-1794. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 15, 1790, by Samuel Saur, 
with the title of "Die Chesnuthiller Wochenscrift." 
There was also a prospectus issue of Oct. 8, 1790. It was 
a paper of quarto size. The last issue located is that of 
Aug. 20, 1793, no. 138, but Seidensticker ("First Century 
of German Printing, " p. 137) says that it was removed to 
Philadelphia in 1794, where Saur continued it under the 
title of "Das Philadelphier Wochenblat. " 

Phil. Lib. Co. (Locust St.) has Oct. 8, Dec. 15, 1790- 
Aug. 13, 1793. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 20, 1793. A. 
A. S. has: 

1793. Apr. 2 m . 

[Columbia] Columbian, 1819-1820. 

Weekly. Established July 24, 1819, by William Greer, 
with the title of "The Columbian." After eighteen 
numbers had been published, it was suspended. In six 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 97 

or eight months it was revived, but publication ceased 
altogether in a few months (Ellis & Evans, "History of 
Lancaster Co.," 1883, p. 570). 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 7, 1819. 

[Columbia] Susquehanna Waterman, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 3, 1811, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Mar. 12, 
1812, vol. 1, no. 24, published by Thomas A. Wilson, 
with the title of " Susquehanna Waterman and Columbia 
Advertiser. " 
A. A. S. has: 
1812. Mar. 12. 

Connellsville Herald, 1818. 

Known through a reference in "The Reporter" of 
Washington, of Feb. 9, 1818, which quotes from the 
Connellsville Herald. 

[Danville] Columbia Gazette, 1813-1814. 

Weekly. Established by George Sweeny, Nov. 2, 1813, 
and continued for about a year (see Bell, "History of 
Northumberland County," 1891, p. 276 and Battle, 
" History of Columbia and Montour Counties," 1887, 
pt. 3, p. 67). No copy located. 

[Danville] Express, 1815-1818. 

Established by Jonathan Lodge in 1815, later published 
by Lodge and William Carothers (see D. H. B. Brower's 
"Danville," 1881, pp. 36, 70). No copy located. 

[Danville] Watchman, 1820+ . 

Established by George Sweeny in 1820 (D. H. B. 
Brower's "Danville," 1881, pp. 36, 70). No copy 
located. 

[Downington] American Republican, 1809- 1820+ . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Temperate Zone." The first issue 



98 • American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

with the new title of "The American Republican" was 
that of Aug. 1, 1809, vol. 2, no. 61, published by Charles 
Mowry. With the issue of Sept. 3, 1811, the title was 
changed to "The Downington American Republican," 
but with Aug. 3, 1813, it reverted to "American Republi- 
can." Mowry continued to publish the paper until 
Nov. 28, 1820, with which issue Schultz & Marshall 
(William Schultz and William J. Marshall) became the 
publishers and commenced a new series. 

West Chester Normal School Lib. has Aug. 1, 1809- 
Dec. 26, 1820. Chester Co. Hist. Soc, West Chester, has 
Oct. 19, 1813 -Dec. 12, 1815. Chester Co. Law Lib., 
West Chester, has Jan. 2, 1816 -Dec. 26, 1820. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 24, 1810. Penn. State Lib. has 
Dec. 3, 1811. Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has 
July 28, 1818-Nov. 21, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Feb. l m . 

1815. Mar. 14™. 

1816. Mar. 12™. 

[Downington] Temperate Zone, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established June 7, 1808, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 19, 1808, vol. 
1, no. 7, published by Charles Mowry, with the title of 
"The Temperate Zone, and Chester & Delaware Adver- 
tiser. " The last issue with this title was that of July 25, 
1809, vol. 2, no. 60, after which the title was changed to 
"The American Republican," without change of volume 
numbering. 

Harvard has July 19, 26, Aug. 9-23, Oct. 18, 1808. 
West Chester Normal School Lib. has June 20 -July 25, 
1809. 

[Doylestown] Bucks County Messenger, 1819-1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established June 28, 1819, by Simeon 
Siegfried, with the title of Ci Bucks County Messenger." 
Continued until after 1820. 

Bucks Co. Hist. Soc, Doylestown, has June 28, Oct. 11, 
1819; June 13, July 25, Aug. 1, 29, Sept. 12, Oct. 17, 31, 
Nov. 7, 21 -Dec 5, 19, 1820. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 99 

[Doylestown] Correspondent, see Pennsylvania Correspondent. 

Doylestown Democrat, 1816-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established Sept. 17, 1816, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 24, 1816, 
vol. 1, no. 2, published by Lewis Deffebach and Co., with 
the title of " Doylestown Democrat." With the issue of 
Dec. 24, 1816, Lewis Deffebach became sole publisher. 
In August 1820, Deffebach made an assignment, and the 
issue of Sept. 27, 1820 appeared with a new volume 
numbering, vol. 1, no. 1, whole no. 210, with no printer's 
name, but with an editorial announcement signed by 
Peter Keen. The paper was then suspended, publication 
being renewed Jan. 2, 1821. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 24, 1816. Bucks Co. Hist. 
Soc, Doylestown, has Oct. 8, 22, Dec. 17, 1816; Jan. 21, 
28, Mar. 11, Apr. 1, 29, June 17, 24, July 8, 15, Sept. 9- 
Oct. 21, Nov. 11, Dec. 2, 23, 1817; June 30, July 14, 21, 
Sept. 1, 15, 22, Oct. 6, 27 -Nov. 10, Dec. 8, 15, 1818; 
Mar. 9-23, Apr. 6-May 4, 18, June 1, 8, 22-July 10, 
24, 1819; Jan. 11, 18, Feb., 8, Mar. 14, May 21, July 26, 
1820. N. J. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 7, Sept. 27, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Oct. 1, 8. 
Nov. 12. 
Dec. 24. 

[Doylestown] Farmer's Weekly Journal, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. Established July 25, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 5, 1800, 
vol. 1, no. 7, entitled "The Farmer's Weekly Journal," 
published by Isaac Ralston (see W. W. H. Davis, "His- 
tory of Bucks Co.," 1905, vol. 2, p. 308, where it is called 
the Gazette). The last issue noted is that of Jan. 29, 
1801, vol. 1, no. 27. 

Bucks Co. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 18, 25, 1800. Lib. 
Congress has Dec. 30, 1800. 



100 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Doylestown] Pennsylvania Correspondent, 1804- 1820 -f . 

Weekly. Established July 7, 1804, by Asher Miner, 
with the title of " Pennsylvania Correspondent, and 
Farmer's Advertiser." With the issue of Aug. 11, 1818, 
the title was shortened to " Correspondent and Farmers' 
Advertiser. " Continued by Miner until after 1820. 

Bucks Co. Hist. Soc, Doylestown, has July 7, 1804- 
Dec. 28, 1820. Harvard has May 14, 1805, -Feb. 12, 

1807, fair. Penn. State Lib. has Dec. 15, 1807; Dec. 11, 
1809; Aug. 10, 1812. Lib. Congress has Jan. 12, Mar. 1, 

1808. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 23, 30, 1810. Schwenk- 
felder Hist. Soc, Pennsburg, has July 15, 1817. A. A. S. 
has; 

1807. Mar. 5. 

1809. July 10. 

1810. Apr. 2. 
May 14. 
July 30. 
Sept. 24. 

1811. Jan. 28. 

[Easton] American Eagle, 1799-1805. 

Weekly. Established May 10, 1799, by Samuel 
Longcope, with the title of "The American Eagle." 
With the issue of Aug. 8, 1799, the title was altered to 
"American Eagle." The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 2, 1805, vol. 7, no. 340, which was nearly the last, 
if not the last, number. 

Easton Pub. Lib. has May 10, 1799 -Nov. 2, 1805. 
Harvard has May 17, June 14, 21, Aug. 2, 29 -Sept. 12, 
Oct. 10, 24, 31, Dec. 19, 1799; Jan. 9, 23, Feb. 6-20, 
Mar. 13, Apr. 17 -May 8, June 12, 26- July 24, Aug. 7, 21, 
Oct. 9, 23, 30, 1800; Oct. 9, 1801. Lib. Congress has 
Jan. 2, 1801. A. A. S. has: 
1799. July 5. 

Easton Centinel, 1817-1820-h 

Weekly. Established July 1, 1817, by Christian J. 
Hutter & Son., with the title of "The Easton Centinel." 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 101 

Early in 1820, Christian J. Hutter became sole publisher 
and continued the paper after 1820. 

Easton Pub. Lib. has July 11, 1817-July 2, 1819; 
June 30 -Dec. 29, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1818. May 15. 

Eastoner- Deutsche Patriot, 1805-1814. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 13, 1805, by Jacob Wey- 
gandt and Company (Jacob and Cornelius N. Weygandt), 
with the title of "Der Eastoner-Deutsche Patriot, und 
Landmanns Wochenblatt. " It succeeded the "Neuer 
Unpartheyischer Eastoner Bothe, " and continued its 
advertisements, although adopting a new volume num- 
bering. Cornelius Weygandt died May 3, 1806, and with 
the issue of May 14, 1806, Jacob Weygandt, Jun., became 
sole publisher. About 1812 Jacob Weygandt was 
admitted to partnership, and the paper was published by 
Jacob Weygandt and Son. The last issue located is that 
of Mar. 9, 1814, no. 465, in which issue it was announced 
that the establishment would be discontinued on April 1 
next. 

Harvard has Feb. 13, 1805 -Apr. 1, 1807, fair, Oct. 20, 
1813; Mar. 9, 1814. Easton Pub. Lib. has Oct. 9, Nov. 
16, 1808; Apr. 24, 1811; Apr. 14, June 9, 1813. 

[Easton] Mountaineer, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1820, by Weiss & Patter- 
son (John D. Weiss and James A. Patterson), with the 
title of "The Mountaineer," and so continued until after 
1820. 

Easton Pub. Lib. has Jan. 7 -Dec. 29, 1820. 

[Easton] Neuer Unpartheyischer Eastoner Bothe, 1793-1805. 
Weekly. Established in August 1793, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 24, 1794, 
no. 56, published by Jacob Weygandt and Son (Jacob and 
Cornelius N. Weygandt), with the title of "Neuer 
Unpartheyischer Eastoner Bothe, und Northampton 
Kundschafter." It was so continued to the date of the 



102 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

last issue, that of Feb. 6, 1805, no. 588, when it was 
succeeded by "Der Eastoner Deutsche Patriot." 

Harvard has Sept. 14, 1803 -Feb. 6, 1805, fair. Easton 
Pub. Lib. has July 20, 1803. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Sept. 24™. 

Oct. L*, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Nov. 5, 12, 26. 
Dec. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

1795. Jan. 14. 
Feb. 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18. 

1804. June 20. 

[Easton] Northampton Correspondent, 1806-1820-f-. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 25, 1806, by Christian 
Jacob Hutter, with the title of "Der Northampton 
Correspondent." In the summer of 1815 the paper was 
published by Carl L. Hutter for Christian Jacob Hutter. 
Early in 1817 the firm name was changed to Christian 
Jacob Hutter and Son, and early in 1820 Christian 
Jacob Hutter became sole publisher. Continued after 
1820. 

Harvard has Jan. 25, 1806 -July 18, 1807, fair. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has June 9, 1810. Easton Pub. Lib. has Aug. 
12, Sept. 16, 30, Oct. 21, Dec. 30, 1814; Jan. 6, Apr. 21, 
Sept. 15, 29 -Oct. 13, 27, 1815; Aug. 30, Sept. 27, Oct. 4, 
Nov. 1, Dec. 13, 20, 1816; Aug. 8, Sept. 26-Oct. 10, 1817; 
Aug. 7, Oct. 9, 16, 30, 1818; June 25, Sept. 10, 1819; 
Mar. 31, Apr. 14, June 9, Aug. 11 -Dec. 29, 1820. A. A. S 
has: 

1810. May 12. 

[Easton] Northampton Farmer, 1805-1815. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 21, 1805, by Thomas J. 
Rogers, with the title of "Northampton Farmer and 
Easton Weekly Advertiser." In 1809 or 1810, the title 
was shortened to "Northampton Farmer." The last 
issue located is that of Apr. 17, 1813, vol. 8, no. 15, but the 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 103 

paper was succeeded by the " Spirit of Pennsylvania" in 
1815. 

Easton Pub. Lib. has Dec. 21, 1805 -Dec. 31, 1808. 
Harvard has May 31, 1806. Lib. Congress has Oct. 10, 
1807; Apr. 16, 1808; Sept. 28, 1811. Berks Co. Hist. 
Soc, Reading, has Apr. 17, 1813. A. A. S. has: 
1810. July 7. 

[Easton] Pennsylvania Herald, 1808-1810. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 10, 1808, by Christian J. 
Hutter, with the title of " Pennsylvania Herald, and 
Easton Intelligencer." It was discontinued with the 
issue of Aug. 1, 1810, vol. 2, no. 52, to be succeeded by 
" The People's Instructor. " 

Easton Pub. Lib. has Aug. 10, 1808 -Aug. 1, 1810. 
Harvard has Aug. 10-Dec. 21, 1808, fair. A. A. S. has: 
1810. June 13. 
July 4, 25. 
Aug. 1. 

[Easton] Peopled Instructor, 1810-1813. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 8, 1810, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Sept. 5, 1810, 
vol. 1, no. 5, published by Christian J. Hutter, with the 
title of "The People's Instructor. Der Volksunterrichter. " 
The paper was of folio size, printed in alternate columns 
of German and English. In 1811, undoubtedly with the 
issue of Aug. 21, it was reduced in size to a quarto of eight 
pages, and the title was changed to "Der Volksunter- 
richter. The People's Instructor. " It was so continued 
to the date of the final issue, May 26, 1813. 

Easton Pub. Lib. has Aug. 28, 1811 -May 26, 1813. 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. Sept. 5, 19. 

Oct. 3, 10, 24. 

[Easton] Spirit of Pennsylvania, 1815- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established June 16, 1815 by George W. 
Deshler and Samuel Moore, with the title of "Spirit of 



104 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Pennyslvania." With the issue of Feb. 11, 1820, George 
W. Deshler became sole proprietor, and adopted a new 
series volume numbering. Continued until after 1820. 
Easton Pub. Lib. has June 16, 1815 -June 14, 1816; 
Feb. 11 -Dec. 29, 1820. 

[Easton] Volksunterrichter, see People's Instructor. 

[Edentown] Eden Star, 1814-1816. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 28, 1814, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of May 2, 1814, 
vol. 1, no. 6, published by Nathan Blackman, Jun., with 
the title of "The Eden Star." The last issue located is 
that of Sept. 4, 1815, vol. 2, no. 76, but apparently in 
June 1816, the paper was removed to Russelville, about 
one mile distant, where publication was continued, under 
the title of "The American Star." 

Harvard has June 20, Sept. 26, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1814. May 2, 9, 16, 30. 
June 20, 27. 
July 4, 18, 25. 
Aug. 22. 

Sept. 5. 

Oct. 10, 17 CT , 24, 31 m . 

Nov. 28. 

1815. Sept. 4. 

Erie Gazette, 1820-K 

Weekly. Established Jan. 15, 1820, by Joseph M. 
Sterrett, with the title of "Erie Gazette," and so con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

IS Erie Pub. Lib. has Jan. 22 -Dec. 30, 1820. A. A. S. 
has: 

1820. Apr. 15. 

[Erie] Genius of the Lakes, 1816-1819. 

Weekly. Established in September 1816, judging from 
the date of the only issue located, that of Mar. 27, 1819, 
vol. 3, no. 132, published by R[obert] I. Curtis, with the 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 105 

title of " Genius of the Lakes." This was the last issue, 
and soon afterwards the editor removed to Mayville, 
N. Y. 

A. A. S. has: 
1819. Mar. 27. 

[Erie] Mirror, 1808. 

Weekly. Established May 26, 1808, by George Wyeth, 
with the title of "The Mirror. " The last issue with the 
name of Erie in the imprint was that of Nov. 19, 1808, 
vol. 1, no. 26, and with the succeeding issue the paper was 
stated to be published at "PresquTsle, Erie County." 
See under Presque Isle. 

Lib. Congress has May 26-Nov. 19, 1808. 

[Erie] Northern Centinel, 1813-1815. 

Weekly. Established early in August 1813, judging 
from the date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 1, 

1814, vol. 1, no. 35, published by Robert I. Curtis & Co., 
with the title of "The Northern Centinel." Curtis 
proposed to remove his paper to Detroit issuing what he 
thought was his last paper on Apr. 29, 1814 (see Lancaster 
"Intelligencer" of May 21, 1814, also Zanesville 
"Muskingum Messenger" of Feb. 28, 1814, where the 
proposed name for the paper at Detroit was alluded to as 
"The Republic"), but finding that the removal could not 
be brought about, he resumed publication at Erie on 
June 10, 1814. The last issue located is that of June 28, 

1815, vol. 2, no. 94. 

Harvard has June 10, 17, Sept. 23-Oct. 7, 21 -Nov. 11, 
25-Dec. 9, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Apr. 1. 
June 10. 

1815. June 28 m . 

Erie Patriot, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 3, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 20, 1819, 
vol. 1, no. 21, published by Z[iba] Willes with the title 



106 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of " Erie Patriot. " The paper was'continued for about a 
year, and Willes then removed to Cleveland where 
he established the " Cleaveland Herald, " Oct. 19, 1819. 
A. A. S. has: 

1819. Feb. 20. 

[Erie] Phoenix, see Erie Reflector. 

Erie Reflector, 1819 - 1820. 

Weekly. Established Sept, 29, 1819, by John Morris, 
at Erie, but printed in the office of the "Chautauque 
Eagle" at Mayville, N. Y. (see " Chautauque Eagle" of 
Oct. 5, 1819), where it is referred to as "The Phoenix and 
Erie Reflector. M The earliest issue located, that of Mar. 
20, 1820, is an unnumbered half sheet, entitled "The 
Reflector." The first numbered issue located, that of 
Apr. 3, 1820, vol. 1, no. 25, was edited and printed by 
Rjobert] I. Curtis, and was entitled "Erie Reflector." 
Statements in this issue show that the publisher was 
John Morris of Erie, but that the printing was performed 
at Curtis's printing-office at Mayville, N. Y. In the 
"Erie Gazette" of Apr. 15, 1820, is the following state- 
ment: "The Phoenix and Erie Reflector, published in 
this place by John Morris, Esq., and printed and edited by 
R. I. Curtis, in Mayville, N. Y. has been discontinued." 

Prendergast Lib., Jamestown, N. Y., has Mar. 20, 
1820. A. A. S. has: 

1820. Apr. 3. 

[Frankford] Spirit of '76, 1810-1812. 

Weekly. Established in June 1810, judging from the 
date of the only copy located, that of Feb. 27, 1812, vol. 
2, no. 90, published by J[ohn] F. Gilbert, with the title 
of "Spirit of 76." 

A. A. S. has: 

1812. Feb. 27. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 107 

[Frankford] Weekly Messenger, 1810. 

Weekly. Published early in 1810 by William Coale, 
with the title of ''Weekly Messenger" (I. Thomas, 
" History of Printing, " ed. 1874, vol. 2, p. 301). No 
copy located. 

[Germantown] Hoch-Deutsch Pensylvanische Geschict- 
Schreiber, 1739-1746. 

Quarterly and monthly. Established Aug. 20, 1739, 
by Christoph Saur, with the title of "Der Hoch-Deutsch 
Pensylvanische Geschict-Schreiber. " , It was at first 
intended to issue the paper every three months, but this 
must have been changed to a monthly issue early in 1741, 
judging from the numbering of the next issue located 
succeeding the initial issue, that of Feb. 16, 1742, no. 19. 
The issues after 1742 were monthly, being dated the 16th 
of the month. With the issue of Oct. 16, 1745, the title 
was changed to " Hoch-Deutsch Pensylvanische Be- 
richte. " With June 16, 1746, the title was changed to 
"Pensylvanische Berichte" which see. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 20, 1739; Feb. 16, 1742; Apr. 
16, 1743 -May 16, 1746. A. A. S. has: 

1743. July 16. 
Dec. 16. 

1744. Jan. 16 to Dec. 16. 
Postscript: Jan. 10. 

Missing: Apr. 16. 

1745. Jan. 16 to Dec. 16. 

Missing: Oct. 16, Dec. 16. 

[Germantown] Pensylvanische - Berichte, 1746 - 1762. 

Monthly, semi-monthly and bi-weekly. A continua- 
tion of the " Hoch-Deutsch Pensylvanische Berichte," 
without change of numbering. The earliest issue with 
the title of " Pensylvanische Berichte" was that of June 
16, 1746,no. 71, published by Christoph Saur. The paper 
was of quarto size, issued monthly on the 16th of each 
month. Beginning with Apr. 1, 1748, issues were 



108 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

published on the 1st as well as the 16th of the month, but 
these issues were not included in the numbering (except 
inadvertently on Apr. 1 and June 1, 1748) and were 
regarded as postscripts or complimentary copies in 
addition to the twelve regular monthly issues. With the 
issue of Jan. 16, 1754, the size of the paper was enlarged 
from quarto to folio. With the issue of Nov. 13, 1756, the 
publishing of two issues a month was given up, and a 
regular bi-weekly publication established. Christoph 
Saur, Sr., died Sept. 15, 1758, and his son, Christoph Saur, 
became the publisher. The last issue located with the 
title of "Pensylvanische Berichte" is that of Apr. 9, 1762, 
no. 264. The title was then changed to "Die German - 
towner Zeitung, " without change of numbering, although 
no issues with this new title have been located between 
1762 and 1766. See under "Die Germantowner Zeitung." 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has June 16, 1746 -Dec. 16, 1752; 
Aug. 1, 16, Oct. 16, 1753; Jan. 16, 1754-Apr. 9, 1762. 
Amer. Philos. Soc. has July 16, 1747 -Nov. 16, 1753. 
Schwenkfelder Hist. Lib., Pennsburg, has Mar. 1, 1749- 
Nov. 1, 1751, Feb. 1, 1754; Oct. 16, 1755; Aug. 6, 1757; 
Feb. 2, Apr. 27, June 22, Aug. 31, Nov. 9, 1759; Mar. 28, 
June 6, 1760; June 5, July 31, Oct. 9, 1761. A. A. S. has 

1747. Jan. 16. 

1749. June 16. 

1755. Apr. 16. 
May 16. 
June 1. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 1. 
Nov. 16. 
Dec. 1, 16. 

1756. Jan. 16. 
Feb. 16. 
Mar. 1. 
Apr. 1. 
May 1. 
June 1, 16. 
July 1. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 109 

Aug. 16, 21. 
Oct. 2, 16. 
Nov. 13, 27. 
Dec. 11, 25. 
1757. Jan. 8, 22. 
Feb. 5, 19. 
Apr. 2, 16, 30. 
May 14, 29. 
June 11, 25. 
July 23. 
Aug. 6, 20. 
Sept. 3, 17. 
Oct. 29. 
Nov. 12, 26. 
Dec. 10, 24. 

[Germantown] Wahre und Wahrscheinliche Begebenheiten, 
1766. 

A paper with this title was issued in 1766, but the 
issues were without volume numbering, name of printer 
or place of publication. The press-work is evidently that 
of Christoph Saur, of (jrermantown, and the issue of 
Feb. 24, 1766 contains an advertisement addressed to 
Christoph Saur as publisher. 

Schwenkfelder Hist. Lib., Pennsburg, has Feb. 24, 
1766. Seidensticker "German Printing in , America," 
p. 76, mentions an issue of Mar. 5, 1766. 

Qermantowner Zeitung, 1762-1777. 

Bi-weekly and weekly. A continuation of the 
" Pensylvanische Berichte, " issued by Christoph Saur, 
without change of numbering. The change of title may 
have occurred in 1762, but the earliest issue located with 
the title of "Die Germantowner Zeitung" is that of Aug. 
7, 1766, no. 371, published by Christoph Saur. Issues 
up to Apr. 20, 1775 were bi-weekly, but the next issue 
located, that of Mar. 20, 1776, was a weekly, as were 
succeeding issues. The issue of Mar. 20, 1776 was pub- 
lished by Christoph Saur und Sohn, as was also the issue 



110 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of Sept. 11, 1776, no. 670. The issue of Feb. 26, 1777, 
no. 686, was published by Christoph Saur, Jun. [the 
third] und Peter Saur. In October 1777, after the Battle 
of Germantown and the British occupation of Philadel- 
phia, the Saurs removed to Philadelphia, where they 
continued their paper, under the title of "Der Pennsyl- 
vanische Staats Courier." See under Philadelphia. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 7, 1766; Apr. 20, 1775; Mar. 
20, Sept. 11, 1776; Mar. 12, 1777. Dr. George Hetrich, 
Birdsboro, Penn., has Feb. 26, 1777. 

Germantauner Zeitung, 1785-1799. 

Bi-weekly and weekly. Established Feb. 8, 1785, by 
Leibert and Billmeyer (Peter Leibert and Michael 
Billmeyer),with the title of "Die Germantauner Zeitung," 
as a bi-weekly. With the issue of Aug. 7, 1787, the 
partnership was dissolved and the paper published by 
Michael Billmeyer. With the issue of July 20, 1790, the 
size was reduced from folio to quarto, and the paper was 
issued weekly. It was apparently intended to start a 
new volume numbering in July 1790, for after the issue of 
Aug. 10, 1790, no. 146, the issue of Aug. 17, 1790 was 
numbered no. 7, and this new system of numbering was 
thenceforth used. The last issue located is that of July 
16, 1793, no. 157. The paper may have been continued 
until 1799, as in the "Neue Unpartheyische Readinger 
Zeitung" of June 5, 1799, Michael Billmeyer, editor of 
"Die Germantauner Zeitung," has a notice that all back 
subscriptions to the paper must be paid immediately. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Feb. 22, 1785 -Jan. 15, 1793. Lib. 
Congress has July 20, 1790 -July 16, 1793. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 1, 1789; June 12, 17, Aug. 21, Sept. 25, Nov. 
13, Dec. 11, 1792. A. A. S. has: 
1792. Dec. 25. 

[Gettysburg] Adams Centinel, 1800- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Nov. 12, 1800, by Robert 
Harper, with the title of " The Adams Centinel. " Robert 
Harper died Nov. 8, 1816, and in the issue of Nov. 13, his 



1920.] Pennsylvania. Ill 

widow announced that she would henceforth conduct the 
paper. No name appeared in the imprint, however, 
until May 12, 1819, when Robert G. Harper became the 
publisher and changed the title to "Adams Centinel. " 
The paper was so continued until after 1820. 

Gettysburg "Star and Sentinel" office has Nov. 19, 
1800 - Dec. 27, 1820. N. J. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 15, Oct. 6, 
Nov. 17, Dec. 1, 22, 1819; Feb. 9, Apr. 26, May 3, 17, 
July 5, Dec. 13, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1801. Sept. 9,30. 

[Gettsyburg] Republican Compiler, 1818-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established Sept. 16, 1818, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 16, 1818, 
vol. 1, no. 14, published by Jacob Lefever, with the title of 
"The Republican Compiler." Continued by him until 
after 1820. 

N. J. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 16, 1818; July 21, 28, Sept. 1, 
29, Oct. 13, Nov. 3, Dec. 15, 22, 1819; Feb. 9, Mar. 8, 22, 
May 3, 1820. 

[Gettysburg] Sprig of Liberty, 1803-1805. 

Weekly. Established in February 1803, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 31, 1804, 
vol. 2, no. 31, published by William B. Underwood, with 
the title of "The Sprig of Liberty." The last issue 
located is that of Aug. 8, 1805, vol. 3, no. 29. In "Bart- 
gis's Republican Gazette," of Fredericktown, Md., of 
Feb. 25, 1803, is an advertisement that "Subscriptions 
and advertisements are taken in at this Office, for the 
Gettysburg Gazette, printed in Pennsylvania." 

Harvard has Aug. 31, 1804; Aug. 8, 1805. 

Greensburgh & Indiana Register, 1808-1818. 

Weekly. Established in January 1808, judging from 
the date of the first and only issue located, that of Nov. 26, 
1812, vol. 5, no. 45, published by William S. Graham, with 
the title of "Greensburgh & Indiana Register." G. D. 
Albert, in the "History of the County of Westmoreland," 



112 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

1882, p. 280, says that the title was " Westmoreland and 
Indiana Register" from 1808 to 1812, that Graham died 
in 1815 being succeeded by his widow, and that the paper 
was discontinued in September 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 
1812. Nov. 26. 

[Greensburg] Farmers Register, 1799-1808. 

Weekly. Established May 24, 1799, by Snowden & 
M'Corkle (John M. Snowden and William M'Corkle), 
with the title of "The Farmers Register." With the 
issue of May 28, 1803, the partnership was dissolved and 
the paper published by John M. Snowden. The last 
issue located is that of Sept. 20, 1805, vol. 4, no. 18. 
Apparently the paper was discontinued under this title 
in January 1808. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has May 24, 1799 -May 21, 1803. 
Carnegie Lib., Pittsburgh, has June 21, 1799-Apr. 24, 
1802. Harvard has May 28, 1803 -May 3, 1805, fair. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 17, 1802. Lib. Congress has 
Sept. 6, 20, 1805. A. A. S. has: 
1803. Aug. 13. 
Sept. 10. 

Greensburgh Gazette, 1811-1820+. 

Weekly. Eastablished in 1811 by David Maclean, 
with the title of "The Greensburgh Gazette," and so 
continued until after 1820. 

Lib. Congress has Sept. 17, 1819. Hamilton Lib., 
Carlisle, has Dec. 17, 1819. 

[Greensburg] Westmoreland and Indiana Register, see 
Greensburgh & Indiana Register. 

[Greensburg] Westmoreland Republican, 1819- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in April 1819, by Frederick A. 

Wise, with the title of "Westmoreland Republican and 

Farmer's Chronicle," and so continued until after 1820 

(G. D. Albert, "History of the County of Westmoreland," 

1882, p. 281). No copy located. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 113 

Hanover Gazette, 1805- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 4, 1805, by Daniel P. 
Lange and J. P. Starck, with the title of "Hanover 
Gazette. " It was a German newspaper. The partner- 
ship was discontinued in 1816, and Lange became sole 
publisher and continued the paper until after 1820 (J. 
Gibson, "History of York County," 1886, p. 382). No 
copy located. 

[Hanover] German newspaper, 1809-1810. 

There was a German newspaper published at Hanover, 
the title of which is now unknown. It was established 
in August 1809 and discontinued in March 1810, at which 
time one of the editors, Mr. Melsheimer, removed to 
Fredericktown (Carter and Glossbrenner, "History of 
York County," 1834, p. 100). C. T. Melsheimer 
established "Der Freiheitsbothe " at Fredericktown, 
Md., Apr. 7, 1810. 

[Hanover] Guardian, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in August 1818, by Jacob H, 

Wiestling with the title of the "Guardian. " In 1819 he 

sold the paper to Joseph Schmuck, who continued it 

until after 1820 (J. Gibson, "History of York County," 

. 1886, p. 382). No copy located. 

[Hanover] Pennsylvanische Wochenscrift, 1797-1805. 

Weekly. Established in April 1797, by W. D. Lepper 
and E. Stettinius,'with the title of "Die Pennsylvanische 
Wochenscrift." Not long afterwards, Lepper became 
sole proprietor, certainly by 1802, as books printed in 
that year bear the name of William Daniel Lepper alone 
in the imprint. Lepper continued the paper until Feb- 
ruary 1805 (Carter and Glossbrenner, "History of York 
County," 1834, p. 100; G. R. Prowell, "History of York 
County," 1907, vol. 1, p. 557). No copy located. 



114 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Harrisburg] American Patriot, 1812-1813. 

Published in 1812 and 1813, with Alexander Hamilton 
as editor. It existed for nearly two years (W. H. Egle, 
" History of Dauphin and Lebanon Counties," 1883, 
p. 351). No copy located. 

[Harrisburg] Chronicle, 1813-1820-f-. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established May 31, 1813, 
by William Gillmpr, with the title of "The Chronicle or 
Harrisburgh Visitor." With the issue of Dec. 4, 1815, 
Hugh Hamilton was admitted to partnership under the 
firm name of Gillmor and Hamilton. With the issue of 
Aug. 24, 1818, Hugh MTlwaine replaced Gillmor, the 
firm name becoming Hamilton & M'llwaine, and the 
title was changed to "The Chronicle, and Harrisburg 
Advertiser. " The paper, normally published weekly, was 
published semi-weekly during the seesions of the State 
legislature from Dec. 10, 1818 to Mar. 29, 1819, and from 
Dec. 9, 1819 to Mar. 27, 1820. With the issue of Feb. 3, 
1820, the title was changed to "Harrisburg Chronicle." 
Continued after 1820. 

Penn. State Lib. has May 31, 1813 -Dec. 28, 1820. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 31, 1813 -Nov. 27, 1815, Feb. 
17, 1817 -Aug. 17, 1818. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 7, 
1813. Lib. Congress has Apr. 22, 1816; Dec. 2-25, 1820. 
Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has July 22 -Dec. 28 
1820. A. A. S. has: 



1813. 


May 31. 




June 14, 28. 




July 12. 




Sept. 27. 




Oct. 4. 


1814. 


May 23. 




Nov. 7. 


1815. 


Feb. 27. 


1816. 


Feb. 12. 




Aug. 5, 12. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 115 

Sept. 23, 30. 
Oct. 7, 14, 28. 
Nov. 4, 11, 25. 
Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

1817. Jan. 6 to Dec .29. 

Missing: Jan. 27, June 30, July 28, Aug. 
4, 18, 25. 

1818. Jan. 5 to Dec. 31. 

Carrier's Address: [Jan. 1]. 
Mutilated: May 18. 

Missing: Jan. 19, Feb. 23, Mar. 16, July 
20, Dec. 21. 

1819. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Mar. 18, July 12, Aug. 9, Sept. 
6, Dec. 9, 13, 16. 

1820. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Mar. 13, 20, July 22, Aug. 26, 
Sept. 9, Oct. 14, Dec. 14, 21. 

[Harrisburg] Commonwealth, 1818-1820-f. 

Established in 1818 try John McFarland and William 
Greer, and continued after 1820 (W. H. Egle, "History 
of Dauphin and Lebanon Counties," 1883, p. 351). 
No copy located. 

[Harrisburg] Dauphin Guardian, 1805-1811. 

Weekly. Established June 1, 1805, by Albright & 

Elder ( Albright and Jacob Elder), with the title 

of " Dauphin Guardian." In 1806, Jacob Elder became 
sole publisher. With the issue of June 5, 1810, the title 
was altered to "The Dauphin Guardian," but with the 
issue of July 31, 1810, it reverted to its earlier form. 
The paper was discontinued in November 1811, the last 
issue undoubtedly being that of Nov. 26, vol. 7, no. 26, 
and was succeeded by the "Pennsylvania Republican." 

Penn. State Lib. has Aug. 3, Sept. 21, 1805; Apr. 22, 
May 13, Aug. 26, 1806; Sept. 1, Dec. 29, 1807; Jan. 5, 
1808-Nov. 12, 1811. Harvard has June 1, 8, 29, Dec. 



116 American Antiquarian Society [Apr. 

14, 1805. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 19, May 5, 1808; 
Jan. 10, Aug. 15, Oct. 10, Dec. 12, 1809; Feb. 20, May 29, 
1810; Mar. 5, 12, 26, Oct. 22, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1805. June 1, 8. 

July 6, 13, 20. 

1809. Feb. 14. 

1810. Aug. 7. 

[Harrisburgh] Farmers Instructor, 1800-1802. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1800, by Benjamin 
Mayer, with the title of "The Farmers Instructor, and 
Harrisburgh Courant. " The paper was discontinued with 
the issue of May 5, 1802, vol. 3, no. 70. 

Penn. State Lib. has Jan. 8, 1800 -May 5, 1802. Mrs. 
B. F. Africa, Harrisburgj has Jan. 15, 1800. Lib. Con- 
gress has Apr. 22, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1801. June 17". 
July l m . 

Harrisburgh Journal, 1789. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 26, 1789, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Sept. 9, 
1789, vol. 1, no. 3, published by T. Roberts & Co., with 
the title of "The Harrisburgh Journal, and the Weekly 
Advertiser. " 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Sept. 9, 1789. 

Harrisburger Morgenrothe, 1799- 1820 +. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 12, 1799, by B[enjamin] 
Mayer and Qonrad] Fahnestock, with the title of 
" Unpartheyische Harrisburg Morgenrothe Zeitung, " 
the word " Morgenrothe " being in an emblem in the center 
of the title. With the issue of Aug. 6, 1799, the partner- 
ship was dissolved and the paper published by Benjamin 
Mayer. With the issue of Aug. 11, 1800, the title was 
shortened to "Die Harrisburger Morgenrothe Zeitung," 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 117 

changed with the issue of Aug. 18, 1800, to "Die Harris- 
burger Morgenrothe." With the issue of Apr. 13, 1811, 
Mayer sold out and the paper was published by Gleim and 
Wiestling (Christian Gleim and John S. Wiestling). 
With the issue of Jan. 5, 1813, the partnership was dis- 
solved and John S. Wiestling became sole publisher. 
Continued after 1820. 

Penn. State Lib. has Mar. 12, 1799 -Oct. 19, 1813. 
Lib. Congress has Feb. 6 -Nov. 20, 1802. Wis. Hist. 
Soc.hasOct. 6, 1812. 

[Harrisburgh] Oracle of Dauphin, 1792-1820-h 

Weekly. Established Oct. 20, 1792, by Allen and 
Wyeth (John W. Allen and John Wyeth), with the title 
of "The Oracle of Dauphin, and Harrisburgh Advertiser." 
In November 1793, the firm was dissolved and John 
Wyeth became sole publisher. At some time between 
Oct. 10, 1807 and Jan. 23, 1808, the title was shortened to 
"The Oracle of Dauphin. " The paper was so continued 
by John Wyeth until after 1820. 

Penn. State Lib. has "Nov. 3, 1792-Oct, 28, Nov. 11, 
1793; Aug. 18 -Sept. 8, Oct. 6, 1794; Feb. 8, Oct. 4, Nov. 
29, 1797; Mar. 14, May 9, 23- June 20, July 18, Aug. 15- 
Nov. 7, 1798; Mar. 6-27, Apr. 10, 17, July 17, 31, Aug. 
21 -Sept. 11, 25 -Oct. 7, Nov. 11, 1799; Feb. 10, June 9, 
July 28-Dec. 29, 1800; Jan. 5, 19, Feb. 2, 1801; Nov. 22, 
1802-Mar. 2, 1805; Jan. 18-Feb. 15, 1806; Oct. 18, 
1806 -Oct. 10, 1807; Jan. 23, 1808 -Feb. 9, 1811; Sept. 6, 
1812 -Dec. 30, 1820. 

York Co. Hist. Soc. has 1798-1800 (not examined). 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 7, 1798-Oct. 12, 1805; July 11, 
1807; Feb. 11, 1809. Harvard has Feb. 3, 1794; Mar. 9, 
June 15, 1795; Mar. 28, 1796- Aug. 29, 1798, fair; Feb. 23, 
1801 -Dec. 3, 1803, fair; Feb. 4, Apr. 28, Aug. 4, 1804; 
Mar. 30, 1805; Sept. 20, 1806. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 21, 
1793; Jan.2, 1813 -Dec. 9, 1815. Lib. Congress has Aug. 
24, 1795; Nov. 16, 1801 -Sept. 13, 1806. Dauphin Co. 
Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has May 6 -Dec. 30, 1820. N. J. 



118 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 1813; Nov. 11, 18, 1815; June 1, 
1816. A. A. S. has: 



1792. 


Oct. 20. 




Dec. 10. 


1793. 


Jan. 14. 




Mar. 18. 




Apr. 1. 




July 22. 




Aug. 5, 12. 




Sept. 16. 




Dec. 9 W , 23. 


1794. 


Jan. 13. 




Apr. 27. 




Aug. 11. 




Dec. 22. 


1797. 


May 3. 


1798. 


Feb. 7. 




Apr. 18. 


1799. 


June 19 m . 




Oct. 7. 


1804. 


Mar. 3, 10, 17 


1808. 


Apr. 30. 


1810. 


June 30. 


1820. 


Sept. 30. 



[Harrisburg] Pennsylvania Intelligencer, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Dec. 5, 1820, by Charles Mowry, 
with the title of " Pennsylvania Intelligencer." It 
succeeded the "Harrisburg Republican," but adopted a 
new volume numbering, as well as a new title. Continued 
until after 1820. 

Penn. State Lib.; Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg; 
and Hist. Soc. Penn, have Dec. 5-26, 1820. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 1820. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 119 

[Harrisburg] Pennsylvania Republican, 1811-1816. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 3, 1811, by James Peacock, 
with the title of "Pennsylvania Republican." The last 
issue with this title was that of Nov. 26, 1816, vol. 5, no. 
52, after which the title was changed to "Harrisburg 
Republican, " which see. 

Penn. State Lib. has Dec. 3, 1811 -Nov. 26, 1816. 
Harvard has Feb. 4, 1812. Wash. Co. Hist. Soc, Wash- 
ington, Pa., has Jan. 3, 1815. A. A. S. has: 

1811. Dec. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

1812. Sept. 15. 
Oct. 13, 20. 
Nov. 24. 
Dec. 22, 29. 

1813. Jan. 19. 
Feb. 9. 
Mar. 2, 9. 
Apr. 20. 
May 4, 18, 25. 
June 1, 8. 
July 27. * 

Aug. 3, 10, 17™, 24, 31. 
Sept. 7. 
Oct. 5, 12,19. 
Nov. 9, 16. 
Dec. 7, 21,28. 

1814. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 4, 11, Feb. 8, Apr. 5, May, 
3, 31, June 7, 21, July 12, 19, Aug. 2, 16, 
30, Oct. 4, 25, Nov.8. 

1815. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 14, Apr. 11, 25, 
May 2, 23, June 20, July 4-25, Aug. 8, 
15, 29, Oct. 10, 31, Nov. 7, 14, 28, Dec. 
12, 19. 

1816. Jan. 2 to Nov. 26. 

Missing: May 28, June 25, Sept. 24, Oct. 
8,22. 



120 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Harrisburg Republican, 1816-1820. 

Weekly. A continuation of the " Pennsylvania Repub- 
lican, " without change of volume numbering. The first 
issue with the new title of "Harrisburg Republican" was 
that of Dec. 3, 1816, vol. 6, no. 1, published by James 
Peacock. The paper was discontinued with the issue of 
Nov. 17, 1820, vol. 9, no. 52, when it was sold out to 
Charles Mowry, who established in its stead the "Pennsyl- 
vania Intelligencer." 

Penn. State Lib. has Dec. 3-17, 1816; Jan. 7, 1817- 
Nov. 17, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 17, 1816- Aug. 
7, 1818. Lib. Congress has Oct. 7, 1817 -Nov. 17, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1816. Dec. 3, 10", 17, 24. 

1817. Jan. 14, 21,28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 25. 

1818. Apr. 3. 



[Harrisburgh] Times, 1807-1808, 1810-1811. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 21, 1807, by David Wright, 
with the title of "The Times." It was discontinued at 
Harrisburg with the issue of Mar. 28, 1808, vol. 1, no. 25, 
and removed to Lancaster, where it was resumed by Hugh 
Hamilton, under the same title, with the issue of Apr. 8, 
1808 (see under Lancaster). In May 1810, soon after the 
announcement of the removal of the seat of government 
to Harrisburg, the paper was moved back to Harrisburg, 
where it was resumed under the title of "The Times" by 
H[ugh ]Hamilton and J[eremiah] B. Risley. The issue of 
May 19, 1810, was numbered vol. 3, no. 25. In July 1810, 
Risley removed to Delaware and H. Hamilton became 
sole publisher. The last issue located is that of Aug. 31, 
1811, vol. 4, no. 39. 

Penn. State Lib. has Sept. 21, 1807 -Mar. 28, 1808. 
Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has S( pt 21, 1807- 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 121 

Mar. 28, 1808. Harvard has Sept. 21 -Oct. 26 ; 1807. 
A. A. S. has: 

1810. May 19. 

June 2, 16. 
July 28. 

1811. Mar. 9. 
July 6. 
Aug. 31. 

[Harrisburgh] Unpartheyische Harrisburg Morgenrdthe, see 
Harrisburger Morgenrothe. 

[Huntingdon] American Eagle, 1809-1811. 

Weekly. Established in August 1809, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Aug. 23, 
1810, vol. 2, no. 3, published by G[ ] P.W.Butler, with 
the title of "The American Eagle." This issue contains 
an advertisement, dated Aug. 2, 1810, of the dissolution 
of the firm of G. P. W. Butler and John G. Butler, the 
former publishers. 

A. A. S. has: * 

1810. Aug. 23. 

Huntingdon Courier, 1797-1798. 

Weekly. Established July 4, 1797, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Aug. 8, 
1797, vol. 1, no. 6, published by Michael Duffey, with the 
title of "The Huntingdon Courier and Weekly Advertiser. 
It was discontinued in February 1798 (J. S. Africa, 
"History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties," 1883, p. 
58). 

Mrs. B. F. Africa, Harrisburg, has Aug. 8, 1797. 

Huntingdon Gazette, 1801-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 12, 1801, by John M'Cahan 
with the title of "The Huntingdon Gazette and Weekly 
Advertiser" (J. S. Africa, "History of Huntingdon and 
Blair Counties," 1883, p. 59). About 1805, the title was 



122 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

shortened to "The Huntingdon Gazette." M'Cahan 
continued the paper until after 1820. 

Mrs. B. F. Africa, Harrisburg, has Apr. 21, 1802; Apr. 
18, 25, 1803; Feb. 5, Mar. 5, 18Q7; Aug. 4, 1809; Jan. 11, 
18, 1810; Feb. 7, 14, 28, Apr. 4, May 23, July 4 -Aug. 8, 
Sept. 12, 1811; Jan. 9, 1812 -Dec. 29, 1814, fair; Jan. 12, 
1815; Jan. 9, 1817; Dec. 24, 1818; Jan. 28, July 15, 1819. 
Juniata College, Huntingdon, has Jan. 21, 1819 -Dec. 
28, 1820. 

[Huntingdon] Guardian of Liberty, 1799-1800. 

Weekly. Established in November 1799, judging from 
the date of the first and only issue located, that of Aug. 14, 
1800, no. 38, published by John R. Parrington, with the 
title of "The Guardian of Liberty and Huntingdon 
Chronicle. " 

Mrs. B. F. Africa, Harrisburg, has Aug. 14, 1800. 

Huntingdon Intelligencer, 1813 - 1814. 

Weekly. Established in September, 1813, by James 
Barbour, with the title of "Huntingdon Intelligencer." 
In October 1814, the name was changed to "Huntingdon 
Republican," without change of volume numbering 
(J. S. Africa, "History of Huntingdon and Blair Coun- 
ties," 1883, p. 60). No copy located. 

Huntingdon Republican, 1814-1819. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Huntingdon Intelligencer." The 
change of title occurred in October 1814, but the earliest 
issue located is that of July 18, 1816, vol. 3, no. 43, pub- 
lished by James Barbour, with the title of "Huntingdon 
Republican." The last issue was in August 1819 (J. S. 
Africa, "History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties," 
1883, p. 60). 

A. A. S. has: 
1816. July 18. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 123 

[Huntingdon] Republican Advocate, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Aug. 10, 1820, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Dec. 21, 1820, 
vol. 1, no. 20, published by Underwood and Mullay 

( Underwood and John Mullay), with the title of 

"Republican Advocate. " 
Juniata College, Huntingdon, has Dec. 21, 1820. 

[Indiana] American, 1814- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established by James McCahan in 1814, 
with the title of the "American." The office was de- 
stroyed by fire in less than two years, but the paper was 
reestablished shortly afterwards, and was continued until 
after 1820(" Indiana County," 1913, vol. 1, p. 428). 
No copy located. 

[Lancaster] Americanische Staatsbothe, 1800- 1820+ . 

Weekly. A continuation of "Der Deutsche Porcupein," 
without change of numbering. The first issue with the 
new title of "Der Americanische Staatsbothe, und Lan- 
caster Anzeigs-Nachrichten" was that of Jan. 1, 18U0, 
no. 105, published by Joliann Albrecht and Co. (Albrecht 
and Jacob Lahn). Lahn died Jan. 23, 1801, and with the 
issue of Feb. 4, 1801, the paper was published by Johann 
Albrecht. Albrecht died Aug. 15, 1806, and with the 
issue of Aug. 20, 1806, the paper was published by Georg 
and Peter Albrecht. With the issue of Jan. 18, 1809, 
Anton Albrecht became the publisher. In 1811, the title 
was altered to "Americanischer Staatsbothe, und Lan- 
caster Wochenschrift. " The issue of Jan. 21, 1818, by 
mistake was numbered no. 492, instead of no. 942, and the 
error was not corrected until January 1819, when the 
proper numbering was resumed. At some time between 
Sept. 1, 1819 and Oct. 18, 1820, William Albrecht became 
the publisher and the title was shortened to "Ameri- 
canischer Staatsbothe. " It was so continued until after 
1820. 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 29, 1800 -Dec. 26, 
1804; Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1806; Jan. 6, Sept. 15, 1813; Sept. 



124 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

3, 1817; Oct. 18, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has June 11, 
Aug. 13, Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 1800; May 10, Nov. 18, 1801; 
Apr. 14, June 16, 1802; Apr. 6, June 1, Nov. 16, Dec. 7, 
1803; Mar. 21, Apr. 25, Nov. 21, 1804; May 29, 1805; 
June 9, Aug. 18, 1813; Aug. 10, Nov. 30, 1814; Feb. 1, 
May 3, July 19, Sept. 20, Dec. 20, 1815; Jan. 31, May 29, 
1816; Apr. 30, June 25, Dec. 3, 31, 1817; Jan. 7, 1818; 
Mar. 18, July 22, Aug. 12, 1818; Mar. 17, May 19, Sept. 1, 
1819. Lib. Congress has Jan. 30, 1805 -Jan. 18, 1809. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 1, 1806 -Dec. 26, 1810. A. A. S. 
has: 



1800. 


Apr. 30. 


1802. 


Feb. 17. 




Mar. 24. 




Sept. 29. 




Nov. 17. 


1803. 


Jan. 19, 26. 




Feb. 16, 23, 




Apr. 20, 27, 




May 4™. 




July 6, 27. 




Sept. 28. 




Oct. 19. 


1804. 


Jan. 4, 11. 




Aug. 22. 




Oct. 24. 




Dec. 16. 


1805. 


Jan. 16. 




Feb. 20. 




July 3. 




Sept. 18. 


1806. 


Mar. 26. 




Apr. 16. 




May 28. 




July 23. 




Aug. 20. 




Dec. 24, 31 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 125 

1807. Feb. 11. 
Mar. 18. 
Apr. 15. 
June 17, 24 m . 
July 1, 8. 
Aug. 19. 
Sept. 9. 
Oct. 7. 
Nov. 25. 
Dec. 2. 

1810. Feb. 28. 

Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Apr. 4, 11, 25. 

May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

June 6, 13, 20, 27. 

July 4, 11, 18, 25. 

Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Sept. 5, 12, 26. 

Oct. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 

Nov. 7. 

Extra: May; 2. 
1812. Jan. 29. 

Feb. 5 m , 19. 

July 8, 15, 29. 

Nov. 18. 

Dec. 2, 16. 

1814. Jan. 19. 
Aug. 31. 
Nov. 16. 
Dec. 28. 

1815. Apr. 12, 26. 
May 24 m . 
June 14. 
Oct. 25. 

1816. Feb. 28. 
Apr. 24. 
July 3. 
Aug. 7. 



126 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Nov. 13. 
Dec. 18. 

1817. Feb. 5-. 
May 22, 29™. 
June ll m . 
Dec. 10. 

1818. Jan. 21. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 1. 
June 17. 
July 15 m . 

1819. Apr. 28. 
June 16. 
July 7. 

[Lancaster] Constitutional Democrat, 1805-1807. 

Weekly. Established July 2, 1805, by John R. 
Mathews, with the title of "The Constitutional Demo- 
crat. " The last issue located is that of Dec. 1, 1807, vol. 
3, no. 23. Mathews advertised his press and type for 
sale in September 1810 (see "Lancaster Journal," Oct. 
27, 1810), but did not mention his newspaper. 

Penn. State Lib. has July 9, 1805 -July 14, 1807. 
Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has June 10, 17, July 1, 1806. 
A. A. S. has: 

1805. July 23. 

1806. July 15. 
Aug. 5. 

1807. Nov. 10. 
Dec. 1. 

Lancaster Correspondent, 1799-1803. 

Weekly. Established May 25, 1799, by Christian 
Jacob Hiitter, with the title of " Der Lancaster Correspon- 
dent," replacing the Lancaster Wochenblatt. It was 
discontinued with the issue of Sept. 6, 1803, no. 225. 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has May 25, 1799 -Sept. 6, 
1803. Hist. Soc. Penn. has May 25, 1799 -May 16, 1801. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 127 

Berks Co. Hist. Soc, Reading, has Feb. 22, 1800-Aug. 
14, 1802. 

[Lancaster] Deutsche Porcupein, 1798-1799. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 3, 1798, by Johann Albrecht 
and Co., with the title of "Der Deutsche Porcupein und 
Lancaster Anzeigs-Nachrichten," succeeding Albrecht's 
other paper, the "Neue Unpartheyische Lancaster 
Zeitung. " The last issue was that of Dec. 25, 1799, no. 
104, when the title was changed to "Der Americanische 
Staatsbothe. " 

Lib. Congress has Jan. 13, 1798 -Dec. 25, 1799. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 1798. Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. 
has June 19, Dec. 25, 1799. 

[Lancaster] Free Press, 1819-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established May 10, 1819, by S[amuel] C. 
Stambaugh, with the title of "The Free Press." With 
the issue of Nov. 16, 1820, George Price acquired the 
paper and established a new volume numbering. Con- 
tinued until after 1820,. 

Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has May 10, 1819- 
Nov. 2, 1820. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 12, Sept. 30, 1819; 
Mar. 9, 23, Apr. 27, June 29 -July 13, 27, Aug. 3, 24, 
Sept. 7 -Dec. 28, 1820. New Castle, Penn., Pub. Lib. 
has Nov. 16, 30 -Dec. 14, 28, 1820. 

Lancaster Gazette, 1752-1753, see Lancastersche Zeitung. 

[Lancaster] Hive, 1803-1805. 

Weekly. Established June 22, 1803, by Charles 
M'Dowell, with the title of "The Hive." It was of 
quarto size, paged, and was more of a magazine than a 
newspaper, but it contained marriage and death notices, 
and occasional local news. With the issue of Nov. 21, 
1804, William Greear was admitted to partnership, the 
firm name becoming M'Dowell & Greear. The last issue 
located is that of June 12, 1805, vol. 2, no. 52. "The 



128 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Hive" was revived by William Greer, May 19, 1810, but 
strictly as a magazine, and hence not included in this 
Bibliography. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has June 22, 1803 -May 29, 1805. 
Penn. State Lib. and Wis. Hist. Soc. have June 22, 1803- 
June 13, 1804. Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 2, 
1803. A. A. S. has: 

1804. May 16, 30. 

July 4. 

[Lancaster] Intelligencer, 1799-1820+. 

Weekly. Established July 31, 1799, by William & 
Robert Dickson, with the title of "The Intelligencer, & 
Weekly Advertiser." Robert Dickson died Sept. 12, 
1802, and with the issue of Sept. 22, 1802, William 
Dickson became sole publisher. With the issue of July 
21, 1810, the initial "The" was omitted from the title. 
The paper was so continued until after 1820. 

Lancaster Intelligencer office has July 31, 1799 -Dec. 
30, 1820. Hist. Soc. Penn. has July 31, 1799 -July 24, 
1804; July 30, 1805- July 19, 1808; Jan. 15, 1814-Dec.30, 
1820, fair. Penn. State Lib. has July 31, 1799 -July 26, 
1803; Oct. 10 -Dec. 26, 1812; June 20, 1818 -Dec. 30, 
1820. British Museum has Apr. 2, 1801 -Aug. 25, 1802. 
Harvard has Dec. 14, 1802 -Nov. 17, 1807, fair; June 28, 
1808. Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has June 4, 1800; Apr. 
17, 1804; Jan. 10, 1809; June 29, Aug. 3, 1811. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 9, 1800; Aug. 15, 1809. Lib. Congress 
has Mar. 18, 1801; May 24, 1804; Apr. 9, Sept. 10, 24, 
1805; Dec. 8, 1807; Jan. 20, 1810; Oct. 1, Dec. 17, 1814; 
Aug. 19, 1815. Montgomery Co. Hist. Soc, Norristown, 
has Mar. 15, 1803. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 28, 1809. 
N. J. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 4, 1812; Sept. 6, Dec. 6, 1817; 
July 18, 25, Sept. 19-Oct. 10, 31, Nov. 28, Dec. 5, 1818; 
Jan. 23, Feb. 6, 13, Mar. 6. Apr. 3, 10, May 1, 29, June 12, 
Aug. 28, Sept. 25 -Oct. 16, Nov. 6, 20, 1819. A. A. S. 
has: 

1800. July 9. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 129 

1803. Oct. 11. 
Nov. 1, 8, 29. 
Dec. 5, 20, 27. 
Supplement: Nov. 1, 8. 

1804. Jan. 10, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Mar. 13, 27. 
Apr. 3, 17, 24. 
May 1, 8, 22. 
June 5, 19, 26. 
July 17. 

Aug. 14. 

Sept. 18. 

Oct. 16, 30 

Nov. 13. 

Dec. 4, 18. 

Supplement: May 24. 

1805. Jan. 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 19. 

Mar. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 9, 16, 3Q. 
May 14. 
July 9, 30. 
Aug. 6, 13, 20. 
Oct. 1, 15, 22. 
Nov. 26. 
Dec. 3, 31. 
Supplement: Mar. 26. 

1806. Jan. 14. 

Apr. 8, 22, 29. 
May 6, 20, 27. 
June 3, 17. 
July 8, 22. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 30. 
Oct. 14, 21. 
Nov. 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 2, 23, 30. 



130 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

1807. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. ' 

Supplement: Feb. 3. 

Missing: Jan. 13, Feb. 17, May 12, June 

9, July 14, 28, Sept. 15, 22, Oct. 13, 
Nov. 3. 

1808. Feb. 23. 
Mar. 29. 

May 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
June 14, 21. 
July 12. 
Aug. 2, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13, 20. 
Supplement: Mar. 29. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: May 23. 
Missing: Jan. 3, Mar. 21, Apr. 4, 11, 
July 4, 11, 25, Aug. 15, Sept. 5, Oct. 3, 

10, 24, 31, Nov. 7, 21, 28, Dec. 2, 9. 

1810. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: May 12, 19. 

Mutilated: June 2, Sept. 29. 
Missing: Jan. 27, Aug. 4, 18, Oct. 27, 
Nov. 3, Dec. 1. 

1811. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Mar. 9, Apr. 27, May 4, June 8, 
22, July 27, Aug. 17, 24, 31, Sept. 21, 
Oct. 19, Nov. 23, 30, Dec. 21. 

1812. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Extra: June 27. 

Mutilated: Feb. 29. 

Missing: May 16, 23, June 13, July 11, 

25, Aug. 8, 29, Sept. 19, 26, Oct. 10, 24, 

Nov. 7, 14, 28, Dec. 26. 

1813. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Jan. 2, 9, Mar. 6, 13, June 5, 
July 17, Aug. 21, Nov. 27. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 131 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 8, Mar. 19, Apr. 9, 23, 
July 9, 16, Aug. 20, Oct. 1. 

1815. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: July 1. 

Missing: Jan. 28, Feb. 4, Mar. 4, May 6, 
20, 27, June 24, July 22, Aug. 12, 26, 
Sept. 23, 30, Oct. 21, Nov. 11. 

1816. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Mar. 2, 16, May 4, June 1, 8, 
Aug. 24. 

1817. Jan. 11, 18, 25. 
Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5, 12, 19. 

Lancaster Journal, 1794-1820+. 

Weekly, tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established in 
June 1794, judging from the date of the earliest issue 
located, that of June 17, 1795, vol. 2, no. 1, published 
by Willcocks & Hamilton (Henry Willcocks and William 
Hamilton), with the title of "The Lancaster Journal." 
With the issue of July 1, 1796, the partnership was dis- 
solved and William Hamilton became sole publisher. 
About January 1799, the title was shortened to " Lan- 
caster Journal." With the issue of Aug. 23, 1815, the 
paper was changed from a weekly to a tri-weekly, and a 
new volume numbering was adopted. With the issue of 
Jan. 20, 1819, publication was changed to semi-weekly. 
With the issue of Jan. 7, 1820, the paper was sold to 

Huss & Brenner (John Huss and Brenner), and 

was changed to a weekly. With the issue of July 7, 1820, 
John Reynolds became the publisher and continued the 
paper until after 1820. 

Lancaster Intelligencer Office has June 17, 1795 -June 
2, 1798; June 14, 1800-May 12, 1815; Aug. 18, 1815- 
Dec. 29, 1820. 



132 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Harvard has Sept. 2, Nov. 27, 1795; Apr. 8, 1796 -Apr. 
14, 1797, fair; Aug. 3, 1799; Aug. 22, Sept. 19, 26, Oct. 10, 
Nov. 28, Dec. 12-26, 1801; Jan. 16, Apr. 3, Oct. 16, 1802; 
June 25, July 2, Nov. 12, Dec. 24, 1803; Mar. 7, 10, 1804; 
Dec. 27, 1805; Feb. 20, June 5, Sept. 25, 1807; Mar. 18, 
1808. 

Univ. of Pittsburgh has June 21, July 8, 22, 29, Sept. 16, 
Nov. 4, 18, 25, Dec. 2, 23, 1796; Jan. 15, Feb. 24, Mar. 10- 
Apr. 1, 28, May 5, 19, 26, 1797; Jan. 6, 20 -Feb. 3, 17, 24, 
Apr. 28, May 26, June 2, Sept. 29, Oct. 27-Nov. 10, 24, 
1798; Feb. 16, 23, Mar. 9, 23, June 1, 8, 29, Aug. 3, 17, 31, 
Sept. 14, 28, Oct. 9, 19 -Nov. 6, 23, Dec. 4-25, 1799. 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has June 6, 1799 -Nov. 12, 
1803; Jan. 3, 1804 -Dec. 27, 1805; Apr. 24, 1807 -Dec. 24, 
1819; Jan. 14, Feb. 4, Aug. 11, 1820. 

Lib. Congress has June 6, 1799 -June 6, 1801; Apr. 25, 
May 9, 1806; Mar. 18, 1816; Apr. 17, 1817; Apr. 16, 1819. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 3, 1801 -Dec. 26, 1806, fair; 
June 26, 1807 -May 12, 1810; Oct 13, 1810; Feb. 1, 1812- 
July 28, 1815; Oct. 13, 16, 1815; Oct. 9, 1816; May 5, 12, 
June 23, Aug. 13, 15, 1817; Jan. 21, Feb. 2, May 29, 
Aug. 5, Sept. 30, Oct. 19, 1818; Jan 1, 4, Feb. 5, 9, 26- 
Mar. 12, 30, Apr. 6, July 23, Sept. 14, Oct. 19, 1819; 
Jan. 28 -Dec. 29, 1820, fair. 

British Museum has Aug. 29, 1801 -Aug. 28, 1802. 

Penn. State Lib. has Jan. 15 -Dec. 30, 1808; Jan. 14- 
Dec. 3, 1813; Aug. 28, 1815 -Sept. 4, 1816. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has July 15, 22, 1796. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has July 18, 1817. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 22, 1819. 
A. K. Hostetter, Lancaster, has Oct. 2, 1816 -Dec. 10, 
1817. A. A. S. has: 



1797. 


Mar. 17. 


1798. 


Jan. 27. 


1803. 


Mar. 31. 


1804. 


Feb. 4. 




Mar. 3. 




Extra: Feb. 1, 29, Mar. 7, 21. 


1805. 


Apr. 5, 12. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 133 

1806. Feb. 21. 
Mar. 7. 
Apr. 18. 
Oct. 10, 31. 
Dec. 5, 12. 
Supplement: Feb. 21, Oct. 10. 

1809. Mar. 10. 
Apr. 7. 

1810. Jan. 29. 
July 28. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 20, 27. 

1811. Feb. 8. 
Apr. 5, 12. 
May 17. 

1812. May 22. 

Sept. 25. 

1813. Jan. 14. 

1815. May 5. 
Oct. 13 m . » 
Dec. 18, 22. 

1816. Jan. 26. 

Feb. 28. 

1818. May 18. 

[Lancaster] Landmanns Wochenblatt, 1798-1799. 

Weekly. Established in February 1798, by William 
Hamilton and Conrad Wortmann, with the title of "Das 
Landmanns Wochenblatt" (announcement of publica- 
tion advertised in "The Lancaster Journal" of Jan. 27, 
1798). In "Der Deutsche Porcupein" of Mar. 6, 1799, 
it is noticed that "Das Landmanns Wochenblatt" was 
discontinued on Feb. 19, 1799, after a life of only one year, 
and was succeeded by the Lancaster Wochenblatt 
(information supplied by James O. Knauss). No copies 
located. 



134 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Lancaster] Neue Unpartheyische Lancaster Zeitung, 1787- 
1797. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 8, 1787, by Stiemer, 
Albrecht and Lahn (Anton Stiemer, Johann Albrecht and 
Jacob Lahn), with the title of "Neue Unpartheyische 
Lancaster Zeitung, und Anzeigs -Nachrichten. " A Pros- 
pectus was issued, dated June 5, 1787. Anton Stiemer 
died Apr. 12, 1788, and with the issue of Apr. 16, 1788, the 
paper was published by Albrecht and Lahn. Lahn retired 
and with the issue of Mar. 17, 1790, the firm name became 
Johann Albrecht and Co. The last issue located is that 
of Nov. 1, 1797, no. 536. It was succeeded, on Jan. 3, 
1798, by "Der Deutsche Porcupein." 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 8, 1787 -Aug. 7, 1793. 
Lib. Congress has Aug. 8, 1787 -Jan. 12, 1791. Harvard 
has Oct. 3, 1787 -Apr. 23, 1788, fair; Dec. 25, 1793. 
A. K. Hostetter, Lancaster, has Jan. 28, 1789 -July 14, 
1790, also prospectus of June 5, 1787. Penn. State Lib. 
has Sept. 1, 1790 -July 25, 1792. N.Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Dec. 14, 1791; Apr. 18, 1792; Oct. 22, 1794; Apr. 20, 26, 
1796; Nov. 1, 1797. 

[Lancaster] Pennsylvania Farmer, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 26, 1812, by William 
Greer, with the title of "The Pennsylvania Farmer." 
With the issue of Sept. 16, 1812, Greer was succeeded by 
Jesse Kendall. The last issue located is that of Sept. 1, 
1813, vol. 2, no. 2, and it was probably the last, as Kendall 
announced his inability to attend to the paper, because of 
sickness. 

Carnegie Lib., Pittsburgh, has Aug. 26, 1812 -Sept. 1, 
1813. Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has June 2, 1813. A.A. 
S. has: 

1812. Sept. 2. 

[Lancaster] Pennsylvania Gazette, 1817- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Aug. 12, 1817, by Hugh Maxwell, 
with the title of "The Pennsylvania Gazette," and so 
continued until after 1820. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 135 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 12, 1817 -Dec. 15, 
1818. Lib. Congress has Jan. 11, 25, Feb. 8, 15, 29, 
Mar. 14-28, 1820. 

[Lancaster] Pennsylvania Packet, 1777-1778. 

Weekly. Removed from Philadelphia because of the 
occupation of that city by the British army. The last 
issue at Philadelphia was that of Sept. 9, 1777, no. 304, 
entitled "Dunlap's Pennsylvania Packet, or the General 
Advertiser. " The first issue at Lancaster was that of 
Nov. 29, 1777, entitled "The Pennsylvania Packet, or 
the General Advertiser," published by John Dunlap. 
Neither this or the subsequent Lancaster issues bore 
volume numbering. The next issue was that of Dec. 3, 

1777, and the paper was then published weekly to June 17, 

1778. This was the last issue at Lancaster. The British 
evacuated Philadelphia, June 18, and on July 4, 1778, 
Dunlap brought out his paper again at Philadelphia. 
See under Philadelphia. 

Lib. Congress has Nov. 29, 1777 -June 17, 1778. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has Nov. 29, Dec. 17, 1777 -June 17, 1778. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has Dec. 17, 1777; Feb. 11, Apr. 1, May 
6, 13, 27, June 17, 1778. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 21, 
28, Apr. 15, May 6-27, June 10, 17, 1778. Penn. State 
Lib. has Feb. 18 -May 20, June 3, 6, 10, 1778. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 18, May 6, 20, 23, 27, June 6, 1778. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 11, 1778. A. A. S. has: 



1777. Dec. 3, 24. 




1778. Jan. 21. 




Feb. 11, 18, 


25. 


Mar. 9, 18. 




Apr. 8, 22. 




May 6, 13 m 3 


27. 



[Lancaster] Pennsylvanische Zeitungs-Blat, 1778. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 4, 1778, by Frantz [Francis] 
Bailey, with the title of " Das Pennsylvanische Zeitungs- 



136 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Blat. The paper was discontinued with the issue of 
June 24 ; 1778,no. 21. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Feb. 4 -June 24, 1778. Lib. Con- 
gress has Apr. 29, June 3, 24, 1778. 

Lancaster Repository, 1806. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 9, 1806, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 4, 1806, vol. 
1, no. 9, printed by William Greear, with the title of "The 
Lancaster Repository." It was of quarto size, paged, 
and was more of a magazine than a newspaper, but it 
contained marriage and death notices, and occasional 
local news. The last issue located is that of Oct. 18, 
1806, vol. l,no. 11. 

A. A. S. has: 

1806. Oct. 4, 11, 18. 

[Lancaster] Times, 1808-1810. 

Weekly. Removed from Harrisburg to Lancaster, 
where it was continued under its former title of "The 
Times," with the issue of Apr. 8, 1808, vol. 1, no. 26, 
published by 'Hugh Hamilton. It was published at 
Lancaster until March, 1810, when it was discontinued 
there and moved back to Harrisburg, because of the remo- 
val of the seat of government to Harrisburg. The last 
Lancaster issue located is that of Mar. 17, 1810, vol. 3, 
no. 22. See under Harrisburg. 

Penn. State Lib. has Apr. 8, 1808 -Mar. 17, 1810. 
Dauphin Co. Hist. Soc, Harrisburg, has Apr. 8 -Nov. 25, 
1808. 

[Lancaster] Volksfreund, 1808- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Aug. 9, 1808, by Hamilton and 
Ehrenfried (William Hamilton and Joseph Ehrenf ried) , 
with the title of "Der Volksfreund." With the issue of 
Jan. 17, 1809, Peter Albrecht was added to the firm, which 
became Hamilton, Albrecht, and Ehrenfried. With the 
issue of Jan. 29, 1810, the firm name became Hamilton and 
Ehrenfried, and with Apr. 7, 1810, William Hamilton and 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 137 

Co. In 1817, the paper was purchased by Johann Bar 
and Samuel Kling. The latter retired late in 1817, and 
Bar [John Bear] continued the paper until after 1820. 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 9, 1808 -July 19, 
1813; Aug. 9, 1814- Aug. 29, 1815; June 23, Sept. 8, 1818. 
» A. A. S. has: 

1810. June 15. 

July 13. 

1820. Oct. 17. 

[Lancaster] Wahre Amerikaner, 1804-1820-f. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 10, 1804, by Henrich and 
Benjamin Grimier, with the title of "Der Wahre Amerika- 
ner. " It was a paper of quarto size. Henry Grimier died 
in 1814 (Seidensticker "German Printing in America", 
p. 191), and Benjamin Grimier became sole publisher, 
and continued the paper until after 1820. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Nov. 10, 1804-Dec. 28, 1811. 
A. A. S. has: 

1805. Nov. 23. 
1810. June 16. * 

Lancaster Wochenblatt, 1799. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 26, 1799, succeeding "Das 
Landmanns Wochenblatt." In May 1799, it was suc- 
ceeded by "Der Lancaster Correspondent" (see "Der 
Deutsche Porcupein," Lancaster, July 21, 1799). No 
copies located. 

L ancastersche Zeitung, 1 752 -1753. 

Bi-weekly. Established Jan. 15, 1752, judging from 
the date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 29, 1752, 
no. 2, published by H. Muller and S. Holland, with the 
title of "Die Lancastersche Zeitung." It was a bi- 
lingual paper, with alternate columns of German and 
.English, and bore also the English title of "The Lancaster- 
Gazette" and the names of H. Miller and S. Holland in 
English. The publishers were Henry Miller and Samuel 



138 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Holland (see I. Thomas, " History of Printing," ed. 1874, 
vol. 1, pp. 254, 286). At some time between February 
and June 1752, Miller retired and the paper was published 
by S. Holland. The last issue located is that of June 5, 
1753, no. 31. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 29, June 16, July 28, Aug. 11, 
Oct. 3, 1752; June 5, 1753. 

[Landisburg] Perry Forester, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established July 12, 1820, by H[ ] W. 
Peterson and Alexander Magee, with the title of " Perry 
Forester," and so continued until after 1820 (S. Wright, 
"History of Perry County," 1873, p. 277). No copy 
located. 

Lebanon Courier, 1819- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Oct. 15, 1819, judging from a 
copy seen in 1901, and dated Jan. 8, 1820, vol. 1, no. 15, 
published by George Hanke (Publications of Lebanon Co. 
Hist. Soc, vol. 1, p. 398). It was continued until after 
1820. No copy located. 

[Lebanon] Freymuthige Libanoner, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1807, by Jacob Schnee, 
with the title of "Der Freymuthige Libanoner. " It was 
discontinued with the issue of Nov. 30, 1808, no. 100, 
when it was sold to Jacob Stover, who established "Der 
Libanoner Morgenstern " in its place. 

Penn. State Lib. has Jan. 1, 1807 -Nov. 30, 1808. 

[Lebanon] Libanoner Morgenstern, 1808- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established by Jacob Stover and Co., Dec. 
7, 1808, with the title of "Der Libanoner Morgenstern," 
succeeding "Der Freymuthige Libanoner" published by 
Jacob Schnee, but adopting a new volume numbering. 
With the issue of Dec. 28, 1808, however, Jacob Schnee 
was again given as the publisher and the earlier volume 
numbering resumed. The next issue located is that of 
Aug. 30, 1817, no. 558, published by Jacob Stover, there- 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 139 

fore when Schnee finally discontinued his connection with 
the paper cannot be told. It was continued by Stover 
until after 1820. 

Penn, State Lib. has Dec. 7-28, 1808; Aug. 30, 1817. 

[Lebanon] Unpartheyische Berichte, 1816-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1816, by Joseph Hartman 
with the title of "Der Unpartheyische Berichte," and so 
continued until after 1820 (W. H. Egle, "History of 
Counties of Dauphin and Lebanon/' 1883, pt. 2, p. 148). 
No copy located. 

[Lewistown] Juniata Gazette, 1811-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in 1811 by James Dickson and 
William P. Elliott. The earliest issue located is that of 
Apr. 14, 1815, vol. 4, no. 19, published by Dickson & 
Elliott, with the title of "Juniata Gazette. " In 1815, 
Elliott retired and Dickson became sole publisher. In 
November 1818, William Mitchell became the publisher 
and slightly altered the title to "The Juniata Gazette." 
In December 1819, he adopted a new volume numbering, 
beginning with his ownership of the paper, and resumed 
the former title "Juniata Gazette." Continued until 
after 1820. 

A. A. S. has: 

1815. Apr. 14. 
May 19 m . 

1819. Apr. 2, 9, 20. 

1820. Jan. IK 

[Lewistown] Mifflin Gazette, 1796. 

No copy of this paper has been located, and it is known 
through a vote in the Mifflin County records, May 18, 
1796, authorizing a payment to Joseph Charles for 
publishing certain advertisements in the Mifflin Gazette 
("History of Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys," 1886, 
v.l,p.507). 



140 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

[Lewistown] Monitor, 1798. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 3, 1798, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of Dec. 22, 
1798, vol. 1, no. 8, published by John Doyle, with the 
title of "The Monitor of Mifflin & Huntingdon." 

Mrs. B. F. Africa, Harrisburg, has Dec. 22, 1798. 

[Lewistown] Western Star, 1800-1813. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 27, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 12, 1801, 
vol. 1, no. 12, published by Edward Cole, with the title of 
" The Western Star. " The " History of Susquehanna and 
Juniata Valleys," 1886, vol. 1, p. 508, states that it was 
established Nov. 26, 1800, by Edward Cole and John 
Doyle, that the latter retired Jan. 22, 1801, and that Cole 
continued the paper until about 1805, when his office was 
destroyed. The last issue located is that of Sept. 23, 
1805, vol. 5, no. 29. The paper is included in the 1810 
list of newspapers, under Lewistown, with Edward Cole 
given as publisher (I. Thomas, "History of Printing," 
ed. 1874, v. 2, p. 300). In the Harrisburg "Pennsyl- 
vania Republican" of Mar. 8, 1814, is the record of the 
death of Edward Cole, Dec. 13, 1813, aged 35, editor of 
the "late Western Star, of Lewistown." 

Lib. Congress has Feb. 12, 1801; Jan. 16, 1804; Sept. 
23,1805. A. A. S. has: 



1801. 


Feb. 19. 




Oct. 30. 


1802. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 28. 




Mutilated: June 11. 




Missing: Jan. 29, May 21, Oct. 1, Dec. 21 


1803. 


Jan. 4, 18, 25 m . 


1804. 


Aug. 20 m . 



Marietta Pilot, 1813-1818. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 23, 1813, by John Huss, 
with the title of " The Marietta Pilot. " He continued as 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 141 

publisher at least until Feb. 28, 1817. The next issue 
located, and also the last, is that of Jan. 3, 1818, vol. 4, 
no. 43, edited by William Peirce. 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 30, 1813 -Feb. 28, 
1817. Harvard has May 17, 24, June 14, 1814. A. A. S. 
has: 

1818. Jan. 3. 

[Marietta] Village Chronicle, 1820. 

In the "York Recorder" of Aug. 16, 1820, is a reference 
to" The Village Chronicle,a paper published at Marietta." 
According to Ellis and Evans, "History of Lancaster 
County," 1883, p. 632, the publisher of this paper was 
William Peirce. No copy, however, has been located. 

[Meadville] Crawford Democrat, 1809-1813. 

In the Harrisburg "Pennsylvania Republican" of 
Mar. 8, 1814, is a notice of the death of Edward Cole, on 
Dec. 13, 1813, aged 35 years, editor of the "Crawford 
Democrat" of Meadville. No copy of a paper with this 
title has been located. J. C. White's "History of Mercer 
County," 1909, vol. 1, p. 217, states that Jacob Herring- 
ton from 1809 to 1811 published a paper at Meadville in 
opposition to the Crawford Weekly Messenger, and then 
removed to Mercer, where he established the "Western 
Press". It is possible that the paper referred to was the 
"Crawford Democrat." 

[Meadville] Crawford Weekly Messenger, 1805-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1805, by Atkinson & 
Brendle (Thomas Atkinson and William Brendle), with 
the title of "The Crawford Weekly Messenger." With 
the issue of July 10, 1805, Thomas Atkinson became sole 
publisher and continued the paper until after 1820. 

John E. Reynolds, Meadville, has Jan. 2, 1805 -Dec. 26, 
1820. Lib. Congress has Apr. 14, 1808; Aug. 29, 1812; 
Apr. 16, June 27, 1818; Dec. 24, 1819. Allegheny 



142 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

College, Meadville,.has July29-Sept. 2, 1815; Jan. 20, 
1816 -Dec. 26, 1820, fair. A. A. S. has: 

1810. Aug. 20, 27. 

1816. Oct. 26. 
Nov. 3, 22. 
Dec. 6. 

1817. Jan. 3, 10, 17,24,31. 
Feb. 14, 21. 

Aug. 1. 

1819. Dec. 17. 

1820. Jan. 28. 
June 23. 
July 14. 
Dec. 26. 

[Meadville] Western Standard, 1820. 

Established by Joseph D. Lowry in 1820, (" History of 
Crawford County," 1885, p. 429). No copy located. 

[Meansville] Bradford Gazette, see under Towanda. 

[Mercer] Western Press, 1811-1820-h 

Weekly. Established Feb. 21, 1811, by Jacob Herring- 
ton, with the title of "The Western Press," and con- 
tinued by him until after 1820 (see J. G. White, "His- 
tory of Mercer County," 1909, v. 1, p. 217). 

Hist. Soc. Western Penn., Pittsburgh, has Apr. 3, 1812. 
A. A. S. has: 

1817. Mar. 25. 
1819. Jan. 21. 

[Mifflinburg] Advocate of the Union, 1815-1816. 

"The Advocate of the Union" was published at Mif- 
flinburg, in Union County, in 1816, by Hugh Maxwell 
(see J.B. Linn, "History of Centre and Clinton Counties," 
1883, p. 56). It was discontinued Sept. 27, 1816, "after 
a lingering illness of one year and seven months" (J. B. 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 143 

Linn, " Annals of Buffalo Valley," 1877, p. 433). No 
copy located. It is also stated by Mr. Linn that Andrew 
Kennedy commenced a paper in 1814, but sold out to 
Henry Shaup in 1815, although the title of the paper is 
unknown ("Annals of Buffalo Valley," p. 418). 

[Mifflintown] 

A newspaper, the name of which is now unknown, was 
established by Michael Duffey about 1794 and discon- 
tinued presumably in 1797 ("History of Susquehanna and 
Juniata Valleys, " 1886, v. 1, p. 722). 

[Mifflintown] Mifflin Advocate, 1820-f. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 6, 1820, by David McClure, 
according to a copy of no. 16 ("History of Susquehanna 
and Juniata Valleys," 1886, v. 1, p. 722). No copy now 
located. 

[Mifflintown] Mifflin Eagle, 1817 - 1820-f. 

Weekly. Established by Andrew Gallagher in the 
spring of 1817, and continued by him until after 1820 
("History of Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys," 1886, 
v. 1, p. 722). No copy located. 

[Milton] Miltonian, 1816-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 21, 1816, by Henry Frick, 
with the title of "The Miltonian," and so continued 
until after 1820. 

Miltonian office has Sept. 21, 1816-Dec. 1820, scat- 
tering file. A. A. S. has: 
1816. Sept. 21. 

[Monmouth] Bradford Gazette, see under Towanda. 

Montrose Gazette, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of " The Susquehannah Centinel. " The first 
issue with the title of "Montrose Gazette" was that of 



144 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

May 16, 1818, vol. 3, no. 13, published by Justin Clark. 
It was so continued until after 1820. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 16-30, June 13, Aug. 18, 
1818. Wyoming Hist. Soc. has July 25, Oct. 24, Nov. 28, 
Dec. 19, 1818; Mar. 6, June 12, July 10, 17, Oct. 2, Nov. 
20, 27, Dec. 18, 1819; Feb. 19, Aug. 5-19, Sept. 2, 23, 30, 
1820. 

A. A. S. has: 

1818. May 23. 
Oct. 10™. 

1819. May 22™. 
July 10. 

[Montrose] Messenger, 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established June 24, 1820, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Aug. 12, 1820, 
vol. 1, no. 8, published by Adam Waldie, with the title of 
"The Messenger." Continued until after 1820. 

Wyoming Hist. Soc. has Aug. 12, Sept. 2, 9, 23, 30, 
1820. Lafayette College has Sept. 9, 1820. 

[Montrose] Susquehannah Centinel, 1816-1818. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 20, 1816, by Justin Clark, 
with the title of "The Susquehannah Centinel." It was 
discontinued under this title May 9, 1818, vol. 3, no. 12, 
and was succeeded by the "Montrose Gazette," without 
change of volume numbering. 

Lafayette College has Feb. 20, 1816. Wyoming Hist. 
Soc, Wilkesbarre, has Mar. 12, 1816; Mar. 29, 1817; Mar. 
28, 1818. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 25 -May 9, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 

1817. Apr. 19. 

May 3, 24™, 31 m . 
July 12. 
Aug. 16, 23. 
Oct. 4, 18"\ 
Nov. 1, 8, 22, 29. 



1920.] Pennsylvania, 145 

1818. Jan. 24, 31 m . 
Feb. 28. 
Mar. 21. 

[Nescopeck] Independent American, see under Berwick. 

[New Berlin] Union, 1815-1817. 

In J. B. Linn's " Annals of Buffalo Valley," 1877, pp. 
418, 432, it is stated that Henry Shaup established a 
newspaper at New Berlin in 1815, referred to in 1816 as 
the "Union." No copy located. 

[Newtown] Farmers' Gazette, 1805-1814. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 10, 1805, by William B. 
Coale, with the title of "Farmers' Gazette and Bucks 
County Register," and continued for about ten years 
(W. W. H. Davis, "History of Bucks Co.," 1905, vol. 2, 
p. 314). No copy located. 

[Newtown] Herald of Liberty, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established in April 1814, judging from the 
date of the first and only issue located, that of June 21, 
1815, vol. 2, no. 61, published by David A. Robinson, 
with the title of "Herald of Liberty." 

Bucks Co. Hist. Soc, Doylestown, has June 21, 1815. 

[Newtown] Star of Freedom, 1817-1818. 

Weekly. Established May 21, 1817, with the title of 
"The Star of Freedom," printed for Asher Miner, by 
Simeon Siegfried. It was of quarto size, with eight pages 
to the issue. It was discontinued with the issue of Mar. 
25, 1818, vol. 1, no. 45. 

Bucks Co. Hist. Soc, Doylestown, has May 28, 1817- 
Mar. 25, 1818. Montgomery Co. Hist. Soc, Norristown, 
has Aug. 6 -Nov. 5, 1817. 

Norristown Gazette, 1799-1800. 

Weekly. Established June 15, 1799 (with a prelim- 
inary free issue on June 1) by David Sower,with the title 



146 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

of "The Norristown Gazette. " The last issue located is 
that of May 30, 1800, vol. 1, no. 51, and in October 1800, 
Sower replaced the paper with the " Norristown Herald." 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has June 1, 1799 -May 30, 1800. 
Lib. Congress has Oct. 4-25, Nov. 22-Dec. 6, 1799; 
Jan. 31, Feb. 7, 21, 28, Mar. 21 -May 2, 16, 23, 1800. 

Norristown Herald, 1800-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 10, 1800, by David Sower, 
with the title of " Norristown Herald, and Weekly 
Advertiser." With the issue of Apr. 13, 1809, David 
Sower transferred the paper to his son Charles Sower. 
With the issue of Oct. 15, 1812, Matthias Coats became 
the publisher, and in 1815 he was succeeded by Samuel 
Ladd. With the issue of July 10, 1816, David Sower, 
Jun., acquired the paper and continued it until after 1820. 

Montgomery Co. Hist. Soc, Norristown, has Oct. 10, 
1800 -Dec. 28, 1804; July 10, 1816 -Dec. 27, 1820. Hist. 
Soc. Penn. has Oct. 17, 1800 -Mar. 23, 1815, fair. Phil. 
Lib. Co. (Locust St.) has May 28, 1802 -Mar. 14, 1811. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 25, 1804. Schwenkfelder Hist. 
Soc, Pennsburg, has June 30, July 7, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1808. June 24. 

Norristown Register, 1803-1804. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 22, 1803, by James 
Winnard, with the title of "Norristown Register." In 
1804, the title was changed, but continuing the volume 
numbering, to "The Weekly Register," which see. 

Hist. Soc Penn. has Mar. 15, 1804. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Sept. 22. 
Oct. 6"\ 

[Norristown] True Republican, 1800-1803. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 28, 1800, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 2, 1801, vol., 
1, no. 6, published by Wilson & Palm, (Thomas Wilson 



1920.] Pennsylvania. 147 

and Palm), with the title of "The True Republi- 
can." With the issue of Aug. 28, 1801, the partnership 
was dissolved and Thomas Wilson became sole publisher. 
In 1802, the title was changed to "The True Republican 
and Weekly Journal. The last issue located is that of 
May 6, 1803, vol. 3, no. 13. 

Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 2, June 4, July 24, Sept. 4, 11, 
Nov. 20, 1801; Nov. 20, Dec. 4, 21, 1802; Jan. 4, 11, 25- 
Mar. 1, 29 -Apr. 12, 29, May 6, 1803. Lib. Congress has 
May 24, 1801. Montgomery Co. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 1, 
1803. 

[Norristown] Weekly Register, 1804- 1820+ . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Norristown Register." The change 
of title occurred in 1804, but the earliest issue located with 
the new title is that of Apr. 11, 1805, vol. 2, no. 82, 
published by James Winnard, with the title of "The 
Weekly Register. " The paper was continued by W'innard 
until after 1820. 

Montgomery Co. Hist. Soc, Norristown, has Apr. 11, 
1805; June 3, 1807; Sept* 23, Oct. 14, Dec. 2, 1812; May 
26, 1813; Feb. 9, July 6, 1814; Jan. 25, May 10, 1815; 
Mar. 6, Dec. 18, 1816; Feb. 19, Aug. 20, 1817; Mar. 25, 
1818; Oct. 25, 1820. A. A. S. has: 

1810. June 6. 
1812. Jan. 22. 

Feb. 12, 26'". 
1816. Oct. 9. 

[Northumberland] Columbia Gazette, 1813. 

Established Nov. 2, 1813, by George Sweney, with the 
title of " Columbia Gazette. " No copies located and not 
known how long issued (J. B. Linn, "Annals of Buffalo 
Valley," 1817, p. 416). 

[Northumberland] Kennedy's Sunbury and Northumberland 
Gazette, see Sunbury and Northumberland Gazette. 



148 American Antiquarian Society [Apr. 

[Northumberland] Nordwestliche Post, 1818- 1820-f. 

Weekly. Established in 1818, succeeding "Der 
Northumberland Republikaner, " published by John G. 
Youngman, and continued after 1820 (H. C. Bell, ''His- 
tory of Northumberland County," 1891, p. 279). No 
copy located. 

[Northumberland] Republican Argus, 1802-1812. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 24, 1802, by John Binns, 
with the title of "The Republican Argus, and County 
Advertiser." With the issue of Dec. 21, 1804, the title 
was altered to "The Republican Argus, and Weekly 
Advertiser," and with Dec. 18, 1805, to "The Republican 
Argus." Binns continued the paper until Mar. 11, 1807, 
vol. 5, no. 12, and then sold out to Matthew Huston. 
After an interval of three months, Matthew Huston 
resumed publication, June 3, 1807, starting a new volume 
numbering, but continuing the old title "The Republican 
Argus. " Matthew Huston died Aug. 10, 1809, and was 
succeeded by his son, Andrew C. Huston. The last issue 
located is that of July 24, 1810, vol. 4, no. 5, but the paper 
was continued certainly as late as 1812. 

Harvard has Dec. 24, 1802 -Oct. 14, 1807, scattering 
file. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Jan. 7, 1803-Dec. 11, 1805. 
Lib. Congress has Apr. 6, 1804; July 19, 26, 1805. A. A. 
S. has: 



1803. 


Jan. 14 m . 




Feb. 4 m . 


1804. 


May 18. 




June 1, 8, 15, 22. 


1807. 


June 3, 10, 17. 




July 1, 8, 15, 22. 




Aug. 5, 12, 26. 




Oct. 5, 19. 


1809. 


Oct. 4. 


1810. 


Mar. 21. 




Apr. 25™. 



1920.[ Pennsylvania. 149 

May 2 m , 23. 
June 27. 
July 4. 

Northumberland Republikaner, 1812-1818. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 12, 1812, by John G. 
Youngman, with the title of "Der Northumberland 
Republikaner. " Files were extant in 1891 dating from 
August 1815 to January 1818. In 1818, the title was 
changed to " Nordwestliche Post" (H. C. Bell, " History 
of Northumberland County," 1891, p. 279). No copy 
located. 

[Northumberland] Sunbury and Northumberland Gazette, 
1792-1817. 

Weekly. Established in June 1792, judging from a 
copy located in 1891 and dating Oct. 9, 1793, vol. 2, no. 
71, published by Andrew Kennedy, with the title of "The 
Sunbury and Northumberland Gazette." Kennedy re- 
tired at some time between 1796 and 1799 and George 
Schusler was the publisher from 1799 to 1801. Andrew 
Kennedy resumed control in 1801 and changed the title 
to "Kennedy's Sunbury & Northumberland Gazette." 
In 1805, Andrew Kennedy took his nephew James into 
partnership and the firm name became Andrew & James 
Kennedy, but in 1806 or 1807, Andrew Kennedy again 
became sole publisher. In 1812, or possibly before, 
George Sweney was taken into partnership under the firm 
name of A. Kennedy & G. Sweney, and the title was 
changed to "The Sunbury and Northumberland Gazette, 
and Republican Advertiser." The last issue located is 
that of June 29, 1813, vol. 21, no. 49, and Sweney retired 
before November 1813. The paper is stated by local 
historians to have finally suspended in 1817 (see H. C. 
Bell, "History of Northumberland County, " 1891, p. 273; 
J. B. Linn, "Annals of Buffalo Valley," 1877, pp. 416, 
608.) 

Harvard has Mar. 5, 1796. Lib. Congress has Dec. 28, 
1799; Jan. 4, Dec. 20, 1800. Berks Co. Hist. Soc, 



150 American Antiquarian Society [Apr., 

Reading, has Oct. 20-Nov. 10, 1803; Dec. 10, 1805; 
Feb. 2, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1804. Mar. 15. 
1813. June 29. 

[Perryopolis] Comet, 1817. 

Established by William Campbell (F. Ellis, "History 
of Fayette County," 1882, p. 717). In the Brownsville 
" American Telegraph" of July 9, 1817, it is referred to as 
"The Comet, printed at Perryopolis." No copy located. 



Vol. 30 New Series Part 2 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 

ftmerkan pnttqiiartan §>txtitty 

AT THE 
ANNUAL MEETING HELD IN WORCESTER 



OCTOBER 20, 1920 




WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS U. S. A. 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
1921 



THE DAVIS PRESS 
Worcester, Massachusetts 



CONTENTS. 

Proceedings . 155 

Report op the Council . . .'."•. . . . 159 

Obituaries 181 

Report op the Treasurer . . . . . . . 187 

Report of the Librarian . . . . . . . . 197 

A Famous Colonial Litigation 

The Case Between Richard Sherman and 

Capt. Robert Keayne, 1642 . . . Arthur P. Rugg 217 

The Portraits of Isaiah Thomas Charles L. Nichols 251 

IS 

The Mayflower Compact .... Arthur Lord 278 

An Artist Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 

Thomas Hovey Gage 295 



1920] Proceedings 155 



PROCEEDINGS 

ANNUAL MEETING OP THE SOCIETY, OCTOBER 20, 1920, 
AT THE HALL OF THE SOCIETY, WORCESTER 

THE annual meeting of the American Antiquarian 
Society was held at Antiquarian Hall, on Wednes- 
day, October 20, 1920, the meeting being called to 
order at 10.45 a. m. by President Lincoln. 

There were present the following members: 

Reuben Colton, Henry Herbert Edes, William 
Eaton Foster, Francis Henshaw Dewey, William 
Trowbridge Forbes, George Henry Haynes, Arthur 
Lord, Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, George 
Parker Winship, Samuel Utley, Benjamin Thomas 
Hill, Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Clarence Saunders 
Brigham, Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Worthington 
Chauncey Ford, Julius Herbert Tuttle, Charles Gren- 
fill Washburn, Samuel Bayard Woodward, George 
Hubbard Blakeslee, Wilfred Harold Munro, Henry 
Winchester Cunningham, Frank Farnum Dresser, 
George Francis Dow, Homer Gage, Herbert Edwin 
Lombard, Howard Millar Chapin, Samuel Eliot 
Morison, Grenville Howland Norcross, Thomas Hovey 
Gage, Otis Grant Hammond, John Whittemore 
Farwell, Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, Leonard 
Wheeler, Alexander George McAdie, Nathaniel Thayer 
Kidder, George Anthony Gaskill, John Woodbury, 
Alfred Lawrence Aiken, John Henry Edmonds, 
Leonard Leopold Mackall, Samuel Lyman Munson, 
William Roscoe Thayer, Merrick Lincoln, George 
Leander Shepley, James Benjamin Wilbur. 



156 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The call for the meeting having been read by the 
Secretary, the reading of the records of the last meet- 
ing was dispensed with by vote of the Society and the 
records were approved. 

The President then read the report of the Council; 
Dr. S. B. Woodward presented the printed report of 
the Treasurer; and Mr. Brigham read the report of the 
Librarian. It was moved by Mr. Thayer, and so 
voted, that these three reports be accepted as the 
report of the Council and referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

Election of officers and new members being next in 
order, the President appointed Messrs. Edes, Wilbur 
and Chapin to collect, sort and count the ballots for 
President. They reported that all ballots cast were 
for Waldo Lincoln. The committee on other officers, 
appointed by the President, were Messrs. Cunningham, 
Morison and Edmonds, and they reported the follow- 
ing names to be acted upon by the Society: 

Vice-Presidents, 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, LL.D., of New York, 
N. Y. 

Councillors. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Utley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Milton, 
Mass. 

George Parker Winship, Litt. D., of Dover, Mass. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D,, of New Haven, Conn. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

Henry Herbert Edes, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., of Worcester, 
Mass. 



1920.] Proceedings 157 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence. 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt. D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Litt. D., of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Recording Secretary. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., Litt. D., of Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

Treasurer. 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

Committee of Publication. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 
John Henry Edmonds, of Boston, Mass. 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

Auditors. 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
Homer Gage, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

The Secretary was authorized by vote to cast a yea 
ballot for the members so named and the President 
declared them elected. The oath of office was admin- 
istered to the Secretary by Mr. Gaskill. 

The President appointed Messrs. Norcross, McAdie 
and Gaskill a committee to collect the ballots for new 
members and this committee announced the unani- 
mous election of the following: 

Resident Members. 
John Adams Aiken, of Greenfield, Mass. 
William Gwinn Mather, of Cleveland, Ohio. 
Fred Norris Robinson, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson, of Charleston, S. C. 

Foreign Member. 
Jorge M. Corbacho, of Lima, Peru. 



158 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Professor Blakeslee reported on the work accom- 
plished by the graduate students at Clark University, 
selected to fill the American Antiquarian Society 
fellowship. He spoke strongly of the benefits to this 
Society which would follow the dissemination of a 
knowledge of our resources by these scholars, whose 
work had been done largely in the library of the 
Society. 

There being no further business, the following 
papers were presented : 

In the absence of Chief Justice Rugg, Mr. Dresser 
read his paper entitled, "The Case between Richard 
Sherman and Capt. Robert fceayne, 1642." 

Dr. Nichols read a paper on "The Portraits of 
Isaiah Thomas." In connection with the paper he 
presented a pastel portrait of Mr. Thomas, in his 
name and that of Mr. Leonard C. Couch of Taunton, 
to whom the picture descended from Isaiah Thomas 
himself, through his grand-daughter Hannah, who 
was the grandmother of Mr. Couch. 

Mr. Arthur Lord read a paper on "The Mayflower 
Compact." Mr. Munro, in congratulating the 
Society on this important paper, said that it should be 
widely read because of the large amount of misin- 
formation on the subject of the Pilgrims which is 
being disseminated at this time by inaccurate articles. 

Mr. T. Hovey Gage read a paper on "An Artist 
Index to Stauffer's American Engravers." 

It was voted on motion of Mr. Edes, that these 
papers be referred to the Committee of Publication. 

The President invited the members to lunch with 
him at his residence, 49 Elm Street, at the close of the 
meeting. There being no further business the meet- 
ing was dissolved. 

Charles Lemuel Nichols, 

Recording Secretary. 



1920.] Report of the Council 159 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 



THE Council has to report the deaths of four 
resident members and of one foreign member. 
Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., of Montgomery, 
Alabama, died at Montgomery, March 25, 1920, but 
the fact of his death was not known to the Council 
until after the April meeting. James Schouler, LL.D., 
of Intervale, New Hampshire, died at his home, April 
16, 1920. Both these gentlemen were elected to 
membership in the Society in October, 1907. William 
Denison Lyman, A.M., of Walla Walla, Washington, 
who was elected to the Society in April 1902, died 
June 21, 1920. Franklin Bowditch Dexter,Litt.D., of 
New Haven, Connecticut, who has been a member 
since April, 1879, and was at the time of his death 
the senior member of the Society, died in New Haven, 
August 13. From 1885 £o 1897, he was a councillor 
and from 1897 to 1912 he was secretary of foreign 
correspondence, thus serving as a member of the 
Council for twenty-seven years and always a faithful 
attendant of its meetings. He withdrew from office 
to the great regret of his fellow councillors, but main- 
tained his interest in the Society to the last. During 
his long membership he furnished seven papers to 
the Society's Proceedings, the last in 1917. Brief 
memoirs of these members will be prepared for 
publication in the Proceedings. The only death of 
a foreign member which has been reported is that of 
Samuel Alexander Lafone Quevedo, M. A., of La 
Plata, Argentine Republic, which occurred June 18, 
last. Sefior Quevedo was Director of the Museum 
and Professor of Languages in the Faculty of Natural 
Sciences in the University of La Plata, and Professor 



160 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

of Languages and American Archaeology in the 
University of Buenos Aires. He received the degree 
of M. A. at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1858 and 
was elected to this Society in 1910. 

The death of Franklin Pierce Rice, chairman of the 
committee of publication threw much additional work 
on our already overburdened librarian, and this with 
the labor troubles common to all printing offices 
caused a much regretted but unavoidable delay in the 
publication of the Proceedings. In this emergency 
Mr. George Henry Haynes, the senior member of the 
committee, consented to take charge of the printing 
for a time at least, and the result is such that it is 
hoped that Mr. Haynes will continue in this important 
work. The number for last October has already been 
distributed to the members and that for last April is so 
far advanced that it will be ready for distribution 
before the end of the year. 

Under the authority granted by the Society at the 
April meeting the dome of the building has been 
covered with copper and the interior of the dome has 
been repainted at a cost of $4,389.30 which has been 
added to the cost of the building. The work was well 
and satisfactorily done by the Clason Architectural 
Metal Works of Providence, Rhode Island, upon the 
recommendation of the J. W. Bishop Company of 
Worcester, the original contractors for the building. 
At the same time it was discovered that the whole roof, 
on which no repairs had been made for ten years, 
needed immediate attention, and that the upper part 
of the walls and all the joints in the marble trimmings 
needed repointing to save the walls from disintegration 
which had already begun. A contract was made with 
the Clason company to cover all the flat roofs with two 
thicknesses of tarred paper and a top coating of 
broken slag and the J. W. Bishop Company were 
ordered to do the necessary repointing. All this work 
was completed early in the summer at a total cost of 
$2,278.74. Of this $1,031.40 has been met from this 



1920.] Report of the Council 161 

year's income and the balance temporarily charged to 
Building Account. The whole roof is in consequence 
completely water tight for the first time since the 
completion of the building and in better condition 
than ever, and in consequence of the covering of light 
colored slag, which reflects the sun's heat rays, all 
the upper rooms are much cooler in summer than here- 
tofore. 

The attention of the Society has been repeatedly 
called by the Council to the pressing need for an 
addition to the stack, especially to that part devoted 
to newspapers. Of course with every year the need 
becomes more urgent and a beginning has at last been 
made towards satisfying it by the establishment of 
a Building Fund which already amounts to over ten 
thousand dollars and to which all members are earnest- 
ly invited to contribute. It is designed to let this 
Fund accumulate by the addition of gifts and annual 
interest until sufficient to pay the cost of the proposed 
addition. This cost now, it is estimated, would 
require one hundred thousand dollars, but it is hoped 
that the expense of building will be so far reduced in 
the course of a year or two that a much smaller sum 
will suffice and the work will be commenced as soon as 
the Fund is large enough to warrant it. The Fund 
was started by the liberality of a citizen of Worcester, 
not a member of the Society, Mr. David Hale Fanning 
who, on the presentation of the Society's needs by Mr. 
Clarence W. Bowen, generously gave five thousand 
dollars to be devoted to the preservation and main- 
tenance of the newspaper collection, Mr. Bowen 
agreeing to raise an equal amount from other friends 
and members of the Society. Your president in 
acknowledging Mr. Fanning's gift stated that the 
whole ten thousand dollars would form the nucleus 
of a building fund for an addition to the stack, to 
enable the Society to house and preserve its collection 
of newspapers. Mr. Bowen reports that he has 
already received subscriptions for the five thousand 



162 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

dollars which he agreed to raise, part of which has 
already been paid and the rest will be paid next year, 
and all members will be asked to contribute to this 
fund during the coming year, making the payments to 
suit their own convenience either in full or by install- 
ments. It is proper to state that Mr. Fanning's gift 
is the largest sum of money ever given to the Society 
by a non-member. 

This being the three hundredth anniversary of the 
Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, it may be inter- 
esting and profitable to recall what was done by this 
Society one hundred years ago to commemorate the 
two hundredth anniversary. The records of the sub- 
council contain the report of a committee which shows 
that that body had the subject in mind as early as 
January 15, 1819, when the committee was appointed, 
but the attention of the Society was not called to it 
until the annual meeting in 1820. The report is as 
follows : 

Your committee, appointed to take into consideration the 
expediency of a publick commemoration of the landing of our 
Forefathers at the close of the second century since that 
auspicious event, have attended to that service, & beg leave 
to report. 

The close of the second century since the landing of our 
Forefathers is a period, which peculiarly invites to a review of 
the rise, progress and final establishment of our Common- 
wealth. The little band of Pilgrims has become a numerous 
& powerful people. We are now in the possession of every 
blessing which renders a country dear, and life valuable. 
Our present state of high prosperity cannot be traced to any 
extraneous assistance which the first settlers of our country 
received from foreign nations; nor will it be found to originate 
in any peculiar qualities of our country itself. Our ancestors 
were persecuted refugees from the old world ; and they without 
assistance encountered with the dangers of the wilderness, & 
the difficulties of a severe climate & a stubborn soil. To the 
discriminative characters of our forefathers, and to the 
institutions & habits which they transmitted are we to look for 
the causes of our present situation. The series of events thro' 
the last two hundred years fully display the legitimate effects 
of the principles of the men who laid the foundation of our 
Commonwealth. 



1920.] Report of the Council 163 

Plymouth bears the traces of the first footsteps of our 
venerated ancestors; there, our retrospection of past events may 
be made with the most delightful emotion; there, the debt of 
gratitude to the fathers of our country will be felt with the 
greatest animation & warmth. 

Therefore resolved, 
That a committee be appointed to write to the Society of 
the Pilgrims in Plymouth, proposing an united celebration of 
the 20th of December 1820 in that town, by them and the 
American Antiquarian Society, in commemoration of the 
landing of our Forefathers. 

All which is humbly submitted 

(signed) Aaron Bancroft 
Worcester February 1st 1819. 

The minutes of the sub-council, which have never 
been printed, furnish the following: 

Feb. 1, 1819. Voted: that the President and Rev. Dr. 
Bancroft, vice-president with the Hon. Levi Lincoln, Jun., be a 
committee to make a communication to the Society (of the 
Pilgrims) at Plymouth on the subject. 

March 2, 1819. Voted : that the President be requested to 
address a note to Barnabas Pledge Esq r of Plymouth desiring 
him to transfer to the selectmen of that town the communica- 
tion of this board, recently made, proposing to unite with the 
Pilgrim Society in celebrating the two hundredth anniversary 
of the Landing of our Ancestors. 

June 7, 1819. The President reported that— he had 
addressed the following letter to Barnabas Hedge of Plymouth: 

Worcester June 3 d 1819 
The government of the American Antiquarian Society have 
been favoured with your answer to a Letter addressed to you 
by their Committee respecting a union with the Gentlemen in 
Plymouth in the Celebration of the two hundredth anniversary 
or fourth jubilee, of the Landing of our Ancestors in New 
England; and as you have informed the said Committee that 
there is no particular Society which conducts the proceedings 
on such anniversaries, but that they are usually regulated by 
the Selectmen of Plymouth; and, as the Government of the 
American Antiquarian Society have not the pleasure of an 
acquaintance with those gentlemen, I am requested by the 
Officers of said Society to desire you to have the goodness to 
transfer the Letter, some time since address' d to you by the 
Committee before mentioned, to your board of Selectmen, who 
are respectfully requested to consider said letter as addressed 



164 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

to them, and when convenient to favour the officers of this 
Institution with their opinion on this highly interesting sub- 
ject. 

I am Sir Your obedient servant 

Barnabas Hedge, Esq. Isaiah Thomas 

No reply to this letter is on file or mentioned in the 
minutes, and nothing further was done about the 
celebration until July 24, 1820, when two letters were 
communicated from the Corresponding Secretary of 
the Pilgrim Society at Plymouth and it was voted that 
the Corresponding Secretary acknowledge the receipt 
of the above letters and communicate the following 
vote: 

At a meeting of the President, first vice-president and sub- 
council of the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, 
July 24, 1820, Voted: that the Corresponding Secretary 
acknowledge the receipt of the late communication from the 
Corresponding Sec y of the Pilgrim Society, and express the 
congratulations of the officers of this institution upon the 
occasion of the organization of that Society; and cordial 
approbation of their proposed arrangements for the celebration 
at Plymouth of the completion of the Second Century from 
the landing of our Forefathers; and our confident expectations 
that the American Antiquarian Society will have the honor of 
participating in the pleasure of the Festival, by a delegation of 
its members duly authorized at the annual meeting in October 
next. 

Only one of the two letters mentioned in the fore- 
going record is on file, but it is quite evident that the 
other one was an announcement of the organization of 
the Pilgrim Society. The letter on file is as follows: 

Isaiah Thomas Esq r . ] 

Rev d Aaron Bancroft, D.D. Plymouth, July 10, 1820 

Levi Lincoln Esq r . J 

Gentlemen, 

The completion of the second century since, the first per- 
manent settlement of New England, by the Pilgrims, will be 
commemorated at Plymouth, by the Pilgrim Society, on the 
twenty-second of December next. 

An address before the Society, may be expected on this 
interesting occasion, by the Hon-Daniel Webster of Boston. 



1920.] Report of the Council 165 

It is a vote of the trustees, "that the government of the 
American Antiquarian Society, be duly notified of these 
arrangements" — 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, 
Isaiah Thomas Esq r . very respectfully, 

& others, a Com- I Samuel Davis 

mittee of A-A-S ( Cor. Secy of the Pilgrim Society 

At the annual meeting of the Society held Oct. 23, 
1820, all the members were requested to attend the 
meeting of the Pilgrim Society on the 22nd of Decem- 
ber if possible and the following gentlemen were 
appointed delegates: the President and Vice-Presi- 
dents, Hon. Edward H. Robbins, Rev. William Jenks, 
Rev. Charles Lowell, Benjamin Russell, Esq., Isaac 
Goodwin, Esq., Hon. Levi Lincoln, Hon. Oliver Fiske, 
Hon. Nathaniel Paine, Rev. Thaddeus M. Harris, 
Samuel Jennison, Esq., and Edward D. Bangs, Esq. 
From the minutes of the sub-council it is learned that 
the President, one of the Vice-Presidents, several 
members of the Council, other Officers and many 
members of the Society, met at Plymouth, and joined 
the Pilgrim Society of the place, and the officers and a 
number of the members* of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, in celebrating the anniversary of the 
landing of our Forefathers in Plymouth "Two Hun- 
dred Years Ago. " 

This was the first celebration under the auspices of 
the Pilgrim Society which was incorporated Feb. 24, 
1820, and the exercises consisted of a public meeting 
at the meeting-house at which an address was delivered 
by Hon. Daniel Webster, a dinner at the Court House 
when Hon. Levi Lincoln offered the congratulations of 
the American Antiquarian Society, and a ball in the 
evening at the same place. Mr. Thomas records in his 
Diary: "A number of respectable Gentlemen from 
various towns, assembled at Plymouth, as well as many 
Ladies on this occasion — more than 300 Gentlemen 
dined together in the Court house built this year, and 
at a ball in the Evening, at the same place more li,...* 



166 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

400 Ladies and Gentlemen were present — Tickets for 
dinner 2 dols. tickets for the ball 3 dols. — Everything 
well conducted/' 

The first building owned by the Society was 
dedicated one hundred years ago on the 24th of last 
August, with appropriate ceremonies. It was erected 
by Isaiah Thomas, the founder and first President 
entirely at his own expense and remained his property 
until his death, but in his will he gave the land and 
buildings to the Society on the express condition, that 
if the Society should at any time cease to use the build- 
ing for its library and cabinet, then the whole estate 
should revert to Mr. Thomas's grandchildren and their 
heirs, a condition which proved very troublesome 
about twenty years later, when it became necessary 
for the Society to acquire a more commodious building. 
The lot whereon the building stood contained 
about one acre and was situated on the east side of 
Summer street, at the corner of what is now Belmont 
street but was then known as the Boston turnpike. 
Ground was broken for the building, May 31, 1819, 
and the work was finished August 9, 1820, when Mr. 
Thomas says in his Diary that he settled with the 
master workmen for the building. The total cost of 
the structure, without the land or fences or grading of 
the grounds, was $6,763.84. There seems to have been 
no general contractor employed. Mr. Thomas speaks 
of visiting the lot with the master builders and several 
gentlemen to lay out the ground for the building, and 
he settled for the building with the master workmen as 
previously stated. These master workmen are no- 
where named in Mr. Thomas's Diary nor in his cash 
accounts, unless Calvin Darby, to whom he paid $227 
in March, 1821, for stone work for the building, was 
the master mason. 

Descriptions of the building are very meagre and 
unsatisfactory. No statement of its dimensions has 
been found, but from the engraving of it, first published 
on the map of Worcester in 1829, and from photo- 



1920.] Report of the Council 167 

graphs of what remained of the front in 1910, it is seen 
to have been of brick, about fifty by thirty feet, of two 
stories, with a hip roof surmounted by a cupola. By 
counting the courses of bricks in the photograph it is 
estimated to have been twenty-three feet high between 
the stone underpinning and the roof, and the rooms 
were therefore about eleven feet in the clear. The 
front was relieved by two doric pilasters and four 
columns, all of wood, the four columns in advance of 
the face of the building by their diameters and up- 
holding a doric entablature and pediment. This front 
furnished the motif of the classical fagade of the pres- 
ent building. The following letter leaves little doubt 
that the building was designed by Peter Banner of 
Boston, but the plans could not have been very 
elaborate, judging from the modest sum asked for 
them. 

Boston, Oct. 21, 1820. 
Sir: I have expected you wold have ordered the small Bill 
for Drawing the plan of a Building for the Antiquarian Society. 
I wrote the Treasurer about a month since at the desire of 
Mr. Andrews but have not received any answer the amount 
is six dollars & you will please oblige by sending an order by 
return of Post. 

I am S r yours, 
Isaiah Thomas, Esq. Peter Banner 

Peter Banner's name appears in the Boston direc- 
tories from 1805 to 1828 as an architect and builder. 
He is described as "an ingenious architect" of English 
birth of whom little is remembered. The Park Street 
Meeting- House was built from his designs and he is 
said to have done the carpenter work on it. He was 
also the builder of the Old South parsonage house in 
1809, and the mansion of Eben Crafts on the northerly 
slope of Parker Hill in Roxbury was his work. A son 
of his is said to have been born in Worcester in 1834, so 
the father must have been living here then, but his 
name does not appear in the vital records. His father 
is said to have come to Boston from London in 1794 
and Peter probably came at this same time. 1 

1 Hist. of the the Old South Church, vol. ii, p. 343; Memorial Hist, of Boston, vol. 
iv, p. 476; Hist, of Washington, N. H., p. 293. 



168 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

There are no floor plans of the building in existence 
and the following account which was first printed in the 
New York Daily Advertiser and copied in the Rhode 
Island American of August 20, 1824 furnishes the only- 
available description of the interior. 

"The building * * * is planned with great judgment 
and taste. It is situated on a broad street, a little removed 
from the centre of the town, where it is seen to great advantage, 
the view being obstructed by no neighbouring buildings; and 
the neat and chaste style in which it is constructed, together 
with the handsome access through a courtyard, give it an air 
well corresponding with the important literary objects to which 
it is devoted. On the first floor are several apartments 
intended for the reception of pamphlets, manuscripts, &c, for 
the use of the society which are already the depositaries of 
such documents as have been collected since its formation. 
A large hall in the rear of the second story is devoted to the 
valuable library of curious and ancient books presented by 
Mr. Thomas, amounting to between 7 and 8000 volumes. 
* * * On requesting a view of the cabinet of curiosities and 
antiques, the stranger is informed that no admission has been 
allowed for more than a year. There are collected all the 
interesting specimens of minerals, arms, utensils, dresses, 
ornaments, &c. which have been forwarded to the society 
from different parts of the country/with which the world have 
been made acquainted through their publications; but on 
account of the confused situation in which they are allowed to 
remain, they are considered unfit for exhibition. " 

Presumably this cabinet was kept in one or more of 
the small rooms on the first floor, but it may have been 
kept in the front of the second floor. The large hall 
on the second floor where the " curious and ancient 
books presented by Mr. Thomas'' were kept had 
alcoves on the east wall, for the construction of which 
Mr. Thomas contracted May 18, 1820, for $300. 
Additional alcoves were constructed the following 
May, but no information is given as to their number or 
against which wall or walls they were built. This 
room was apparently used by the Society for its meet- 
ings and as the Worcester meetings until 1832 were 
usually held in summer no difficulty could have been 
found until then over the heating arrangements. That 



1920.] Report of the Council 169 

these were unsatisfactory is evident from Mr. Thomas' 
will by which he leaves to the Society $1,000 on 
condition that it erects a fireproof wing to the building. 
The cut shows three chimneys and another is con- 
cealed by the roof, and it is probable that there were 
open fireplaces in some of the rooms, but if there were 
they were evidently a source of worry to Mr. Thomas. 
Until Mr. Thomas's death there was no permanent 
attendant at the library and visitors were obliged to 
seek some member who could admit them to the 
building and, of course, remain with them during the 
visit. In 1826 the librarian, Mr. William Lincoln, 
reports: "the books are now disposed in appropriate 
and separate departments * * * specimens illus- 
trating the antiquities and history of the country * 
* * have been placed in order on the shelves of 
cabinets previously procured for their reception. 
The whole collection is so placed in the rooms of the 
building * * * that each volume may be con- 
veniently found * * * . " 

After Mr. Thomas's death, the building being 
already too small for the collections, and Mr. Thomas's 
bequests to the Society furnishing the means, it was 
decided to erect two wings to the building, one of which 
was to be as fireproof as would meet Mr. Thomas's 
conditions. The wings were completed in 1831 and 
the committee in charge (Governor Levi Lincoln and 
Frederick W. Paine) reported on October 24: 

"Your committee * * * have erected two wings each 
28 feet long and 21 feet wide, and two stories high. The 
rooms will finish about nine feet in the clear. It would have 
been desirable to have had the rooms higher but the building 
would have been disfigured if the roof of the wings had been so 
high as to have run into the main roof. The wings are both 
covered with zinc. The rooms of the north wing communicate 
with the main building, by a wooden door in each floor. The 
lower floor of the south wing has access to the main building 
by an iron door. The chamber of that wing has no communi- 
cation with it. One outside door of the main building will be 
closed up [this was presumably on the south side as no door 



170 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

shows on the north side in the cut] and there will be only one 
outside door in the south wing. M 

The committee considered the south wing, while not 
strictly fire-proof more so than Mr. Thomas contem- 
plated. They advised that a vane be place on the 
cupola. They thought that the whole expense would 
be $1,400. In the following May the council author- 
ized the building of fences and finishing the grounds 
and in October, 1832 the council reported that the cost 
of the two wings "will be about nineteen hundred and 
fifty dollars; one thousand dollars of which is provided 
for by the aforesaid legacy. The remainder must be 
met in such way as the Society shall direct/ ' The 
report continues "the Council have the satisfaction to 
announce to the Society that the design of their late 
benefactor, Mr. Thomas, has been fulfilled in giving 
to the Librarian an apartment which is considered to 
be fire-proof, and by adding to the Hall a large 
apartment for books, which is already, in part, filled." 
On May 29, 1833, it was reported that "changes of the 
surface of the earth and of the fences * * * have 
been completed. The grounds have been surrounded 
with belts and groves of forest trees." The result of 
these changes is shown in the cut of the building which 
first appeared on the map of Worcester, dated 1833. 
A wood cut, which shows the iron fence and the 
"groves of forest trees" was printed in the Worcester 
Directory for 1858 with an advertisement of the 
Worcester Academy, which was then occupying the 
building, but an earlier wood-cut, showing a wooden 
fence and the belts of trees" still immature* was printed 
in the "American Magazine of Useful Knowledge" for 
November, 1834. These wood-cuts show a chimney 
at the end of each wing and, like the late photograph, 
two chimneys on the south side of the main building. 

The land on which the building was built proved to 
be full of springs and in consequence the books and 
papers suffered much from dampness, which in 1848, 
the librarian complained, pervaded the whole structure, 



1920.] Report of the Council 171 

so that not only were the books injured but his own 
health was becoming seriously impaired. At the 
same time the shelves were overcrowded and the 
building in such a state of disrepair that a new structure 
in a different location seemed the only proper remedy. 
Through the generosity of Stephen Salisbury, Senior, 
this was finally accomplished and in 1853 the Society 
installed its collections in its second building, on the 
opposite side of Lincoln Square, next to the Court 
House, which it continued to occupy until its removal 
to the present building in 1910. 

The land with the old Hall was sold in 1854 to the 
Worcester Academy and was occupied by it for school 
purposes until 1869. It then passed into private 
hands and the building remained intact until about 
1890 when the north wing was torn down to make room 
for a four story apartment house which covered the 
whole north end of the lot. The rest of the building 
was used as a boarding house for some years, but 
gradually fell into ruin and was torn down about 1911, 
soon after the Society removed to its present location. 

Waldo Lincoln, 

For the Council 



172 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



APPENDIX 



Chronology of the First Building of the 
American Antiquarian Society 

June 1, 1814. Voted, that a committee be appointed to devise ways 
and means for raising funds to erect a suitable edifice to contain the 
Library and Museum, and that the President and Professor Peck be 
requested to prepare a nomination list of five members as suitable persons 
to serve on said committee (Proceedings, 1812-1849, p. 44). 

Sept. 27, 1814. "Wrote the Subscription paper for an Edifice for the 
Antiqu So y ." (Diary of Isaiah Thomas, vol. i, p. 247). 

Oct. 24, 1814. "As our original objects are to colled and -preserve — 
that which demands our first attention, and on which the prosperity, if not 
the existence of this institution depends, is to provide means for, and to 
erect a suitable edifice for deposits. At a late meeting we voted to chose a 
Committee of Ways and Means to effect these purposes. As much 
depends on the choice of this Committee, it has been deferred till this 
time." (From a Communication from the President, Proceedings, 1812- 
1849, p. 58.) The committee was chosen at this meeting as follows: — 
William Paine, M. D., Samuel J. Prescott, Esq., Benjamin Russell, Esq., 
Rev. William Bentley, Hon. Edward Bangs together with such others as 
the President and Council shall appoint. (Ibid). 

May 9, 1817. "Whereas the President has very generously offered to 
contribute towards the erection of a building for the accommodation of 
the Society, a site suitable for this purpose, 150,000 Bricks and $2000 in 
cash. Voted: that the Committee of Ways and Means be requested to 
issue a subscription paper and present it to those who may be disposed to 
aid in the attainment of the object" (Records of the Sub-Council, un- 
published). 

June 26, 1817. "That part of the Committee of Ways and Means 
residing in Worcester made a report, that it is expedient that a sub- 
scription be opend to procure a sum in order to enable the Society to build 
a suitable edifice for a library and Cabinet &c; to elect a proper person to 
apply to the members &c, in the United States for this purpose, and that 
this person be furnished with 500 Dollars to enable him to proceed on his 
mission" (Proceedings, 1812-1849, p. 125). 



1920.] Appendix 173 

Jan. 19, 1818. Unpublished letter of Isaiah Thomas. 

Worcester, Jan*. 19 th . 1818. 
Sir, 

I am favoured with yours of the 16 th inst. and thank you for your 
attention to my request. 

I fully intended to have been in Boston this week, and to have met the 
Am. Antiq' n Society on Wednesday next; but attending a Chemical Lec- 
ture a few Evenings since I took a violent? cold which has confined me 
indoors, and will prevent my journey to town; which I much regret. 

Among the Communications which I am desirous to make to the 
Society, are the following, viz. 

1. That the Donations in Books, for the last year, amount to 550 
Volumes (many of which are valuable) and about 200 pamphlets. Several 
articles have also been presented for the Cabinet. 

2. That it is very important, a Building of some kind should be 
erected for the safe keeping of the Library and the articles for the Cabinet. 

3. That a handsome Lot of Land, nearly an acre, in a good situation, 
100,000 Bricks, and 2000 dollars in Cash, is offered by a member of the 
Society towards the erecting an Edifice for the purpose mentioned in the 
preceding article, provided an additional and an adequate sum is added, 
by subscription, or otherwise, to complete the Edifice, — (The additional 
sum wanted may be about 7000 dollars.) 

4. That it seems expedient that a new Com. ee of Ways and Means 
should be speedily chosen. 

5. That a Seal for the Society i^much wanted. 

6. That the Librarian has, agreeably to a Vote of the Society, made 
out a Catalogue of the Library excepting the Books which have been 
added since August last, when he finished his labour, which required much 
time and attention, and forwhich he is intitled to reasonable compensation. 

7. That Letters have been received from many eminent men (some 
of them residing in Europe) highly approbating of the Institution. 

8. That it is my wish, at the next election of Officers, not to be con- 
sidered as a Candidate for the Presidency. My regard for the Institution 
is not, nor will it be diminished. I shall ever be as ready to promote the 
interest of the Society as a private member as I have been since I have 
had the honour of being elected President. 

I have but little time to write as the Mail is near closing. Be so good as 
to submit the foregoing to the Society. If agreeable to them, I should be 
glad to have the meeting again adjourned, — say to the 2 d or 3 d Wednesday 
in April next — or to such time as the Society shall judge to be best. 

I am, Sir, very respectfully, 
Mr. N. G. Snelling, Your, and the Society's, 

A. S. Recording Sec 7 . Most obedient, ser'vt, 

Am. Antiq n . So y . Isaiah Thomas. 



174 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

April 15, 1818. "The President communicated to the Society the 
present state of the library and cabinet, and suggested the propriety of 
taking some order relative to the erection of a building for the arrange- 
ment and preservation of the Society's collections." "Voted that this 
subject be referred to an adjournment of the present meeting to be held at 
this place at the day afternamed" (Ibid. p. 131). 

June 2, 1818. "Voted, That the further consideration of the location of 
the building, etc., be postponed to the annual meeting in October." 
(Ibid. p. 133). 

June 25, 1818. "Sundry concerns of the Society were discussed, and 
more particularly, the means and measures proper to be adopted to erect 
a suitable building for the use of the Society, on which subject it was — 
Voted, That a committee be chosen to investigate the subject and to 
report at an adjournment of the meeting. Hon. Nathaniel Paine, Hon. 
Abijah Bigelow and Rejoice Newton were chosen" (Ibid. p. 133). 

July 16, 1818. "That committee appointed to consider and report on 
the subject of erecting a suitable building for the use of the Society,made 
report which was recommitted to the same committee" (Ibid. p. 134). 

July 20, 1818. "Voted, That the committee who made report at the 
meeting holden on the 16 th inst. be excused from any further considera- 
tion thereof, and that the same report and the subject on which the same 
was made, be committed to a new committee to consist of Levi Lincoln, 
Jun., and Rejoice Newton" (Ibid. p. 134). 

July 23, 1818. "The committee appointed at the last meeting not 
having been able to make gny definite report on the subject referred to 
them, Voted that this meeting be dissolved" (Ibid). 

Feb. 1, 1819. In an address of this date "to the members," published 
the following March, it is stated: "By the liberality of the President, a 
suitable building will speedily be erected in Worcester. A site sufficiently 
spacious and commodious has been obtained, and the materials for 
building are nearly prepared." 

May 17, 1819. "Went with several gentlemen and the master builders, 
to view and lay out the ground whereon to erect a building for the 
American Antiquarian Library'" (Diary of Isaiah Thomas, vol. ii, p. 15). 

May 31, 1819. "This day the workmen broke ground to lay the 
foundation of a building for the Library of the American Antiquarian 
Society, in a lot which belongs to me and which I have appropriated 
for that purpose." (Ibid. p. 18.) 

June 12, 1819. "The workmen began laying the cellar wall of the 
intended Building for a Library, &c. for the American Antiquarian 
Society'" (Ibid. pp. 19-20). 

Aug. 5, 1819. "Voted, that at the request of the President, a committee 
be appointed to superintend the building, now erecting by him for the use 
of the Society. Levi Lincoln, Jun., Nathaniel Maccarty and Rejoice 
Newton, Esqs. chosen"' (Proceedings, 1812-1849, pp. 143-4). 



1920.] Appendix 175 

Oct. 23, 1819. From the Report of the Committee on General Pro- 
gress and State of the Society: ''Within the last year our venerable and 
enterprising President, in praise of whose munificence too much cannot be 
said, has erected at great expense, a handsome, commodious and sub- 
stantial building for the use and benefit of the Society. It will probably 
be ready for the reception of the Library and Cabinet at some time during 
the next season. It is sufficiently large to answer all the purposes of the 
Society for many years, and is so constructed, that whenever more room 
shall be wanted, additions may be made without disfiguring, but would 
rather increase the elegance of the edifice"' (Ibid. p. 147). 

April 4, 1820. "Voted, That there be a public Dedication of the 
building intended for the use of the Society when the same shall be ready, 
and the Library and Cabinet are placed therein — 

"Voted, that a Committe be chosen for the purpose of making suitable 
arrangements for the same, and that the Committee consist of three. 
Rev. Poct r Bancroft ] 

Levi Lincoln, Jun r Esq. > were chosen." 

Abijah Bigelow, Esq. J 

(Minutes of the Sub-Council). 

April 16, 1820. The foregoing committee made the following report: 
"Your Committee, appointed to take into consideration what measures 
it is expedient to adopt, on opening the Building erected by the munificence 
of our President for the use of the Society, have attended that service, and 
in their report beg leave to recommend the subsequent arrangements in 
the public celebration of an event so auspicious to the interests of the 
Institution. That the Society, on the day of their semi-annual meeting 
•in June next, assemble in the Nor|h Church in Worcester and attend the 
following exercises : 

1. Public Prayer and praise to God, the Author of all good. 

2. An address from the President. 

3. An Oration from a member of the Society. 

That the Singers and Musicians of the Town be desired to give their 
attendance on the occasion, and perform appropriate pieces of musick — 
and that on the close of the publick solemnities, the Society dine in 
publick at the Inn of Col. R. Sikes. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 
Worcester, April 10, 1820. A. Bancroft, per order. 

Voted to accept the above report. 

Voted that the above committee be also a Committee to apply to some 
gentleman of the Society to deliver an Oration or an Address as above 
mentioned" (Minutes of the Sub-Council). 

May 8, 1820. "The Committee appointed to make arrangements for 
the dedication of the building to be appropriated to the use of the Society, 
reported that they had applied to Isaac Goodwin, Esq. of Sterling to 
deliver an address on the occasion, and that he had complied with their 
request. 



176 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



> Committee chosen. 



Committee chosen. 



Voted, To choose a Committee to determine on a place of arranging and 
preparing the room for the reception of the Library and Cabinet. 
Doct Oliver Fiske 
Hon. Abijah Bigelow 

Voted, To choose a Committee to devise ways and means for furnishing 
the interior of the building for the Library and Cabinet with proper 
furniture, and for fixing the grounds &c. about the building intended for 
the use of the Society. 
Levi Lincoln 
Edward D. Bangs 
Benjamin Russell 
Stephen Codman 
Nath 1 Maccarty, Esq r 

N. B. This Committee did not report.'" 

(Minutes of the Sub-Council). 

May 18, 1820. "Agreed with the workmen to build the Alcoves on the 
East Wall of the Library Room for the American Antiquarian Society for 
300 dollars" (Diary of Isaiah Thomas, vol. ii, p. 53). 

June 26, 1820. "Voted, That Thursday the 24 th of August next be the 
day on which to dedicate the building appropriated for the use of the 
Society, agreeably to report of the Committee made April 10 th " (Sub- 
Council Minutes). 

July 24, 1820. "Voted, That the President, Secretaries, and Librarian 
be a Committee to agree upon a plan for the arrangement and placing the 
Library and Cabinet in the new building" (Ibid). 

Aug. 9, 1820. "Settled with the Master Workmen for building the 
American Antiquarian Society Library. This building cost — the mere 
building cost, without Land, or fences, of fixing the grounds, &c. 6752 
dollars 84 cents. The building only. Extra Labour on the Cellar, 11 
dollars in all 6763 dollars 84 cents" (Diary of Isaiah Thomas, vol. ii, p. 59) . 

Aug. 15-23, 1820. Mr. Thomas says in his Diary that he "was very 
busily and laboriously engaged in removing Library &c. to the new 
building." 

Aug. 24, 1820. "On this day the President, vice President Bancroft, 
sub-council, and other officers of the Society, met in the new building for 
the Library, &c. together with a number of the members, and went in 
procession to the church of the north parish, where the Dedication was 
performed agreeably to the order on the 10 th of April last. A large num- 
ber of people visited the Library after the Exercises were over" (Minutes 
of the Sub-Council). 

From the "Massachusetts Spy" of Aug. 30. 

DEDICATION 
On Thursday last the elegant and commodious building lately erected 
in this town for the accommodation of the American Antiquarian Society 
was dedicated to their use with suitable solemnities. The Society 



1920.] Appendix 111 

assembled at their new Hall at 10 o'clock and at 11, moved in procession 
to the North Meeting-house. The services were opened by prayer, from 
the Rev. Dr. Bancroft, who also read select passages from the Sacred 
Volume. The Address, by Isaac Goodwin, Esq. was learned and in- 
genious, and was received with much satisfaction by a numerous audience. 
Sacred Musick was performed by a choir of singers from the various 
religious societies in this town. After the services, the Society returned to 
their Hall; and, from thence, repaired to Sike's Coffee-House, where a 
most sumptuous entertainment was provided for the occasion. Mr. 
Goodwin's address will soon be submitted to the publick." 

March 10, 1821. "Paid Calvin Darby 227 dollars in rent, for stone 
work for the Am. Antiq 11 Library" (Diary of Isaiah Thomas, vol. ii, p. 65). 

May 28, 1821. "Carpenters began to finish the new alcoves in the 
American Antiq" Library Room" (Ibid. p. 87). 

June 7, 1821. "Carpenters finished the additional alcoves in the Hall 
of the Am. Antiquarian So y " (Ibid. p. 88). 

Sept. 6, 1821. "Began putting up front fences at Antiq n Hall" (Ibid, 
p. 95). 

Sept. 13, 1821. "Put up the side wooden fences at Antiquarian Hall" 
(Ibid. p. 96). 

Sept. 15, 1821. "Finished putting up the Iron fence in front of Antiq- 
uarian Hall" (Ibid. p. 96). 

Oct. 23, 1821. From a report of the committee on the state of the 
Society: "The building erected for the use of the Society is now com- 
pleted and enclosed in manner displaying at once the taste and liberality 
of the donor. This building which is highly ornamental as a public 
edifice and well calculated to give respectability and permanency to the 
Institution, we are informed, has been thus finished at the expense of eight 
thousand dollars. * * * In the meantime it has become necessary, 
for the proper distribution and preservation of the books, that an addi- 
tional room be fitted for their reception. The Cabinet, also, is but imper- 
fectly arranged, and to place it in a condition suitable for the inspection of 
visitors, it is important that other rooms should be prepared" (Proceeding 
1812-1849, p. 170). 

Dec. 29, 1821. Voted, That a committee be chosen to construct 
such alcoves and other accommodations, in Antiquarian Hall, for the use 
of the Library and Cabinet, as they shall think proper. * * * Abijah 
Bigelow and Rejoice Newton Esqs., were chosen" (Ibid. p. 175). 

Mr. Thomas died April 4, 1831 and in his will he made the following 
devise: 

"I give to said Society" (the American Antiquarian) (provided I shall 
not before my death execute a deed thereof) and their successors forever, 
that tract of land in Worcester whereon is now erected a building for the 
use of said Society, which land I purchsed of Samuel Chandler's heirs, 
containing about one acre near the Second Parish, with the said building 
thereon; which building is to be forever sacredly appropriated as long as 



178 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

said Society shall exist, for the library, cabinet, &c, of said Society; and 
the house and building are accordingly devised upon' this express condi- 
tion. And in case said Society shall at any time cease to use said building 
for said purpose, then the whole of this estate is to revert to my grand- 
children generally and their heirs." 

Mr. Thomas also gave to the Society a legacy of one thousand dollars 
for the purpose and on condition, that the Society erect a fire-proof 
wing or wings to Antiquarian Hall. 

June 30, 1831. "Frederick W. Paine, Isaac Goodwin and Rejoice 
Newton, a committee appointed by the Sub-Council to consider and 
report on the subject of erecting a fire-proof wing or wings to Antiquarian 
Hall under the provisions of the will of the late Dr. Thomas made report: 

* * * "Your committee recommend the erection of two wings as 
soon as may be convenient. Each wing to be twenty-five feet long and 
twenty deep, two stories high and covered with slate or zinc. One of the 
wings to have the floors covered with stone or brick and to communicate 
with the main building by means of an iron door. The expense will not 
exceed, we think, $1200. 

"Your committee would suggest the propriety of painting the main 
building where it is wood, the expense of which they estimate at less than 
$35, including the cupola, which latter, however, your committee consider 
neitheruseful nor ornamental, but on the contrary, asdefacing the building, 
and being difficult to render tight, and they therefore would suggest the 
propriety of taking it away. I. G., however, objects to that part of the 
report which recommends removing the cupola" (Proceedings, 1812-1849, 
p. 239). 

Oct. 24, 1831. Report of the Building Committee (Gov. L. Lincoln 
and F. W. Paine). * * * "Your committee * * * have erected 
two wings each twenty-eight feet long and twenty-one feet wide, and two 
stories high. The rooms will finish about nine feet in the clear. It would 
have been desirable to have had the rooms higher but the building would 
have been disfigured if the roof of the wings had been so high as to have 
run onto the main roof. * * * The wings are both covered with zinc. 
* * * The rooms of the north wing communicate with the main 
building, by a wooden door in each floor. The lower floor of the south 
wing has access to the main building by an iron door. The chamber of 
that wing has no communication with it. One outside door of the main 
building will be closed up and there will be only one outside door in the 
south wing. Your committee are aware a building of the description of 
this south wing cannot be termed in strictness a fire-proof building, but 
they have every reason to believe it is more so than Mr. Thomas con- 
templated and it is in their opinion entirely fire-proof against all ordinary 
internal accidents, while the location removes any danger which would 
arise from contiguous buildings being on fire. Against the incendiary or 
lightning, no building is fire-proof. Perhaps in prudence a lightning rod 
should be placed on the main building, and it certainly would add much to 






. 



w 



1920.] Appendix 179 

the appearance of the cupola if the Society would direct a vane to be 
placed on it. \ 

"The Society will probably expect some account of the expense of these 
wings but owing * * * to the building not being finished, it is out of 
their power at this time to make a correct statement. The first proposi- 
tion was to have the wings 25 x 20, but your Committee * * * in- 
creased the dimensions to those before stated, and if they have anything to 
regret it is not having made them larger. It was supposed that $1200 
would have been nearly sufficient for defraying the expense. The 
enlargement of the size will of course add to that amount, and some work 
has been done which was not contemplated at first. Of some items no 
estimate could be formed, such as the expense of preparing and finishing 
the ground and altering the fences. If your committee ventured to guess 
any sum, it would be about $1400 * * * and they cannot think the 
Society will blame them for extravagance should the sum of $1400 be 
exceeded by a small amount" (Ibid. pp. 251-2). 

May 30, 1832. From the Report of the Secretary: "The Council 
have also authorized the building of fences and finishing the grounds 
about the Hall, which work is now in operation." 

Oct. 24, 1832. From Report of the Council. "Two wings to their 
Hall have been erected and are now finished. Repairs and some altera- 
tions have been made in the main body of the building rendered necessary 
by the additions : the want of proper ventilation and the rot occasioned 
by damp and leakage. The grounds and fences have also undergone 
considerable change, it being desirable to drain the land more effectually 
and to make it, as well as the fences, conform to the building in its present 
shape. * * * the expense *•* * * will be about nineteen hundred 
and fifty dollars * * * the design of their late benefactor has been 
fulfilled in giving to the Librarian an apartment which is. considered fire- 
proof, and by adding to the Hall a large apartment for books, which is 
already in part filled." 

From the Report of the Building Committee. /Tf the funds of the 
Society would admit of it, the addition of a portico would much improve 
the appearance of the building." (Ibid. pp. 257-260). 

May 29, 1833. From Report of the Council. "Changes of the surface 
of the earth and of the fences * * * have * * * been completed 
The grounds have been surrounded with belts and groves of forest trees 
planted by the Librarian. The good taste of arrangement will render 
them objects of beauty, and, on maturity, the green enclosure will afford 
no inconsiderable protection from the fires of the dense population fast 
closing around, in near vicinity" (Ibid, p. 265). 

May 31, 1848. From Report of the Council. "It becomes necessary 
to advert to the location and condition of the Society's building. Its 
limited capacity for affording the desired accommodation for all the pur- 
poses of the Society, its unfavorable location, when considered as an 
object of public interest in its exterior character, and in regard to the 



\ 



180 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

convenience of access, has long been regretted. * * * although" 
[its contents] "are safe from the element which most rapidly destroys, 
they are yet exposed to * * * a certain degree of injury from the 
exceeding dampness which it has been found impracticable effectually to 
prevent, while the health of those engaged within its walls * * * is 
liable to be seriously affected" (Ibid. pp. 356-7). 

From the Librarian's Report. "The excessive dampness that pervades 
the entire structure is deleterious to everything that is exposed to its 
influence. He [the librarian] has reason to believe that his own health 
has thus been gradually but sejiQuely impaired. Great caution has con- 
tinually to be exercised by himself, and even to be inculcated upon those 
who casually visit the rooms" (Ibid. p. 546). 

May 30, 1849. From Report of the Council. "The Council would call 
the attention of the Society to the condition of the Antiquarian Hall. 
The building, as the Society is aware, is but illy fitted for the purpose of a 
library. The distribution of the books into some half dozen different 
apartments, renders the use of the library less convenient and its appear- 
ance less imposing and attractive. The building is not fire-proof and 
being near to the railroad depot and to a large school house is exposed to 
loss by fire. The dampness of the rooms is such as to be very detrimental 
to the books and papers and to render resort to the Library, except at mid- 
summer, uncomfortable and unhealthy. The building itself is going to 
decay; the sills and floors rotting, the walls cracking and the plastering 
becoming loose and falling. Large expense must be incurred in another 
attempt to drain the ground and to put the building in thorough repair or a 
new lot, etc., procured and a new building erected. The only difficulty 
with the latter, which is undoubtedly the wiser course, grows out of the 
will of the grantor of the estate, by a provision of which the Hall, when it 
ceases to be used for the purposes of the library, reverts to certain of the 
heirs of the testator. To remove this difficulty, releases from heirs who 
would be entitled to one-half of the estate have already been obtained and 
may, it is believed, be procured from the rest" (Ibid. p. 558). 



1920.1 " Obituaries 181 



OBITUARIES 

THOMAS McADORY OWEN 

Thomas McAdory Owen died March 25, 1920, at 
Montgomery, Alabama. He was born in Jefferson 
County, December 15, 1866, the son of Dr. William M. 
and Nancy L. McAdory Owen. He was graduated 
from the University of Alabama in 1887, receiving at 
that time the degrees of A.B. and LL.B., and the 
honorary degrees of A.M. in 1893 and of LL.D. in 1904. 
He practiced law from 1887 to 1901, during which 
period he was also city solicitor of Bessemer from 1890 
to 1893, assistant solicitor of Jefferson County in 1892 
and chief clerk of the inspecting division of the Post 
Office Department at Washington from 1894 to 1897. 
He was chairman of the Democratic executive com- 
mittee at Jefferson County from 1890 to 1892. 

Dr. Owen took much interest in all forms of histori- 
cal work and enterprise. He was Secretary of the 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution in Alabama 
since its organization in 1894, was one of the founders 
of the Southern History Association in 1896; was 
Secretary of the Alabama Historical Society since its 
reorganization in 1898; and was Historian-General of 
the Alabama Division of the United Sons of Confeder- 
ate Veterans since 1907. In 1901 he was elected the 
first Director of the Alabama Department of Archives 
and History, for a term of six years, being re-elected 
in 1907, 1913 and 1919. He was one of the founders 
of the Gulf States Historical Magazine and edited its 
first volume; founder of the Alabama Library Associa- 
tion in 1904 and President since that date; one of the 
founders of the Alabama Anthropological Society in 
1907; Secretary of the Alabama Conference Historical 
Society, and a member of several national historical 



182 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

organizations. He prepared an elaborate Biblio- 
graphy of Alabama which was printed in the 1897 
Report of the American Historical Association, and 
followed this two years later by a Bibliography of 
Mississippi. He made a Report on the Alabama 
Archives for the Annual Report of 1904. He com- 
piled the Alabama Official Register in 1907, wrote 
several genealogical pamphlets and contributed fre- 
quently to the publications of various historical 
societies. 

He was elected a member of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society in 1907, although distance prevented him 
from attending its meetings. He was a frequent 
correspondent, however, and in one of his last letters 
written shortly before his death, he said, "I beg to 
express my continuing appreciation of the courtesy of 
the Society in retaining my name on its roll of members. 
I always look forward with keen interest to the receipt 
of the Society's publications. The output is wholesome, 
and is well up to the standard of the best historical 
traditions. " At the time of his death he was pre- 
paring a reprint of Bernard Romans' "Florida, 1775," 
with elaborate annotations, but this work with other 
historical projects was unfortunately never finished. 
However, Dr. Owen's four volume history of Alabama 
was in press at the time of his death and when issued 
in the spring will form the source book for historical 
students in the Alabama field. On April 12, 1893, 
Dr. Owen married at Fayette, Alabama, Marie Susan, 
daughter of Hon. John Hollis Bankhead, United States 
Senator from Alabama. His widow was elected by 
the Board of Trustees to fill his unexpired term as 
Director of the Alabama Department of Archives. 

C. S. B. 

JAMES SCHOULER 

James Schouler was born at Arlington, Mass., 
March 20, 1839, and died at North Conway, N. H., 
April 16, 1920. He was the son of William and 



1920.] Obituaries 183 

Frances Warren Schouler. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1859 and was admitted to the Massachu- 
setts Bar in 1862. In the summer of the latter year, 
however, he joined as second lieutenant a Dedham 
Company in the 43d Regiment of Massachusetts 
Volunteers, served in various capacities in North and 
South Carolina and received his discharge in 1863. 
He then resumed the practice of the law. Afflicted by 
deafness, he gradually gave up practice in the courts 
and began writing on legal and historical subjects. 
After the publication of several important legal text- 
books, he began on the writing of his History of the 
United States, the first volume of which appeared in 
1880. In 1883 he received the post of lecturer in law 
at the Boston University Law School, which position 
he retained until 1902. From 1888 to 1908 he also 
gave occasional lectures in law at the National Univer- 
sity in Washington, and from 1891 to 1908 at Johns 
Hopkins University in Baltimore. He was married on 
December 14, 1870, to Emily Fuller Cochran, daughter 
of Asa F. Cochran, of Boston. His wife died Novem- 
ber, 2, 1904. During tjie latter part of his life, Mr. 
Schouler lived at Intervale, N. H., in the town which 
was formerly his summer home. 

Mr. Schouler's " History of the United States under 
the Constitution," in seven volumes, was his most 
noted work, covering the country's history as late as 
1877, and emphasizing the social and economic life 
of the people. His other historical works were 
"Thomas Jefferson," 1893; "Historical Briefs, with a 
Biography," 1896; "Constitutional Studies," 1897; 
"Alexander Hamilton," 1901; "Eighty Years of 
Union, a Short History of the United States," 1903; 
"Americans of 1776," 1906; "Ideals of the Republic," 
1908. He was a member of many historical and 
literary societies, and was president of the American 
Historical Association in 1897. He was elected to the 
American Antiquarian Society in 1907. C. S. B. 



184 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

WILLIAM DENISON LYMAN 

William Denison Lyman died June 21, 1920, at 
Walla Walla, Washington. He was born at Portland, 
Oregon, December 1, 1852, the son of Horace and 
Mary Denison Lyman, California pioneers of 1848. He 
received his early education at the Pacific University, 
Forest Grove, Oregon, and later attended Williams 
College, where he was graduated in 1877. In this same 
year he began teaching history and literature at the 
Pacific University and there continued until 1886. 
After a short interval he went in 1889 to Walla Walla, 
where he began his long tenure of service as the head of 
the department of history of Whitman College, which 
continued until his death. On June 15, 1882, he 
married Mattie Clark of Vancouver, Washington, 
who, with four children survived him. 

Dr. Lyman was well known as a historian, lecturer 
and publicist. He was a leading advocate of river and 
harbor improvements, and also was interested in moun- 
tain climbing and amateur photography. His pub- 
lished works include the " History of Walla Walla 
County," 1901; " History of Snohomish and Skagit 
Counties," 1906; and "The Columbia River," 1909. 
He was elected to the American Antiquarian Society 
in April 1902. He contributed to the Proceedings of 
the Society three papers: "The Painted Rocks of 
Lake Chelan" in October 1902; "Myths and Super- 
stitions of the Oregon Indians" in April 1904; and 
"Indian Myths of the Northwest" in October 1915. 

C. S. B. 

FRANKLIN BOWDITCH DEXTER 

In the death of Franklin Bowditch Dexter on the 
13th of August last, this Society lost a devoted mem- 
ber and a long-time faithful officer. Mr. Dexter was 
born in Fairhaven, Mass., September 11, 1842, the 
son of Rodolphus W. and Mary H. (Taber) Dexter. 
He received his A. B. at Yale in 1861, the youngest but 
one in his class, and his A. M. in 1864. In 1902 the 



1920.] Obituaries 185 

university conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Letters. He was married in 1880 to 
Theodosia M. Wheeler of New Haven who survives 
him with one daughter. 

Almost immediately after graduation he became 
connected with the university, as assistant in instruc- 
tion in the Sheffield Scientific School, tutor in college 
and assistant and cataloguer in the library. In 1869, 
he became assistant librarian and so remained until 
his retirement from active work in 1912. In this 
capacity his service was of great value, especially in 
instituting and developing the card catalogue. He 
was Secretary of the university from 1870 to 1899 and 
Larned Professor of American History from 1877 to 
1888. Mr. Dexter's official positions led naturally to 
his most important published work, as in a way 
official historian of the university, a line of work 
especially attractive to him and for which he was 
especially fitted. The first volume of his " Bio- 
graphical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College 
with Annals of the College" appeared in 1885, and 
•the work was completed by the publication of the 
sixth volume in 1912, bringing the record down to 1815. 
To this work should be added as an even more impor- 
tant contribution to New England history his 
" Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles " in three volumes, 
1901, followed in 1916 by "The Itineraries and 
Correspondence of Ezra Stiles" in one volume. Both 
these undertakings, but especially the editions of 
President Stiles's writings, display a most minute and 
extensive knowledge of historical details, of life and 
customs, and of facts of family and general interest, 
and they make clear the characteristics of Mr. Dexter's 
work — thorough investigation, unwearying industry 
and strict accuracy. These traits are to be found in 
all his other numerous contributions to Yale history 
and in his edition of the New Haven Town Records, 
1649-84, in two volumes, 1917-18. 



186 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Mr. Dexter was elected a member of this Society in 
1879 and at the time of his death was its senior mem- 
ber. He was a member of the Council from 1885 to 
1897 and Secretary for Foreign Correspondence from 
1897 to 1912. He made many contributions to the 
Proceedings of the Society, including the following: 

History of Connecticut in the Names of her Towns, 
1885. 

Estimates of Population in American Colonies, 1887. 

Selections from Letters Received by David Daggett, 
1887. 

Social Distinctions at Harvard and Yale before the 
Revolution, 1894. 

Historical Study of the Presidency in Yale College, 
1898. 

Early Private Libraries in New England, 1907. 

Student Life in Yale College under President 
Dwight, 1918. 

In 1909, Mr. Dexter presented $200 to the Society 
for the purchase of certain bibliographical works, and 
in 1919 he donated to the library his collection of Yale 
Class Records. 

Besides the above named books and papers, Mr. 
Dexter was the author of a large number of papers and 
articles read at the meetings of the New Haven 
Colony Historical Society, of which he was one of the 
most active members, or on other occasions. In 1918 
he collected some twenty-four of these in a privately 
published volume. The earliest of these bears the 
date of 1868 and the latest of 1917. They are 
especially valuable for the light they throw on private 
life in the town and college of the past. 

It is impossible for one who knew Mr. Dexter well 
to close a sketch of his life and work without a word 
upon the personal side, for even more characteristic of 
the man to those who were his friends than his 
scholarly traits were his "genius for friendship, " his 
unfailing kindness and his generous and appreciative 
regard for others. G. B. A. 



1920.] Report of the Treasurer 187 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



The Treasurer presents herewith his annual report of receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending Sept. 30, 1920, to which is 
appended a statement of the Society's investments and of the 
condition of the various funds. 

Oct. 1, 1920 the net assets were invested as follows: 

, Library Building $195,256.30 

Public Funds 111,184.56 

Railroad bonds 94,572 .50 

Miscellaneous bonds ' 74,560.75 

Railroad shares 22,017 . 00 

Bank shares 5,314.00 

Miscellaneous shares 11,234.50 

Mortgages 11,600.00 

Bank deposit 1,000.00 

Cash on deposit 416.16 



$527,155.77 
Which sum includes unexpended income 

amounting to 27 . 66 



$527,128.11 
Less Library Building 195,256 . 30 



Capital bearing interest $331,871.81 

Norton Co. bonds to the amount of $3,000 were exchanged for 
30 shares Norton Co. 7% preferred stock with a profit of $60. The 
following bonds were paid or exchanged during the year : 

$12,000 City of Woonsocket 
5,000 City of Middletown 
1,000 United Kingdom of G. B. & I 
15,000 City of Baltimore 
5,000 City of Jersey City, 
5,000 Penobscot Shore Line R. R. 
2,000 Wor. & Webster St. Ry. 



4's 


1929 


3H's 


1925 


5^,'s 


1921 


4's 


1955 


4's 


1928 


4's 


1920 


5's 


1919 



4M's 


193S 


5's 


1941 


5^'s 


1937 


m'* 


1953 


VA's 


1929 


5's 


1947 


5's 


1936 


5's 


1938 


7's 


1925 


8's 


1940 


5's 


1938 



188 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The following bonds were either bought for cash or taken in 
exchange for the preceding: 

$19,000 U. S. Gov't 4th 
5,000 No. States Power Co. 
1,000 United Kingdom of G. B. & I. 5J, 
16,000 Toronto Harbour Commis- 
sioners 
10,000 United Kingdom of G. B. & I. 
2,000 U.S. Rubber 
1,000 Consumers Power Co. 
5,000 Danville, Champaign & 
Decatur Ry. & Light 
3,000 Bell Tel. Co. of Canada 
4,000 Swiss Confederation 
1,000 Duquesne Light Co. 

The above bonds were exchanged with a net decrease in our 
Profit & Loss account of $586.13. This, however is purely a 
matter of bookkeeping and when the bonds mature a large profit 
will accrue to the Society. A mortgage of $3,500 held on property 
of B. F. Sawyer was paid and the proceeds invested in bonds. 

Principal account has been increased by receipt of $100 for Life 
Memberships; $525 from Gifts; $1,184.97 by sale of duplicates; 
$63.65 from James Lyman Whitney Estate; $6,000 from Andrew 
McF. Davis; $5,000 from David H. Fanning; $500 from C. W. 
Bowen; $200 from Arthur P. Rugg; and $1,000 from S. L. Munson. 

Fifty shares of Fitchburg R. R. Co. have been exchanged for 
a like amount of Boston & Maine 1st preferred. 

The Society has received notice from the St. Louis Union Trust 
Co., that they hold in trust certain bonds given them by Mr. 
W. K. Bixby with the understanding that the income is to be paid 
to the Society. This will increase our income account $100 
yearly. 

Samuel B. Woodward, Treasurer. 



1920.] Report of the Treasurer 189 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNT 

Principal Oct. 1, 1919 (less unexpended income for 1919) $515,645.61 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1919 

George A. Gaskill Life Membership $50. 00 

Max Farrand Life Membership 50. 00 

Income added to principal: 

Purchasing Fund $5 . 00 

James L. Whitney Fund 26. 00 

Andrew McF. Davis Fund 240.00 

Building Fund 67.00 

338.00 

A. P. Rugg to Centennial Fund 200. 00 

S. L. Munson to Centennial Fund 1,000.00 

Anonymous Gift to Special Gifts Fund 400. 00 

Anonymous Gift to Special Gifts Fund 100. 00 

Emily E. F. Skeel to Special Gifts Fund 25. 00 

James L. Whitney Est 63. 65 

Andrew McF. Davis 6,000.00 

David H. Fanning to Building Fund 5,000. 00 

C. W. Bowen to Building Fund 500. 00 

Sale of Duplicates 1,184.00 

Profit & Loss 

Norton Co. bonds 60.00 

Penobscot Shore Line R. R. bonds 57.00 

City of Woonsocket bonds 101 . 00 

Worcester Nat. Bank (Divd. in Liq.) 300. 00 

Old Boston Nat. Bank (Divd. in Liqd.) 15 00 



15,444.62 
$531,090.23 



Expended from Purchasing Fund 2,242. 99 

Expended from Special Gifts Fund 600. 00 

Profit & Loss : City of Middletown bonds 25 . 00 

United Kingdom of G. B. & I. . . . 13. 13 

City of Baltimore bonds 900. 00 

City of Jersey City bonds 181 . 00 



3,962.12 
$527,128.11 



INCOME ACCOUNT 

Unexpended income 1919 $562. 70 

Income from Investments 15,921 . 82 

Assessments 310.00 

Sales of Publications 45. 27 



16,839.79 
$543,907.90 



190 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



EXPENDITURES 

Income carried to Principal 338. 00 

Incidental Expense 1,435. 15 

Salaries 7,455. 00 

Light, Heat, Water and Telephone 1,313. 41 

Office Expense 494. 19 

Supplies 370. 26 

Books . . 2,206. 24 

Publishing 1,461 . 98 

Binding 600. 00 

Care of Grounds 528.64 

Extra Service 609.26 



16,812.13 



$527,155.77 



ASSETS 

Real Estate $195,256.30 

Mortgages... 11,600.00 

Bonds. 280,317.81 

Stocks 38,565.50 

Bank Deposit 1,000. 00 

Cash on Deposit 416. 16 

Unexpended Balance Oct. 1, 1920 

Principal Oct. 1, 1920 * 



527,155.77 

$527,155.77 
27.66 

$527,128.11 



Oct. 1, 1920 

Condition of the Fund Accounts 

Balance Income Expended 

Fund Title Principal 1919 1919 1919 Balance 

1-Alden $1,000.00 $50.00 $50.00 

2-Bookbinding 7,500 . 00 375 . 00 375 . 00 

3-George Chandler 500 . 00 25 . 00 25 . 00 

4-Collection and Research. . 17,000 . 00 850 . 00 850 . 00 

5-1. and E. L. Davis 23,000.00 $107.00 1,150.00 1,257.00 

6-John and Eliza Davis .... 4,900 . 00 245 . 00 245 . 00 

7-F. H. Dewey 4,800. 00 240. 00 240. 00 

8-G. E.Ellis 17,500.00 875.00 875.00 

9-Librarian's and General.. 35,000.00 1,750.00 1,750.00 

10-Haven 1,500.00 75.00 75.00 

12-Lif e Membership 4,000 .00 195 . 00 195 . 00 

13-Lincoln Legacy 7,000.00 350.00 350.00 

14-Publishing 32,001 . 91 1,600 . 00 1,600 . 00 

17-Salisbury 104,348.39 100.00 5,081.09 5,153.43 $27.66 



1919 1919 


1919 Balance 


250.00 


250.00 


50.00 


50.00 


20.00 


20.00 


100.00 


100.00 


5.00 


5.00 


250.00 


250.00 


555.70 1,758.00 


2,113.70 


150.00 


150.00 


250.00 


250.00 


26.00 


26.00 


250.00 


250.00 


240.00 


240.00 


67.00 


67.00 



1920.] Report of the Treasurer 191 

Balance Income Expended 
Fund Title Principal 

18-Tenney 5,000. 00 

19-B. F. Thomas 1,000 . 00 

22-Special Gifts 422.82 

23-F. W. Haven 2,000. 00 

24-Purchasing 108 . 53 

25-Chas. F. Washburn 5,000. 00 

26-Centennial 35,706 . 58 

27-Eliza D. Dodge 3,000 . 00 

28-Hunnewell 5,000. 00 

29-Jas. Lyman Whitney. .... 579 . 33 

30-Samuel A. Green 5,000. 00 

67-Andrew McF. Davis ...... 6,240 . 00 

68-Building Fund 5,567 . 00 

Statement of Investments 
Bonds 

Par Book 

Name Rate Maturity Val. Val. 
Public Funds: 

Cuyahoga County, Ohio.... 5 Oct., 1922 $3,000 3,151.00 

Duluth, Minn 4 April, 1936 2,000 1,940. 00 

Memphis, Tenn 4 May, 1933 5,000 4,887.00 

New York, N. Y 4J^ May, 1957 20,000 20,000. 00 

Omaha, Neb 4^ Mar. 1928 15,000 15,000 . 00 

San Francisco, Cal 4^ July, 1948 5,000 4,914. 00 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 5^ Feb., 1937 3,000 2,928.75 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland 5^ Aug., 1929 10,000 9,625 . 00 

United States of America... 4 ^ May, 1942 3,000 3,000.00 

United States of America... ±\i Oct., 1938 30,000 28,198.41 

Swiss Confederation 8 July, 1940 4,000 3,990.00 

Toronto Harbour Com- 
missioners 4H Sept., 1953 16,000 13,550. 40 



$111,184.56 

Railroads: , 

Atchinson, Topeka & Santa 

¥6 4 May, 1995 2,000 1,540.00 

Atchinson, Topeka & Santa 

Fe* 4 May, 1995 1,000 885.00 

Baltimore & Ohio 33^ July, 1925 5,000 4,637.00 

Boston Elevated 4 May, 1935 2,000 2,000.00 

Boston Elevated. 4H April, 1937 8,000 7,960 . 00 



1956 


12,000 


10,920.00 


1926 


1,000 


945.00 


1921 


10,000 


9,300.00 


1952 


2,000 


2,000.00 


1963 


2,000 


2,010.00 



192 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Boston & Maine 3V 2 Feb., 1925 5,000 4,593 . 00 

Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy 4 July, 1949 5,000 5,000.00 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois... 5 Nov., 1937 4,000 4,000.00 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul 4 Y 2 June, 1932 2,000 1,932.50 

Chicago, Indiana & 

Southern 4 Jan., 

Chicago & Northwestern. . .4 Aug., 

Fitchburg 3HOct., 

Illinois Central 3^ July, 

Illinois Central » . . .5 Dec, 

Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern 4 May, 1931 5,000 4,621.00 

Jjowell, Lawrence & Haver- 
hill 5 June, 

Marlboro & Westboro 5 July, 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford ... 4 May, 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford . . . 3^ Jan., 

N. Y., N. H. & Hartford ... 6 Jan., 

Old Colony 4 Jan., 

Pere Marquette 4 July, 

Pere Marquette 5 July, 

Southern Indiana 4 Feb., 

Union Pacific 4 July, 

Wilkesbarre & Eastern ,5 June 



Miscellaneous Bonds: 

Amer. Tel. & Tel. Co 4 July, 1929 11,000 11,000. 00 

Bell Telephone Co. of 

Canada 7 April, 1925 

Bethlehem Steel Co 5 Jan., 1926 

Business Real Estate Trust 4 June, 1921 

Congress Hotel Co 6 Feb., 1933 

Consumers Power Co 5 Jan., 1936 

Danville Champaign & Decatur 

Ry. & Light Co 5 Mar., 1938 

Detroit Edison Co 5 Jan., 1933 

Detroit Edison Co 5 July, 1940 

Duquesne Light Co 6 July, 1949 

Ellicott Square Co 5 Mar., 1935 

Michigan State Tel Co 5 Feb., 1924 

Northern States Power Co. 5 April, 1941 

Seattle Electric Co. 5 Aug., 1929 

So. Cal. Edison Co 5 Nov., 1939 



1923 


7,000 


6,570.00 


1921 


1,000 


1,000.00 


1954 


10,000 


10,000.00 


1956 


50 


50.00 


1948 


2,200 


2,189.00 


1938 


3,000 


2,970.00 


1956 


5,000 


4,500.00 


1956 


500 


500.00 


1951 


2,000 


2,000.00 


1927 


500 


450.00 


1942 


2,000 


2,000.00 
94.572.50 



3,000 


2,940.00 


2,000 


2,005.00 


2,000 


1,915.00 


5,000 


5,000.00 


6,000 


5,335.00 


5,000 


4,000.00 


5,000 


4,925.00 


5,000 


4,800.00 


1,000 


850.00 


5,000 


5,000.00 


3,000 


2,996.00 


$5,000 


$4,300.00 


5,000 


5,000.00 


1,000 


920.00 



1920.] Report of the Treasurer 193 

Southern Power Co 5 Mar., 1930 5,000 4,775.00 

Terre Haute Trac. Lt. & 

Power Co 5 May, 1944 2,000 2,000 . 00 

United States Rubber Co... 5 Jan., 1947 2,000 1,743.75 

Western Electric Co... . ... .5 Dec, 1922 5,000 5,056.00 



$74,560.76 



$280,317.81 



Stocks Par Book 

Shares Value Value 

24 American Tel & Tel. Co $2,400 $2,353. 50 

11 Atchinson, Topeka & Santa F6 R. R. (Pref) 1,100 687.00 

3 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Pref.) 300 210. 00 

6 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Com.) 600 420. 00 

6 Fitchburg Bank & Trust Co 600 600. 00 

50 Boston & Maine (Pref.) 5,000 5,000.00 

35 Mass. Gas Light Cos. (Pref.) 3,500 2,900. 00 

68 N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co 6,800 8,450.00 

30 Northern R. R. (N. H.) 3,000 3,000.00 

11 Old South Building Trust (Pref.) 1,100 981.00 

30 Union Pacific R. R. (Com.) 3,000 3,000. 00 

16 Webster & Atlas National Bank 1,600 1,800. 00 

25 West End St. Ry. Co. (Pref.) 1,250 1,250.00 

14 Worcester Gas Light Co 1,400 2,000. 00 

31 Worcester Bank & Trust Co 3,100 2,914.00 

30 Norton Co. (Pref.) ^ 3,000 3,000. 00 

Mortgage Loans 

J. Burwick 2,100.00 

L. L. Mellen 1,500.00 

J. P. Sexton, Trustee 8,000. 00 



$38,565.50 



$11,600.00 
Bank Deposits 
Deposit in Worcester Bank & Trust Co., Interest 

Department $1,000. 00 

Real Estate 
Library Building with land $195,256. 30 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian 
Society, beg leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1920, have been 
examined by Elmer A. MacGowan, Accountant, and his certificate 
that they are correct is herewith submitted. 



194 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The Auditors further report that they have personally examined 
the securities held by the Treasurer and find the same to be as 
stated by him and the balance of cash on hand duly accounted for. 
(Signed) Benjamin Thomas Hill, 

Homer Gage, Auditors. 

October 1, 1920. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1920. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made up 
for the year ending September 30, 1920, and find same to be 
correct. 

(Signed) Elmer A. MacGowan, 

Accountant. 

Contributors of $100 and more to the Society's 
Invested Funds 

1832 Isaiah Thomas, Worcester (legacy) $23,152 

Nathaniel Maccarty, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1838 Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (legacy) 200 

1840 William McFarland, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1842 Christopher G. Champlin, Newport, R. I. (legacy) 100 

1852 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

1856 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

1858 Nathan Appleton, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester. 200 

Edward Everett. Boston 100 

George Folsom, Worcester 100 

John Green, Worcester 100 

James Lenox, New York, N. Y. 250 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester ■ 200 

Charles C. Little, Cambridge 100 

Pliny Merrick, Worcester 100 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 3,545 

P. Dexter Tiffany, Worcester - 200 

1867 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 8,000 

1868 William Thomas, Boston 500 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 500 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester (legacy) 940 

1869 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Usher D. Parsons, Providence 100 

Nathaniel Thayer, Boston 500 

1870 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Ebenezer Torrey, Fitchburg 100 

1871 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 100 



194 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The Auditors further report that they have personally examined 
the securities held by the Treasurer and find the same to be as 
stated by him and the balance of cash on hand duly accounted for. 
(Signed) Benjamin Thomas Hill, 

Homer Gage, Auditors. 

October 1, 1920. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1920. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made up 
for the year ending September 30, 1920, and find same to be 
correct. 

(Signed) Elmer A. MacGowan, 

Accountant. 



Contributors of $100 and more to the Society's 
Invested Funds 

1832 Isaiah Thomas, Worcester (legacy) $23,162 

Nathaniel Maccarty, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1838 Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (legacy) 200 

1840 William McFarland, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1842 Christopher G. Champlin, Newport, R. I. (legacy) 100 

1852 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

1856 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

1858 Nathan Appleton, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester. , 200 

Edward Everett. Boston 100 

George Folsom, Worcester 100 

John Green, Worcester 100 

James Lenox, New York, N. Y. 250 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester 200 

Charles C. Little, Cambridge 100 

Pliny Merrick, Worcester. 100 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 3,545 

P. Dexter Tiffany, Worcester - 200 

1867 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 8,000 

1868 William Thomas, Boston 500 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 500 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester (legacy) 940 

1869 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Usher D. Parsons, Providence 100 

Nathaniel Thayer, Boston 500 

1870 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Ebenezer Torrey, Fitchburg 100 

1871 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 100 



I 

I 

1920.] Report of the Treasurer 195 

I- ■ 

1872 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury ; 300 

John P. Bigelow, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

1874 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury (legacy) 200 

I Ebenezer Alden, Randolph 100 

i 1875 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1878 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1879 Benjamin F. Thomas, Beverly (legacy). 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 500 

1881 Joseph A. Tenney, Worcester (legacy) 5,000 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph (legacy) 1,000 

1882 Samuel F. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

1883 Robert C. Waterston, Boston. 100 

1884 George Chandler, Worcester 500 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10,000 

1885 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10,000 

1886 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

1887 Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

1889 Francis H. Dewey, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

1891 Edward L. Davis, Worcester. . . . • 5,000 

1895 George E. Ellis, Charlestown (legacy) 10,000 

1899 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

1900 John C. B. Davis, Washington, D. C 1,000 

Horace Davis, San Francisco, Calif 1,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

1905 Andrew H. Green, New York, N. Y. (legacy) 4,840 

1907 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 60,000 

Charles E. French, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

1908 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 175,000 

1909 Mrs. Frances W. Haven, Worcester (legacy) . 2,000 

1910 Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 5,000 

Mrs. Eliza D. Dodge, Worcester (legacy) 3,000 

James F. Hunnewell, Boston 5,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester. 5,000 

Charles H. Davis, Worcester. 2,000 

Austin P. Cristy, Worcester 100 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1,000 

Henry A. Marsh, Worcester 100 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven, Conn 100 

Eugene F. Bliss, Cincinnati, 1,000 

A. George Bullock, Worcester 2,000 

William B. Weeden, Providence 500 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 2,500 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel S. Green, Worcester 1,000 



196 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

James L. Whitney, Cambridge (legacy) 490 

1911 Austin S. Garver, Worcester. 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,500 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, Pa 100 

William Lawrence, Boston ■ . . 100 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 150 

Samuel A. Green, Boston 100 

1912 James P. Baxter, Portland, Me 100 

Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven, Conn 100 

Justin H. Smith, Boston 100 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Worcester. 200 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York, N. Y 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit, Mich 100 

Henry H. Edes, Boston 250 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

1913 Albert H. Whitin, Whitinsville 1,000 

1913 Daniel Merriam, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Worcester (legacy) 500 

Miss Jane A. Taft, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Katharine Allen, Worcester (legacy) 4,000 

1916 Grenville H. Norcross, Boston 200 

1917 Horace Davis, San Francisco, Cal. (legacy) 5,000 

1919 Samuel A. Green, Boston (legacy) 5,000 

1920 Andrew McF. Davis , 6,000 

David H. Fanning 5,000 

Clarence W. Bowen 500 

Arthur P. Rugg » 200 

Samuel L. Munson 1,000 



1920.] Report of the Librarian 197 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN 



THE number of accessions during the year past has 
measured up to the average of recent years, 
although this has been due to numerous gifts, rather 
than to purchase. Expressed in figures, the total is as 
follows : 

Bound volumes 2638 

Pamphlets 5009 

Maps, prints and mss. 757 

Unbound Newspapers 2186 

A continuous source of additions to the Library has 

been the steady gifts of literary material from certain 

members, who send us periodically the accumulations 

of books and pamphlets which they acquire. From 

Chief Justice Rugg, Charles H. Taylor, Jr., Charles G. 

Washburn and Henry W. Cunningham, we have 

received a great deal *of ephemeral material, which 

Ewhen sorted and arranged adds much of value to our 
files. From the President, Mr. Lincoln, the library 
has obtained a number of much needed works of local 
history and genealogy. Through purchase and gift, 
nearly four hundred genealogies have been added to 
our collection. , The most valuable genealogy ac- 
quired is the three volume set of " The Stokes Record/' 
by Anson Phelps Stokes, and presented by a member 
of the Society, Mr. I. N. Phelps Stokes. Other 
valuable works obtained are V. L. Oliver's " History 
of the Island of Antigua," presented by Mrs. Waldo 
Lincoln, and the much needed set of Murray's "New 
English Dictionary," purchased from the Haven 
Fund. 

From the estate of Dr. Samuel Abbott Green was 
received late in 1919, as the Society's share according 
to his will, a large consignment of historical books and 



198 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

pamphlets, and a number of rare early New England 
imprints. Among the latter was a discourse by 
Samuel Phillips, entitled "A Word in Season, " 
delivered at Byfield, September 8, 1726, and printed 
at Boston in 1727, and including in the foot-notes an 
account of the author's ancestry and various references 
to ecclesiastical affairs in New England. Other titles 
worthy of note are one of the earliest known American 
reprints of a work by John Bunyan, with the brim- 
stone title of " Sighs from Hell: or, the Groans of a 
Damned Soul," Boston, 1708; and "Diverting His- 
torys, " Boston, 1733. The latter seems to be a 
hitherto unknown volume and has an interesting 
wood-cut frontispiece, an example of early Boston 
engraving. Altogether the Society received from Dr. 
Green 225 books and 209 pamphlets. 

A rare book obtained during the year is entitled 
"The Young Secretary's Guide: or, a Speedy Help 
to Learning" by Thomas Hill, Gentleman, Boston, 
1718. This was the fifth edition, reprinted by John 
Allen, for Nicholas Buttolph. It was intended as a 
guide for writing letters, for proper capitalization and 
punctuation, and for the preparation of deeds, wills 
and other legal documents, and containing tables of 
interest and a short dictionary of difficult words. It 
was a popular book in England, having frequently 
been printed in London toward the close of the seven- 
teenth century. The earliest English edition in the 
British Museum is that of 1696, but this and the sub- 
sequent editions are ascribed to John Hill. Neither 
the John Hill of the English editions nor the Thomas 
Hill of the American editions are included in the 
Dictionary of National Biography. The Boston 
editions were especially prepared for the people of New 
England and included a list of the counties and towns 
of Massachusetts and many references to New England 
affairs. 

This makes the fourth of these early editions 
obtained by the Society in the past half a dozen years. 



1920.] Report of the Librarian 199 

The 1713 edition contains a preface written by the 
printer in which he states: "As for my own part, 
thus much I can say in its Praise, That a more useful 
Book on this Subject never came to my Hands; so 
that it is needless to trouble you with a long and 
tedious Epistle in its Favour, it having sufficiently 
Recommended itself to the World already, by the Sale 
of three large Impressions, all of which were Sold in a 
short Time, and were found too few to furnish this 
large and daily increasing Country; which has of late 
occasioned very sad Complaints for want of so useful 
and necessary a Companion. This, and a desire to 
serve the Publick, has encouraged the Booksellers to 
present the World with a fourth impression of it." 
This preface was sighed by T. F., evidently the 
initials of Thomas Fleet. The other editions obtained 
by the Society are the fourth, printed by T. Fleet for 
Samuel Gerrish, 1713; the sixth, reprinted for Nicholas 
Boone, 1727, in which the preface, although the same 
wording as previously, is signed by J. A., undoubtedly 
John Allen; and the seventh edition, printed by T. 
Fleet, 1730. The rarity of these early editions is 
indicated by the fact that in Evans' " American 
Bibliography' ' no copies are located, and no mention 
is made of the name of Thomas Hill on the title-page 
of the issues previous to 1730. I have located the 
following copies: 1703, 3rd edition, preface signed by 
T. G. (Timothy Green), in the Mass. Historical 
Society and Boston Public Library; 1713, 4th edition, 
in the American Antiquarian Society and Library of 
Congress; 1717, 4th edition in the Mass. Historical 
Society; 1718, 5th edition, in the American Antiquarian 
Society and the Mass. Historial Society; 1727, 6th 
edition in the American Antiquarian Soiety and Har- 
vard; and 1730, 7th edition in the American Antiquar- 
rian Society, Harvard and Boston Public Library. 
In the Boston Public Library, the book is catalogued 
under "John Hill (Thomas Hill, misprint for John 
Hill.)" 



200 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

To the almanac collection, over two hundred new 
issues have been added. Of these by far the most 
rare is a file of "The Kentucky Almanac, " printed by 
John Bradford, at Lexington, Kentucky, from 1794 to 
1808. Most of these issues are the first so far dis- 
covered. In fact, the Durrett collection of Kentucky 
material, now at the University of Chicago, has none 
of the eighteenth century almanacs, nor does the 
Library of Congress Checklist of American Almanacs 
previous to 1800 list anything under Kentucky. As 
almanacs go, they are more entertaining than the 
average, because of the numerous contributions of 
doggerel poetry. Two other almanacs of value are 
Jacob Taylor's almanac for 1744, printed at Phila- 
delphia, obtained from Mr. Samuel L. Munson; and 
"Weatherwise's Almanack" for 1787, printed at Port- 
land by Thomas B. Wait. As the first almanac 
printed in Maine, this latter issue has long been 
desired for our collection. The printer states in his 
newspaper, the "Cumberland Gazette," that thisis "The 
very first almanack ever calculated for the meridian of 
Portland," but unlike most other almanac publishers, 
he does not indulge in a long preface. His only com- 
ment is as follows: "A Preface, reader, you shall not 
have. If the merit of this almanack will not support 
it, let it fall. If shall not be Preface-propt. We hate 
a Preface as we do a Snake— and the Writers of them, 
as we do the Father of Lies. " The only other copies 
known of this issue are in the Library of Congress and 
in Longfellow House, at Portland, in a file of almanacs 
containing the diaries of Stephen Longfellow, the 
father of the poet. 

While on the subject of almanacs, the attention of 
members should be called to the "List of New York 
Almanacs, 1694-1850," published by Alexander J. 
Wall, assistant librarian of the New York Historical 
Society in the Bulletin of the New York Public 
Library. The making of this bibliography was 
suggested to Mr. Wall by us as a companion check-list 



1920.] Report of the Librarian 201 

to the list of the almanacs of several of the New Eng- 
land States published in our Proceedings, and the 
trustees of the New York Public Library are to be 
commended for their generosity in printing it in their 
Bulletin. Our own interest in its publication is 
shown by the fact that we have nearly half of the two 
thousand almanacs listed — incidentally a larger col- 
lection than that of any other library. Mr. Wall's 
work can well serve as a model for the checklists of 
other States, so that we can finally have an adequate 
bibliography of all American almanacs previous to 
1850. 

A bibliography in which the Society is also interested 
is the " Census of Fifteenth Century Books owned in 
America," 1919, compiled by a committee of the 
Bibliographical Society of America, but edited prima- 
rily by Mr. George Parker Winship. This census 
covers 169 public and 246 private collections, and 
lists 13,200 copies of 6,640 titles. When it is con- 
sidered that only slightly over 25,000 titles of books 
are known to have been printed in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, it can readily be seen that a fair share of the 
incunabula found in Europe within recent years has 
found its way across the seas to America. This 
Society has but twenty-five examples of fifteenth 
century books, but because of the importance to us 
of the history of printing, and because of the strength of 
our library in typography, due chiefly to the founda- 
tion gifts of Isaiah Thomas and to the C. H. Taylor 
collection, it is a subject in which we are greatly 
interested. 

Fewer newspaper files have been acquired than has 
usually been the case in recent years, chiefly due to the 
fact that fewer opportunities of acquisition have been 
offered. The number of accessions total 321 bound 
volumes and 1100 miscellaneous issues. To Mr. 
Albert C. Bates, of Hartford, we are indebted for a 
large collection of New England papers published 



202 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

about the middle of the last century. Among the 
longer files acquired may be noted the following: 

Bellows Falls Gazette, 1840-1851. 

Bennington, Vermont Gazette, 1818-1820, 1827-1828. 

Boston, American Union, 1850-1857. 

Lenox, Bershire Herald, 1832. 

Hartford, American Mercury, 1824-1833. 

N. E. Weekly Review, 1841-1843. 

Patriot and Democrat, 1837-1841. 
New York, Christian Advocate, 1827-1854. 

Spectator, 1818, 1826. 

Sunday Mercury, 1800. 

Tribune, 1896-1912. 

Weekly Sun, 1847-1848. 
Philadelphia, Neal's Saturday Gazette, 1844-1848. 

Saturday Museum, 1844. 

The most valuable file acquired, and one of the most 
important acquisitions made by the Society in recent 
years, is a set of the London Gazette, from the date of 
the first issue, Nov. 14, 1665, through the year 1796. 
This paper, the oldest in the English speaking world, 
was started at Oxford with the title of the Oxford 
Gazette. On February 5, 1666 it was removed to 
London where it was called the London Gazette and 
where it has been continued uninterruptedly to the 
present day. Up to the time of the Revolution, and 
especially previous to 1704, the year of the first Bos- 
ton newspaper, it is an important and in many cases 
the sole source of information for material relating 
to the American colonies. During the Revolution, 
it is of course also of value in presenting the English 
side of the conflict. There has been quite frequent 
call for this newspaper for the Colonial period, and 
we are fortunate in having been able to secure so 
remarkable a file extending over 130 years. 

A few small collections of manuscripts have been 
presented, among them the papers of Rev. Joseph 
Goffe, pastor of the First Congregational Church at 
Millbury from 1794 to 1830, the gift of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Goffe Peirce of Millbury. These include ancestral 
papers of the Goffe family and the Clough family of 



1920.] Report of the Librarian 203 

Boston of about 1750, but the most interesting docu- 
ments are a series of letters from Joseph and Eliza 
Goffe written from Georgia and Alabama, and des- 
cribing to some extent the appearance of Savannah, 
Charleston and other Southern towns; and a Journal 
of a trip to Illinois and the Western country made in 
1830 to find a suitable place for a colony of Easterners 
to settle. Starting from Buffalo, the diarist visited 
Cleveland, Detroit, Clinton, Niles, Chicago, Jackson- 
ville and Springfield, and returned through Danville, 
Lafayette, Logansport, Fort Wayne, Sandusky, 
Elyria, Erie and Buffalo, and thence by boat to 
Albany. The description of towns and of social 
conditions in the early West might possibly make this 
Journal worth printing. 

Other manuscripts received include some corres- 
pondence of Abijah Bigelow of Worcester, presented 
by Mr. D. Berkeley Updike of Boston, and "The 
Appraisal of the Armes & Accontrement of Col. 
Learned's Reg't at the end of the Campaign, 1775," 
given by Mr. Artemas Ward of New York. The 
Society has also obtained an interesting manuscript 
of the country around New York City during the 
campaign of 1776. It was drawn by Alexander 
Scammell, for his friend Gen. John Sullivan, and is 
inscribed "To the Hon b,e John Sullivan, Esq. r , 
Major Gen 1 in the army of the United States of 
America, humbly presented by his Obed fc Serv' Alexd r 
Scammell." It is a general plan of the topography 
north of East River and the Sound, as far east as 
Byram River, and locates the towns, roads and some 
of the redoubts, forts and positions. On the back 
General Sullivan has written to Col. Hugh Hughes: 

Sir: 

Please Send me some Hay & Oats to Williams, as 
I am Intirely Destitute, also a Waggon for the use of 
myself & Division. 

October 19th, 1776 Yr Humble Servt, 

Mr. Huse, Asst. Q. M. G. Jno Sullivan 



204 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

The collection of portraits has received two excellent 
additions from Mr. Clarence W. Bowen, the portraits 
of Theophilus Chandler and his wife, painted by 
Winthrop Chandler. Mr. Bowen found these por- 
traits in the old Chandler House on Chandler Hill in 
Thompson, Conn., and had them carefully restored 
before presenting them to the Society. Theophilus 
Chandler was a surveyor, residing in Petersham, Mass., 
and Thompson, Conn., was born 1732 and died 1816, 
and was the brother of Rev. Thomas Bradbury 
Chandler. His wife, Elizabeth Frink Chandler, was 
the daughter of Rev. Thomas Frink, and died in 1771. 
Winthrop Chandler, the artist, was the brother of 
Theophilus and was born in 1747. He is said to have 
studied the art of portrait painting in Boston, and 
, • painted several portraits about the time of the 

Revolution. His own portrait by himself is now 
owned by one of his descendants. 

The most valued addition to the bookplate collec- 
tion is an almost complete set of signed proofs of E. D. 
French's plates, gathered by the late John Page Wood- 
bury, and presented to this Society by his son, Mr. 
John Woodbury. These proofs will be kept as one 
collection, and will add greatly to the strength of our 
collection of the designs of America's foremost book- 
plate engraver. A few Mexican plates have been 
obtained from one of our foreign members, Nicolas 
L6on, of Mexico City. In 1919 a book of interest to 
us was published, with the title of " A List of Canadian 
Bookplates," compiled by Winward Prescott, with 
the assistance of Stanley Harrod and Morely J. 
Ayearst. This volume lists about 1700 plates, of 
which we have about one third, together with 180 
plates not included in the list. Our excellent showing 
is largely due to the generosity of one of the authors of 
the work, Mr. Stanley Harrod, of Toronto, who has 
presented to the Society, through Mr. Lombard, his 
own personal collection of Canadian plates. In this 
way, we obtained 568 additions to our Canadian 



; 

j 



1920.] Report of the Librarian 205 

collection. The great Marshall collection of American 
bookplates is still undergoing a process of arranging 
and comparison with our own collection, and it will be 
several weeks yet before this time-consuming task is 
finished. 

The greatest drawback to the successful growth of 
the library, and to the accessibility of its possessions, 
is the lack of shelf-room. The stack, planned to take 
care of the increase of fifteen years, was nearly filled 
with unlooked-for acquisitions in less than six years. 
Only by continual reshifting of the material on the 
shelves and by the temporary storage of bulky news- 
papers in the basement can we find room for our fast 
increasing accessions. We cannot stop collecting. 
We must continue to take advantage of our oppor- 
tunities, and pray for the relief which will eventually 
come. 

' Respectfully submitted, 

Clarence S. Brigham, 

Librarian. 



206 American Antiquarian Society [Oct, 



Bonor* 



INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 

Abbot Academy. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Science of St. Louis. 

Alabama Historical Society. 

Alliance Franchise. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

American ifssociation for International Conciliation. 

American Association of Journalism. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

American Catholic Historical Society. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Irish Historical Society. 

American Jewish Historical Society. 

American Library Association. 

American Numismatic Society. 

American Oriental Society. 

American Philosophical Society. 

Amherst Record. 

American Seaman's Friend Society. 

American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes. 

American Steel and Wire Co. 

American Type Founders Company. 

Andover Theological Seminary. 

Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal. 

Australian Museum. 

Baltimore American. 

Bank of the Manhattan Company. 

Barre Gazette 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze. 

Boston, City of. 

Boston Cemetery Department. 

Boston City Hospital. 

Boston Co-operative Information Bureau. 

Boston Globe. 

Boston Health Department. 



1920.] Donors 207 

Boston Legal Aid Society. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

Boston Port and Seamen's Aid Society. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston Transcript. 

Boston Transit Commission. 

Boston University. 

Bostonian Society. 

Bowdoin College. 

Bridgeport Brass Company. 

Brockton Public Library. 

Brookline Public Library. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Brooklyn Public Library. 

Brown University. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Buffalo Public Library. 

Bulletin of Bibliography. 

Bunker Hill Monument Association. 

Bureau of Railway Economics. 

Business Digest. 

California, Society of Colonial Wars. 

California State Library. 

California, University of. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Canada, Department of Mines. 

Canada, Dominion Archivist. * 

Carnegie Endowmwnt for International Peace. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Catholic Historical Review. 

Catholic Messenger. 

Catholic University of America. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 

Chicago, University of. 

Christian Science Monitor. . 

Church Militant. 

Clark University. 

Colgate University. 

Collector. 

Colonial Society of Massachusetts. 

Colorado College. 

Colorado, University of. 

Columbia Historical Society. 

Columbia University. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 



208 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Connecticut, Diocese of. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Connecticut State Library. 

Connecticut Valley Historical Society. 

Cornell University. 

Dartmouth College Library. 

Daughters of the Cincinnati. 

Diocese of Western Massachusetts. 

Drew All is Co. 

Enoch Pratt Free Library. 

Essex Institute. 

Fairmount Park Art Association. 

Field Museum of Natural History. 

Fitchburg, City of. 

Fitchburg Public Library. 

Fitchburg Sentinel. 

Forbes Library. 

Frye Publishing Company 

Genealogy. 

General Education Board. 

Georgia Historical Society. 

Georgia State Library. 

Grolier Club. 

Groton Historical Society. 

Groton Landmark. 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 

Hartford, Automobile Club of. 

Hartford Courant. 

Hartford Seminary. 

Hartford Theological Seminary. 

Harvard Alumni. 

Harvard College. 

Harvard University. 

Haverhill Public Library. 

Helena Public Library. 

Hervas Laboratories of American Linguistics, 

Heye Museum. 

Hispanic Society of America. 

Holy Cross College. 

Iconographic Society. 

Illinois Centennial Commission. 

Illinois State Historical Library. 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Illinois, University of. 

International Typographical Union. 

Iowa, Historical Department of. 



1920.] Donors 209 

Iowa, State Historical Society of. 

Irish National Bureau. 

Jacksonville Public Library. 

Jamaica, Institute of. 

Japan Society. 

Jersey City, Free Public Library. 

John Carter Brown Library. 

John Crerar Library. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

Journal of Zoophily. 

Kansas City Star. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Lake Mohonk Conference. 

Landlord and Tenant. 

La Plata, Universidad Nacional de. 

Leominster Public Library. 

Lewiston Journal. 

Library of Congress. 

London, Corporation of. 

Long Island Historical Society. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 

L'Opinion Publique. 

Los Angeles Public Library. 

Louisiana Historical Society. 

Louisiana State Museum. 

Louisville Free Public Library. 

Magazine of History. ^ 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine State Library. 

Maryland Historical Society. 

Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. 

Massachusetts, Free and Accepted Masons. . 

Massachusetts General Hospital. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Massachusetts Library Club. 

Massachusetts, Secretary of State. 

Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants. 

Massachusetts State Department of Health. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester. 

Massachusetts Woman's Relief Corps. 

Merchants National Bank, Worcester. 

Mergenthaler Linotype Company. 

Messenger Printing and Publishing Company. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



210 American Antiquarian Society [Oct 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. 
Mexico, Museo Nacional. 
Miami University. 
Michigan Historical Commission. 
Military Service Institution. 
Milton Historical Society. 
Minnesota Historical Society. 
Minnesota, University of. 
Mississippi Department of Archives. 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 
Missouri Historical Society. 
Missouri, State Historical Society of. 
Montague Press. 
Montana News Bulletin. 
Montana, University of. 
Montreal Herald. 
Munition Resources Commission. 
Nation, The. 

National Association for Constitutional Government. 
t / National Child Labor Committee. 

National Education Association of U. S. 

National Genealogical Society. 

National Home Rule Association. 

National Society of Sons of American Revolution. 

Naval History Society. 

Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Nebraska, University of. 

New Brunswick Historical Society. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

New England Society of Brooklyn. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Hampshire State Library. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

New Republic. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York, Department of Education of City of. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

New York Historical Society. 

New York Hospital. 

New York, National City Bank of. 

New York Public Library. 

New York Society Library. 

New York, State Education Department. 

New York State Historical Association. 

New York State Library. 



1920.] Donors 211 

New York, Stock Exchange, Committee on Library. 

New York Tribune. 

New York, University of the State of. 

Newberry Library. 

Newport Historical Society. 

Newport Mercury. 

North Carolina Historical Commission. 

North Carolina, University of. 

North Dakota, State Historical Society of. 

North Dakota, University of. 

Northwestern University. 

Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Nova Scotia Institute of Science. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. 

Oakland Free Library. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio, Historical and Philosophical Society of. 

Ohio, Industrial Commission of. 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Oklahoma Historical Society. 

Onondaga Historical Association. 

Oregon Historical Society. 

Oregon State Immigration Office. 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition. 

Pan-American Union. 

Paris Chamber of Commerce. 

Peabody Institute of Baltimore. h 

Peabody Museum of American Archaeology. 

Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. 

Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of. 

Pennsylvania Museum. 

Pennsylvania Society. 

Pennsylvania State Library. 

Pennsylvania, University of. 

Philadelphia, Library Company of. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

Philadelphia Rotary Club. 

Philippine Press Bureau. 

Portland Chamber of Commerce. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. 

Presbyterian Historical Society. 

Providence Athenaeum. 

Providence, City of. 

Providence Journal. 

Providence Public Library. 



212 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Public Libraries. 
Publishers' Weekly. 

Quebec, Literary and Historical Society of. 
Queen's University. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 
Republican National Committee. 
Reynolds Family Association. 
Rhode Island Historical Society. 
Rhode Island State Library. 
Riverside Public Library. 
Rosenberg Library. 

Royal Academy of Literature, History and Antiquities of Stockholm. 
Royal Canadian Institute. 
Royal Colonial Institute. 
Royal Historical Society. 

Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Com- 
merce. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Royal Society of Canada. 
Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. 
St. Louis Public Library. 
School Arts Magazine. 
Scituate Historical Society. 
Shedd Family Association. 
Skandinavia. 

Smith College. ^ 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Social Law Library. 
Soci6t6 des Am6ricanistes de Paris. 
Soci6te" de Geographie de Paris. 
Soci6te* Nationale des Antiquaires de France. 
Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 
Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Society of Pennsylvania Women in New York. 
Society of the Army of the Potomac. 
Somerset Co. Historical Quarterly. 
South Carolina, Historical Commission of. 
South Carolina Historical Society. 
Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 
Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 
Standard, The. 

State Charities Aid Association. 
Svea. 

Tennessee Historical Magazine. 
Texas State Historical Association. 



t r 



1920.] Donors 213 

Topsfield Historical Society. 

Toronto, University of. 

Trenton, Mechanics Bank. 

Trinity College Historical Society. 

Union Acad6mique Internationale. 

Union Pacific Railroad Company. 

United Empire. 

United States Brewers' Association. 

United States Government. 

Universidad Nacional de la Plata. 

University Francaises aux University des Pays Neutres. 

Vermont State Library. 

Villager. 

Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society. 

Virginia Historical Society. 

Virginia State Library. 

Warren Academy of Sciences. 

Washington University. 

Washington University State Historical Society. 

Wesley an University. 

Western Reserve Historical Society. 

William Jewell College. 

Williams College. 

Wilson, H. W., Co. 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 

Wisconsin Library Commission. 

Wisconsin, State Historical Society of. 

Worcester Academy. 

Worcester Art Museum. 

Worcester Baptist Association. 

Worcester Board of Health. 

Worcester Chamber of Commerce. 

Worcester, City of. 

Worcester City Hospital. 

Worcester County Law Library. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. 

Worcester County Musical Association. 

Worcester Fire Society. 

Worcester Free Public Library. 

Worcester Gazette. 

Worcester Historical Society. 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 

Worcester, Public Education Association of. 

Worcester Rotary Club. 

Worcester, School Department of. 

Worcester Telegram. 



214 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Worcester Woman's Club. 

Worcester Young Women's Christian Association. 

Wyoming Commemorative Association. 

Yale College, Class of 1888 of. 

Yale University. 



NON-MEMBERS 



Abbot, William F. 

Adams, Emma L. 

Allen, Gilman F. 

Ammidown, Harry F. 

Avery, Samuel P. 

Bacon, Mrs. William P. 

Baillie, William E. 

Banks, James Lenox 

Barnes, Harry 

Batchelder, Samuel F. 

Bates, Newton W. 

Bishop, William W. 

Blaine, John E. 

Bowker, Charles H. 

Bowker, Mrs. James B. 

Brigham, W. Curtis 

Brooks, Thomas J. 

Bulloch, Joseph G. B. 

Buddy, III, Lewis 

Burpee, Moses 

Burrill, Paul C. 

Bushnellj Mrs. Daniel E. 
Buttler, George 
Buttler, Harriet C. 
Cadle, Mrs. Charles F. 
Caldwell, Charles T. 
Campbell, Killis 
Case, Charles G. 
Christie, Walter 
Clark, John C. L. 
Coffin, Edward F. 
Cole, George W. 
Colegrove, Kenneth 
Colegrove, Louise 
Congdon, George E. 
Coolidge, Calvin 
Cowan, Robert E. 
Davis, Walter W. 
Deacon, Meres S. 



Delabarre, Edmund B. 

Dewey, Louis M. 

Dillingham, Elizabeth T. 

Dykes, Hannah S. B. 

Emerson, William A. 

Fales, DeCoursey 

Fay, Albert E. 

Fernald, Walter E. 

Foik, Paul J. 

Forbes, Allan 

French, Mrs. Edwin D. 

Gamio, Manuel 

Gatineau, Felix 

Gilfallan, Donald R. 

Gilman, Mrs. Warren R. 

Goebel, Julius 

Goodwin, Mrs. James J. 

Goodspeed, Charles E. 

Graham, Henry Tucker 

Green, Mary Wolcott 

Greene, Mrs. Richard Ward 
Gregory, Josiah D. 
Hanson, William T., Jr. 
Hardon, Henry W. 
Harrison, Fairfax 
Hawes, Frank M. 
Hazen, M. Nims 
Henderson, Archibald 
Howe, Mrs. Andrew J. 
Huntting, Teunis D. 
Ingersoll, William H. 
Jacobus, Donald L. 
Jewett, Mrs. J. Grove 
Johnson, Edward F. 
Jones, George R. 
Joslin, Richard C. 
Kelley, Hermon A. 
Kent, Daniel 
Kent. Mrs. Daniel 



; - 






1920. 



Donors 



215 






' 









> \ 



Knowles, Arthur J. 
Landon, Fred 
Lane, Jennie T. 
Lawrence, Lady Durning 
Lincoln, Mrs. Waldo 
Longman, Rufus A. 
Low, William G. 
McKean, Fred G. 
McPike, Eugene F. 
Mahoney, Kate A. 
Mahoney, Nellie M. 
Marble, Annie Russell. 
Mason, Florence F. 
May, Elizabeth 
Merriman, Mansfield 
Milliken, Annie Y. 
Morgan, John Hill 
Morrison, Noah F. 
Moseley, George C. 
Nevins, Winfield S. 
Newton, Mrs. Caroline G. 
Nicholson, John P. 
Olney, Mrs. George Richards 
Paine, Mrs. Nathaniel 
Pardo, Jose 
Parker, Arthur C. 
Penrose, Charles 
Perry, Mrs. A. H. 
Pomeroy, Jesse Harding 
Ponte, Andres F. 
Pratt, Harvey H. 
Prescott, Winward. 
Priestley, Herbert I. 
Powers, Fred P. 
Putnam, Eben 
Putnam, Elizabeth C. 
Quinby, Henry C. 
Ravenel, Henry E. 
Reed, Brooks 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry A. 
Rhoades, Nelson O. 



Rivet, Paul 

Ropes, James H. 

Rugg, Harold G. 

Salisbury, Elon G. 

Sargent, George H. 

Seitz, Don C. 

Sellers, Edwin J. 

Seybolt, Robert F. 

Sheldon, J. M. Arms 

Smith, William A. 

Snowden, Yates 

Sprague, Mrs. Augustus B. R. 

Start, Cora A. 

Steele, Lorissa E. 

Stevens, Frederic W. 

Stone, Ellen R. 

Sullivan, Peter F. 

Thayer, George B. 

Thompson, Eben F. 

Thompson, Florence W. 

Tuckerman, Frederick 

Twichell, Mrs. Theo. H. 

Vail, John J. 

Van Liew, Thomas L. 

Vanderslott, John E. 

Waite, Emma F. 

Wall, Alexander J. 

Walton, Perry 

Ware, Henry 

Whitcomb, Mary G. 

White, Albert S. 

White, Emma Siggins 

White, John E. 

Whitehead, Russell F. 

Wilder, Frank J. 

Willard, Susanna 

Winter, Nevin O. 

Wood, Casey A. 

Wood, Ernest H. 

Wood, Fred J. 



Balch, Thomas Willing 
Bates, Albert C. 
Beer, William 
Bixby, William K. 



MEMBERS 

Bolton, Charles K. 
Bowen, Clarence W. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Chapin, Howard M. 



216 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Clements, William L. 
Cundall, Frank 
Cunningham, Henry W. 
Davis, Andrew McFarland 
Davis, Livingston 
Dewey, Francis H. 
Doughty, Arthur George 
Dow, George Francis 
Edes, Henry H. 
Evans, Charles 
Farwell, John W. 
Gage, T. Hovey 
Grant, William L. 
Green, Samuel A. 
Green, Samuel S. 
Greene, Richard Ward 
Haynes, George H. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 
Jameson, J. Franklin 
Jenney, Charles F. 
Jordan, John W. 
Kittredge, George L. 



Knapp, Shepherd 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Lord, Arthur 
Matthews, Albert 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Norcross, Grenville H. 
Palmer, William P. 
Paltsits, Victor H. 
Plimpton, George A. 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Shaw, Robert K. 
Steiner, Bernard C. 
Stokes, I. N. Phelps 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr. 
Thomas, Allen C. 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Utley, Samuel 
Washburn, Charles G. 
Winship, George Parker 
Woodward, Samuel B. 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 217 



A FAMOUS COLONIAL LITIGATION 

The Case between Richard Sherman 
and Capt. Robert Keayne, 1642. 

BY ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG 



THE most celebrated law suit of the colonial period 
of Massachusetts Bay was Richard Sherman v. 
Robert Keayne. Its importance does not rest upon the 
magnitude of the matter at stake, the eminence of the 
parties immediately concerned, or the leading legal 
principle established. These features which com- 
monly distinguish renowned cases, such as the Tich- 
bourne Case, the impeachment of President Johnson, 
and Marbury v. Madison, are conspicuously absent. 
This was a simple action of tort for the conversion of 
an ordinary white sow. The plaintiff was a poor man 
in whose name the cause was prosecuted by his wife 
during his absence in England. The defendant was a 
tailor by trade, of frugal habits, not then of great 
prominence in the colony, who beside trafficking at 
large was also a money-lender and thereby gained a 
general reputation for being a hard dealer. No far- 
reaching principle of law was declared, the only point 
in dispute being the pure question of fact whether the 
plaintiff was the owner of the swine in controversy. 
As might be expected, the case has been the subject of 
many a gibe and jest, and much humor has been 
expended in its exploitation. 

Notwithstanding these common aspects, the case is 
nevertheless one of foremost significance in the history 
of the Commonwealth and consequently of the country. 
It was fraught with consequences of no small gravity. 
It was the occasion for the final establishment of the 
division of the legislative department of government 
into two co-ordinate branches. This is one of the 



218 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

primal securities of constitutional government as 
understood and practiced in this country. The 
adoption of this principle in Massachusetts was a 
momentous if not an essential step in fixing the charac- 
ter of government in the colony as representative and 
deliberative rather than a pure democracy. Anything, 
therefore, pertaining to this litigation possesses his- 
torical value. 

The original sources of information concerning this 
law suit are first and chiefly the History of New Eng- 
land by John Winthrop, and then the records of the 
court of assistants, the Records of Massachusetts 
Colony, The Colony Archives, The General History of 
New England by the Rev. William Hubbard, minister 
of the church at Ipswich, and the History of Massachu- 
setts Bay by Gov. Thomas Hutchinson. Hubbard 
was not a participant in the proceedings so far as 
known. But he was a contemporary, being one of the 
first class of graduates of Harvard College in 1642, and 
he writes apparently out of independent knowledge. 
Although Hutchinson wrote something over a hun- 
dred years later, his intimate familiarity with the 
sources of colonial history and his insight into the 
character of our early institutions almost give the 
weight of first-hand information to his observations 
on this subject. Excerpts from the original sources, 
complete as to this matter, are added to this paper as 
appendices. The subject has received much attention 
from other writers, but so far as I have been able to 
discover there are no other sources of information 
touching the facts. By far the most detailed account 
and fullest discussion of the case is given by Winthrop. 
Several pages of his history are devoted to it. 

The proposed publication by the American Anti- 
quarian Society of one of its manuscript possessions 
calls attention anew to this ancient action at law. 
This manuscript is entitled, "A breaviate of ye Case 
betwene Richard Sheareman pit by petition & Capt. 
Robert Eeaine defen" aboute ye title to a straye Sowe 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 219 

supposed to be brought fro Deare Hand about (9) ber 
1636. " It is nothing less than a summary of the 
case. It is dated "at Boston this 5, 15, 1642. " It is 
said by Palfrey, in his History of New England, Vol. I, 
p. 619, note, to be "in Winthrop's handwriting, with 
his signature at the end." On the other hand, it is 
said by Robert C. Winthrop in Vol. 2 of the Life & 
Letters of John Winthrop, p. 283, "It is not in the 
handwriting of Governor Winthrop. We doubt 
whether even the signature is his; and certainly the 
spelling and abbreviations differ widely from those 
which he was accustomed to use. But it was unques- 
tionably one of the manuscript copies prepared for 
circulation among the magistrates and people — that 
being the ordinary mode of publishing papers at that 
day." I will not undertake to settle this question of 
handwriting. It is quite sufficient for present purposes 
that there is no controversy as to the authenticity of 
the manuscript and that it was composed by Winthrop. 
Its genuineness as a Winthrop production and its his- 
torical value are beyond cavil. It consists of eight 
leaves or sheets of paper about 7J4 inches by 6 inches, 
of which two are blank and six are closely written. It 
is of deep interest because of its author and its sub- 
stance. Winthrop was a man of learning, of profound 
wisdom, of judicial temperament, and a writer of no 
mean capacity. He had personal knowledge of the 
matter. This manuscript is a complete and detailed 
history of the salient points of the case. It is divided 
into four parts: 

1. A recital of the undisputed or agreed facts. 

2. An abstract of the evidence produced on both sides at 
the trial before the General Court in 1642. 

3. A discussion of the weight and probative effect of that 
evidence illustrated by reference to scripture. 

4. A statement of the time consumed in the trial and of its 
indecisive result, with reference to a pertinent statute. 

The legal training of Winthrop in the Middle Tem- 
ple is manifest in the precision, perspicuity and logical 



220 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

sequence of the document. This "breaviate" of the 
case was written that the justness of the position of the 
magistrates in deciding against the plaintiff might 
be made clear in order to overcome the "much laboring 
in the country upon a false supposition as to their 
position. It was Winthrop's intention apparently to 
print the "breaviate" in his history. There it is said 
(Vol. 2, p. 72), "because there was much laboring in 
the country upon a false supposition, that the magis- 
trate's negative voice stopped the plaintiff in the case 
of the sow", one of the magistrates published "a 
declaration of the necessity of upholding the same," 
(which doubtless refers to this manuscript) ; and it is 
added: "ft may be inserted here, being brief." That 
intention was abandoned for this reason, I suspect: 
In the following year, as he narrates (Vol. 2, p. 117), 
it was found that this paper had given affront to some 
and he, desiring as governor to compose all occasions 
for dissension, made a speech as soon as he came into 
the General Court wherein, while not retracting, after 
re-examination, any of the matter therein set forth, he 
acknowledged his failings as to the manner thereof and 
" humbly entreated those who had been displeased to 
pardon and pass them by." After thus publicly 
declaring such penitence and showing such magnani- 
mity toward those who had criticised him, he hardly 
could print the offending "breaviate." 

This manuscript was mentioned first, so far as I 
know, by Palfrey, who refers to it in a note in volume 1 
of his History of New England, page 619. 

In view of its succinct narrative, further elaboration 
of the facts of the case would be superfluous since a 
copy of the manuscript itself and the other original 
sources of knowledge about the case, so far as I have 
been able to discover them, are to be printed herewith. 
It only need be added that the matter finally was 
adjusted probably by the remission by Capt. Keayne 
of his judgment for costs against Mrs. Sherman and a 
discharge by the Shermans of all controversies con- 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 221 

cerning the sow. It has been suggested that the 
matter was submitted to General Gibbons and Colonel 
Tyng as referees, who are said to have "most sensibly 
permitted the thing to die of its own folly. " (Vol. 1, 
History of the Ancient & Honorable Artillery Co. 14). 
Of the accuracy of this statement I have been unable 
to find confirmation from original sources. 

A word may be said as to the parties. Whether 
Richard Sherman was in the colony during any part of 
this litigation, which appears to have been fomenting 
in some form or other from 1636 to 1644, is not certain. 
Without doubt he was absent for a substantial part 
of that time. In any event, the active prosecution of 
the claim seems to have fallen upon his wife, who was 
aided and encouraged by the energetic participation of 
one George Story. Since Winthrop says that he was 
unable to find any traces of this man save that he was 
a young English merchant who boarded with Mrs. 
Sherman, nothing further can be said of him. It is 
generally conceded that at this time the Shermans were 
poor in this world's goods. Apparently they were of 
good standing in the community because, under date 
of May 14, 1635, are found 'these entries in 2 Records 
of Massachusetts, 116-117: "It is ord r ed, y fc y e 
Treasurer should pay 13^ 3 to y e wife of Rich r d 
Sherman, as a gratuity for her care & paines y 9 Co r t 
about o r dyet, and a noble to y e oth r helpers in the 
house. " "It is ordered, y e Rich r d Sherman should be 
alowed 19 3 for lodging 3 of y e deputies & y° Gov r n r s 
men." It is hardly likely that the members of the 
General Court in that day would have diet and lodging 
with any except those who held the respect and esteem 
of their townsfolk. This entry is interesting also as 
bearing some indication of acquaintance on the part of 
the Shermans with members of the General Court. 
Richard Sherman's will was dated July 31, 1660, 
wherein he mentions five daughters and no sons. His 
daughter Abigail married a man named John Damon. 
Damon came to this country in 1633. One of their 
descendants was Rev. Samuel C. Damon, born in 



222 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Holden, Mass., and graduated at Amherst College in 
the class of 1836. He studied theology at Princeton 
and Andover and was a missionary at Honolulu 
where he also was chaplain of the Seaman's Friend 
Society. 

Robert Keayne, after having been a member of the 
Honorable Artillery Company, of London, came to 
America in 1635. He is said to have been the founder 
of the Ancient & Honorable Artillery Company of 
Boston. His name is first on the roll of members, and 
in the charter, and he was its first commander. He 
was also a deputy for several terms and speaker of the 
House in 1646. He was punctilious in attendance 
upon religious services and industrious in taking notes 
of sermons. Being shrewd in business matters, he 
soon was regarded as sharp at a bargain and was pub- 
licly rebuked for his offenses of covetousness. A fine 
of 200 pounds, ultimately remitted to 80 pounds, was 
imposed on him for extortionate charges. Doubtless 
he would be called either a leading merchant or a 
profiteer, according to the point of view. Keayne 
died in 1655. He left a will, which is probably the 
longest on the records of Suffolk County, comprising 
one hundred fifty-eight of its original pages and one 
hundred forty- two pages in a recopied record. His 
benefactions were catholic in extent and generous in 
nature and include legacies to Boston for a market 
house, and a free school, to Harvard College, to the 
Ancient & Honorable Artillery Company and for 
other good causes. Drake says of him in the History 
of Boston, p. 246, 247: "From all that can be learned 
of Captain Keayne it does not appear that he was a 
bad man, but that on the contrary he was a very 
good man; yet he was one of that peculiar mind and 
temperament, which rather invited than repelled the 
insults from a class common in all communities. He 
was deeply religious, but, like nearly all men who buy 
and sell, his interest in his business was so strong, 
that he could not well help losing sight of his scruples 
at times. But when abstracted from his business he 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 223 

relented and condemned himself. He appears to 
have been of a forgiving disposition, and more ready 
to receive an injury than to give one, and could be 
oppressed with impunity/' 

It is manifest from Winthrop's account that the 
merits of the cause were plainly in favor of Captain 
Keayne. That is clear from his statement of the facts 
and the evidence. This is strongly confirmed by three 
facts: (1) that the elders, upon a thorough investiga- 
tion of the matter and after hearing the material 
witnesses, found in favor of Keayne, (2) that the jury 
in the court at Boston, in a direct action by Sherman 
for the conversion of the pig, found also in Keayne's 
favor, and (3) that in an action brought in court by 
Keayne against Mrs. Sherman and Story for slander- 
ously reporting that he had stolen her sow, a jury 
again returned a verdict in favor of Keayne and 
assessed damages in his behalf in the sum of twenty 
pounds. These three successive findings all one way, 
separated by considerable intervals of time, two of 
them being verdicts by a jury, afford rational ground 
for the inference, indeed almost indubitable proof to 
the effect, that Winthropand the magistrates were 
right in their stand against Sherman and in favor of 
Keayne on the merits of the case. That aspect of the 
case would seem to be set at rest by this "breviate" 
and the other documents to be published herewith. 
However, in a popular contest in which such a woman 
as Mrs. Sherman, sufficiently good cook to satisfy the 
members of the general court in their diet, a house- 
keeper of such merit that they were content to lodge 
under her roof, was pitted against the sharp trader with 
a reputation for hard dealing, the advantage naturally 
would be with the representative of the fair sex. Even 
so good a soldier as Captain Keayne would be pretty 
apt to ride to his fall in any controversy with such a 
suitress for popular sympathy. It therefore is not sur- 
prising that after the matter had been talked over by 
the people at large without the evidence before them, 
the trend of public feeling should be with Mrs. Sher- 



224 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

man, and that this should be reflected in the attitude 
of the deputies on the subject. When, however, it 
was sought by the deputies by sheer force of numbers 
to out-vote the magistrates or assistants and thus 
reach a decision in favor of Sherman, a delicate and 
fundamental principle in government was reached 
transcending in significance the decision of any con- 
troversy between parties over their private rights, 
important as that always is. There the statesmen of 
the colony practically without exception were on one 
side. This question whether, in matters brought 
before the General Court, the assistants or magistrates 
and the deputies acted or had the right to act as 
separate bodies, the approving vote of each body being 
essential for affirmative action, had been under dis- 
cussion for some time. The phrase by which reference 
commonly is made to it is "The Negative Voyce ,, or 
" The Negative Vote. " Since the deputies constituted 
the more numerous body and therefore would have 
greater power in joint session, the term was used as 
indicating the negative of the assistants or magistrates 
upon measures receiving the approval of the deputies. 
Although the charter gave important powers to the 
governor, deputy governor and assistants, no difficulty 
on this point seems to have developed so long as the 
body of freemen met together with the assistants 
constituting the General Court. Up to 1634 the 
government of the colony had been almost that of a 
pure democracy. The General Court was composed of 
both the assistants or magistrates and all the freemen. 
The inconvenience and even danger of this soon be- 
came manifest. As the settlements were more and 
more scattered, they were exposed to the hazard of 
Indian attack and the other manifold perils of pioneer 
times if all the freemen left at one time for attendance 
on the General Court. Moreover, the loss of time in 
travel and attendance was no inconsiderable factor. 
Therefore, on May 14, 1634, an order was passed by 
the General Court that there should be four sessions 
yearly to be summoned by the governor and not to be 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 225 

dissolved without the consent of the major part of the 
court. On the same day provision was made for a 
representative body of deputies in place of the gather- 
ing of freemen at large in the General Court. The order 
was that two or three deputies might be chosen from 
each town. [2 Records of Massachusetts, 118]. 
On March 4, 1635, the nature of the deputies as a 
separate body was recognized by conferring upon them 
power to hear and decide disputes as to the election of 
their members, and "to order things amongst them- 
selves that may concerne the well ordering of their 
body. " [1 Records of Massachusetts, 142.1 This 
was in effect the establishment of the house of deputies 
as an independent body free at least in these particu- 
lars from interference by the magistrates or assistants. 
In 1634-35 a controversy arose whether Mr. Hooker 
and his friends should be granted permission by the 
General Court to leave for a settlement in Connecticut. 
A majority of the deputies, so great as to constitute 
a majority of the General Court in joint session of both 
the assistants or magistrates and the deputies, were for 
the removal, although all^the assistants save two were 
against it. The deputies contended that a majority 
of the whole body should prevail while the assistants 
refused to recede from their stand that a majority of 
both the deputies and the assistants was necessary. 
This was the beginning of the controversy about the 
"negative voice" of the assistants. It was adjusted 
then by resort to a day of humiliation and prayer and a 
sermon by Mr. Cotton. After this the assistants pre- 
vailed. A short time later the substance of the matter 
was settled by a statute. On March 3, 1636, the num- 
ber of annual sessions of the General Court was 
reduced to two, and it further was provided : 

"And whereas it may fall out that in some of theis Genall 
Courts, to be holden by the magistrates & deputies, there may 
arise some difference of iudgem* in doubtfull cases, it is there- 
fore ordered, that noe lawe, order, or sentence shall passe as 
an act of the Court, without the consent of the great 1 " pte of 
the magistrates on the one pte, & the great 1 " number of the 



226 American Antiquarian Society (Oct., 

deputyes on the other pte; & for want of such accorde, the 
cause or order shalbe suspended, & if either ptie thinke it soe 
materiall, there shalbe forthwith a cornittee chosen, the one 
halfe by the magistrates & the other halfe by the deputyes, & 
the comitte soe chosen to elect an umpire, whoe togeather 
shall have power to heare & determin the cause in question. ,n 

It is to be observed that the concluding words of this 
act, which provide for a committee of conference and 
the choice of an umpire, refer in terms only to " cause 
or order" and the only thing which they have power to 
" heare & determin' ' is "the cause in question. " 
These words, both in their common meaning and in 
their strict signification refer to something in the 
nature of a suit or litigation. No mention is made in 
this connection of a "lawe" as to which in the earlier 
part of the statute current action of the greater part of 
the magistrates and the greater number of the deputies 
is required. Concerning legislation in the nature of 
enactment of laws, the absolute negation of one 
branch on action by the other seems thus to have been 
established. However, even if the concluding words 
of this statute are given a broader scope than is indi- 
cated by their natural significance and the committee 
of conference and umpire be thought to apply to every 
vote, it still is indubitable that this statute established 
the separation of the legislative department of the 
colony into two separate, distinct and independent 
bodies, whose concurrent affirmative vote was required 
to the enactment of laws. Notwithstanding this 
positive action, still the subject of the negative voice 
was much debated. It was a fundamental question 
in government. It would not easily down. It 
required full discussion in order that the public mind 
might be at rest. The litigation between Richard 
Sherman and Captain Keayne afforded good ground 
for renewal of the arguments. The dramatic incidents 
of the case challenged universal attention. The 
simplicity of the issue involved could be comprehended 
by everybody. Its relation to the principle of the 

x (l Records of Massachusetts, 170.] 






1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 227 

" negative voice" was direct and immediate. There 
was much writing concerning the point after the first 
decision by the General Court in 1642. "The deputies 
were very earnest to have it taken away. " One of the 
magistrates wrote "a small treatise" about it and 
another wrote an " answer. " Thereupon Winthrop 
himself wrote "a reply". This paper alone survives 
of those written at the time. The original is now in 
the archives of the commonwealth and a copy is 
printed in 2 Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 
427-438; see also 440-459. While the controversy was 
at its heat the General Court took this action, May 10, 
1643: 

"This Co r t being to bee adiourned, it is desired, that ev r y 
member of this Cot will use their best indeavo r in the mean 
time to informe themselues & the Cot concerning the question 
about the negative vote, & to take advice from any therein; 
and it is ordered, y* it shalbee no offence for any of them, or any 
other, either elder or other pson, who shall, either privately or 
in any lawfull assembly, deliver their minds soberly & peace- 
ably therein, or to deliver the same in writing, in any modest 
or breife way, so it bee under their hand, & the elders to 
bee desired to give their advice in the case. "* 

Doubtless as a result of this action, an illuminating 
discussion of the negative voice was contributed by 
one of the elders. See Proceedings Massachusetts 
Historical Society, Jan. 1913, p. 276, et seq. The 
conclusion of the whole affair was that not only was 
the statute of March 4, 1635, establishing the negative 
voice not repealed but the matter was set at rest by 
the passage on March 7, 1644, of this law: 

"It is therefore ordered, first, that the magistrates may sit 
& act busines by themselues, by drawing up bills & orders w ch 
they shall see good in their wisdome, w ch haveing agreed upon, 
they may psent them to the deputies to bee considered of, 
how good & wholesome such orders are for the country, & 
accordingly to give their assent or dissent, the deputies in like 
mann r siting a pt by themselues, & consulting about such 
orders & lawes as they in their discretion & exppience shall 
find meete for corhon good, w ch agreed upon by them, they may 



2 (2 Records of Massachusetts, 40.] 



228 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

psent to the magistrates, who, according to their wisdome, 
haveing seriously considered of them, may consent upon them 
or disalow them ; & when any orders have passed the app- 
bation of both ma trat8 & deputies, then such orders to bee 
ingrossed, & in the last day of the Court to bee read deliber- 
ately, & full assent to bee given; pvided, also, that all matfs 
of iudicature w ch this Co r t shall take cognisance of shalbee 
issued in like manner. " 3 

In 2 Records of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in 
New England, 46, under date Sept. 7, 1643, appears 
this: 

" Three conclusions were dehVd in by M r Cotton, in the 
name of himselfe & other eld r s about the negative voyce. " 

It has been thought that these are the long answers 
of the elders printed in 2 Records of Massachusetts, 
90-96, under date of Nov. 13, 1644, although the 
substance of these answers seems to relate largely to 
other matters and does not directly touch the negative 
voice. Moreover, they are subsequent to the law of 
March 7, 1644, by which the question was laid at rest. 
(See Commonwealth v. Roxbury, 9 Gray, 451, 481.) 

It was resolved by a vote of May 6, 1646 that 
" notwithstanding all the reasons alleged" the 
separate sittings and actions of the house of deputies 
should be continued. 3 Records of Massachusetts 62 
[65]. 

A superficial examination of the colony records 
might lead one to think that the controversy arose 
again. Under date of May 14, 1645, 3 Records of 
Massachusetts, 11, occurs this: 

" Itt is ordered, y t M r Speaker, Majo r Gibbons, M r Dummer, 
Lef* Duncomb, & M r Sparowhawke shall joyne w th o r honno r ed 
Dep ty Goun r , M r Bradstreete, & M r Hibbings as a comittee 
to consider of some way whereby y e negative vote may be 
tempered, y* justice may have free passage, & y* y e retourne of 
y e comittee be psented to y e consideration of y e Courte." 

No record of a report of this committee is found. On 
October 17, 1649, by the General Court, 

8 [2 Records of Massachusetts, 58-59.] 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 229 

"It is ordered, that in cases wherein there hath bein differ- 
ence the Generall Court should heare the case together, & 
determine the case by y e majo r vote. ,M 

This on its face was an abolition of the negative vote. 
But that this was not its purpose or intent or effect is 
manifest from a later vote. Under date of May 26, 
1652, 4 Records of Massachusetts, Part I, 82, occurs 
the following: 

"Whereas there is a manifest & inconvenient mistake in 
the penning of the order, title Gennerall Court, page the 8 th 
of the last printed booke, that leaves all or most of the cases 
formerly issued in the Gennerall Court doubtfull & vneertjane, 
and takes away the negative vote, both of Magis* 8 and 
Deputjes, in making lawes, as well as in cases of judicature, 
which was not intended, much lesse consented to, itt is there- 
fore ordered, that for tjme to come, if there fall out any 
difference betwixt y e Magistrates and the Deputjes, in any 
case of judicature, either civill or criminal!, it shall be 
determined by y e major pt of the whole Court, and the 
forementioned lawe is hereby repealed." 

Substantially the same entry is found in 3 Records 
of Massachusetts, 266, under date of May 27, 1652. 
A further record is found much later; under date of 
May 7, 1673, 4 Records \>f Massachusetts, Part II, 
559, occurs the following entry: 

"It is ordered, & Samuel Symonds, Esq, Dep* Gou, Symon 
Bradstreet, & Wm Staughton, Esqs, M r Jn° Oxenbridge, M r 
Vryan Oakes, Capt Joshua Hubbard, M r John Richards, M r 
Henry Bartholmew, Capt John Hull, & M r Samuel Torrey 
shallbe & hereby are appointed a committee to consider of 
these three questions or proposalls, the magistrates to appoint 
time & place of meeting, making their return to the next 
sessions of y e Court. 1 Q. Whither according to pattent 
there be a negative vote in any part of the Generall Court; 
if there be, then in what cases. Secondly. How farr our 
possitive lawes doe in this matter agree w th or disagree from 
the patent. 

3Q. Where the vse of the neagtive voat cause th an 
obstruction in any matter of necessity to be concluded or of 
great moment to the publick, what may be the best expedient 
for an issue, whither by lot or otherwise." 

It does not appear that this committee ever made 



4 [2 Records of Massachusetts, 285. J 



230 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

report. It seems manifest, however, that all these 
records relate to the decision of questions strictly 
judicial in their nature and have nothing to do with 
legislative principle involved in the earlier records. 
The statutes of 1635 and 1644 stand together unaf- 
fected in essence by later action, and apparently the 
governmental controversy was stilled by the statute 
of the latter year. 

Thus separate sittings for the two houses came into 
existence as part of the government of the colony. 
Two houses as independent branches had been 
established nine years earlier. That was the vital 
step. Two distinct branches of the general court 
might in those days without inconvenience sit together 
except in cases of disagreement. Separate sittings 
were bound to come sooner or later. The sow case 
accentuated the difficulty of two independent branches 
sitting together and brought it distinctly to public 
attention. It was the occasion for the permanent 
establishment of separate sittings. Its real signifi- 
cance, however, is that it settled finally that in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, there should be two 
branches of the General Court. There was hammered 
out upon the anvil of free public discussion, to which 
the case gave rise, the mighty principle that this should 
be a government with a single legislative department 
divided into two distinct and independent branches. 
That itself was but an amplification of the deeper 
principle that this should be a representative govern- 
ment and not a pure democracy. That which has 
come down to us of the writings on the subject shows 
that the first settlers had a profound and accurate 
appreciation of the inherent and fatal weaknesses of a 
pure democracy and of the absolute necessity of a 
representative form of government for the preservation 
and permanence of free institutions. They bent their 
energies with deep conviction toward the establish- 
ment of a government which could endure. The 
march of events during the last three centuries has 
demonstrated their wisdom and foresight. 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 231 

Appendix I 

Copy of Manuscript in Possession of American Antiquarian 

Society. 

Att the general Courtt (3) 18-1642 

A breaviate of ye Case betwene Richard Sheareman pit by 
petition & Capt Robert Keaine defen" aboute ye title to A 
straye Sowe supposed to be broughtt fro Deare Hand about 
(9) ber -1636. 

The poynts in the Case agreed 

1 The pit had a Sowe all white, save a black Spott under 
the eye of the biggnesse of a Shilling & a ragged eare. 

2 This Sowe was Carryed to deare Hand 

3 Noe prfe that it was brought back, onelye prbable itt 
might be though neare 40 Swine miscaryed there that yeare 

4 The defen dt had a straye Sowe soposed to be brought fro 
Deare Hand last yeare 

5 This Sowe was Cryed divers tymes, & many came & sawe 
her, in the tyme the defend* keept her, w ch was betwene one & 
3 yeares. 

6 The defend dt had before this tyme, a faire white Sowe of 
his owne w ch he keept in his yarde w th the straye Sowe about a 
yeare. 

7 The defend killed one of these Sowes about (8) ber 1637 

8 The pl t8 wife soon after, charged the defen dt to have 
killed her Sowe 

9 The defen dt shewing the pl ta wife the Sowe w oh remained 
alive she disclaimed itt 

10 Upon Complaint of y° pl ta wife, the cause was brought 
to y e Elders (as matter of offence) & upon hearing all Al- 
legations, & the most materiall witnesses on booth parts, the 
defen dt was cleared. 

11 The cause thus rested till (2-1640 and then the pl t8 wife 
brought itt to the Inferyor Courte att Bosto where (upon a 
full hearinge) the jurye founde for y e defen dt & awarded him 
about 3 £ costs 

12 Now (about 2 yeares after) the pi* brings the cause 
(by petition) into the generall Courte declyning the Court of 



232 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Assistants to w ch itt prplye belonged, & declares againe for the 
Sowe w ch was killed (8 ber -37. 

The Evidence 

pr.pl* Two or three witnesses that the Sowe killed (8 ber -37 
had sume such black spott under the Eye & some cutts or 
ragges on the eare 

pr. deft 1 This contradickted by more witnesses (w ch yet 
may be reaconsiled by other witnesses of thee pl t8 (viz) that the 
defen ts owne Sowe had sume such spott thereaboute in the 
skinne butt not in the haire & soe might not be easye todiscerne 
when the haire was thick, butt apparent when the haire was off. 

2 prvd by 6 or 7 wittnesses whoe then lived in the defen ta 
famelye, but are all gone since (but one or two) y* this Sowe 
was the defend* 8 owne, & bought of one Houghton. 

For the other Sowe w ch was alive a yeare after pr.pl* divers 
witnesses, that this Sowe had such markes as the pl t3 

pr.def** 11 more witnesses (& of as good credytt) that this 
Sowe (which was the straye) had other markes & not such as 
the pi* Claimed itt by 

2 Itt was clearely prvd that this was the onely straye Sowe 
the defen d * had, that this was offered to be shewed to the pl ta 
wife before the first Sowe was killed though att another tyme 
denyed her, for some reasons then alledged by y e defen** & 
that she was shewed itt after in thee defen* 3 yeard & con- 
fidently disclaimed itt as none of hers, And now againe, upon 
her Oath in the Courtt did claime A Sowe by other markes & 
not such as this Sowe had. 

For a 3 Sowe never spoaken of before this Courte pr.pl* 
A witnesse or 2 that they sawe a 3 d Sowe in the defen* 8 yarde. 

pr.def 1 * 1 This can be of noe waight against soe manye 
wittnesses to the contrarye. 

2 This 3 d Sowe is not prvd to have such markes as the pi* 8 

3 This might be one of the broode of the other Sowes, or 
some Neigh" swine taken in the defen** 3 garden & keept up wth 
his owne, till the owner fetched it awaye. 

4 the pi* 3 claime & the scope of his Evidence being for the 
Sowe killed about (8 ber )-37- if he faile of that the Courte is not 
to seeke out a Sowe for him. 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 233 

The whole Eavidence is thus Ballanced. 

pr.pl 4 The testimon y consider agt amount to a pbable 
eavidence, that the defen" had & converted to his owne use 
the pl t3 Sowe. 

Ball d The testmonyes reaching noe further, maye albe true, 
&yett the defen tfc not guiltye, nor auye of these Sowes the pl ts . 

pr.def u The testimonyes (whether considered agtt or w tu 
the other) afforde Evidence of Certaintye, raised upon cer- 
taine grownds, as occasion, oppertunity, familiaritye, frea- 
quencye &c. 

Ball d . If this testimonye be true, Itt is not possible the 
defen u should be guiltye, or anye of these Sowes the pl tB . 

For Instance 

Joseph wanders alone in the wildernesse his Coate is founde 
torne & bloudie, he is never heard off for manye yeares: upon 
this pbable evidence, Jacob concluds that Joseph was de- 
vowred of a wilde beast: But when evidence of certaintye 
comes out of Aegipt that he was ther alive, & Lord of Egipe 
the former evidence was invailed & the Spirit of Jacob revived, 
& now he concluds he was living; though he knewe not how he 
should come thither, or how he should be soe advansed there, 
Now lett anye impartiall hande^hold the scales while religion 
& sownde reason give Judgm* in the case. 

Yett (if neede weare) this might be added, that whereas the 
pl ta wife was allowed to take her Oath for the markes of her 
Sowe, the defen dt & his wife (being denyed the like libertye) 
come voluntarelye into y e Court & solomelye in the preasence 
of god declared. 1. that y e Sowe w ch was first killed was there 
owne. 2. that y e Sowe w ch remained & was shewed the pl t8 
wife & w ch she disclaimed was the Straye Sowe. 3. that they 
never had anye other straye Sowe. 

This cause (after the best pt of 7 dayes spent in Examinatio 
& agitation) is by the breakeing up of the Courte dismissed 
not by occasion of A negative voate in y e Magistrats (as is 
misreported) but by A fundamentall & Just lawe agreable to 
sounde reason as shall appeare (the Lord willinge) in due 
season: The lawe was made upon searious consideratio & 
advise w th all y e Elders (1) 1635 to this effect. 



234 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Noe lawe Sentence &c shall passe as an act of the Courte, 
wthout the consent of the greater pt of the magistrats of the 
one pte & the greater number of the deaputies on the other 
parte. 

There were p r sent in y e Courte, when ye voate was to be 
taken. 9. Magistrats & 30 Deaputies whoe had all heard the 
Cause examined and argued, soe as noe centance could be 
legally passed w th out Consent of 5 magistrats and 16 deapu- 
ties w ch neither pi* nor defen" had for there were but 2 magist™ 
& 25 deput 3 for the pi* & 7 magist ra & 8 deput 8 for the defend* 
the other 7 stood doubtfull. yett was there noe necessitye that 
the cause might not have bene brought to an issue, for 
eyther the Court might have Argued the Case againe (by w ch ) 
meanes some who were doubtfull might have come to a 
reasolut n or others might have changed there Judgm* 8 & soe 
have p r ceeded to a new voate, or else Comittyes might have 
bene Chosen, to order the Cause according to lawe. 

That this is the true state of y e Case for the substance of itt, 
as it hath beene Considered & allowed, by other of my bree- 
thren & Assotiats booth Magistrats & deaputies (w th our 
p r seedings therein) w ch we shall not be ashamed (by the Lords 
helpe) to avouch & maintaine, before all y e world I doe heare 
affirme under my hand: Dated att Bost5 this 5.-15-1642 

John Winthrop govr 

Appendix II 

2 Winthrop's History of New England, 69-72. 
1642, April 22. 

At the same general court there fell out a great business 
upon a very small occasion. Anno 1636, there was a stray 
sow in Boston, which was brought to Captain Keayne : he had 
it cried divers times, and divers came to see it, but none made 
claim to it for near a year. He kept it in his yard with a sow 
of his own. Afterwards one Sherman's wife, having lost such 
a sow, laid claim to it, but came hot to see it, till Captain 
Keayne had killed his own sow. After being showed the 
stray sow, and finding it to have other marks than she had 
claimed her sow by, she gave out that he had killed her sow. 






1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 235 

The noise hereof being spread about the town, the matter was 
brought before the elders of the church as a case of offence; 
many witnesses were examined, and Captain Keayne was 
cleared. She, not being satisfied with this, by the instigation 
of one George 5 Story, a young merchant of London, who kept 
in her house, (her husband being then in England,) and had 
been brought before the governour upon complaint of Captain 
Keayne as living under suspicion, she brought the cause to the 
inferiour court at Boston, where, upon a full hearing, Captain 
Keayne was again cleared, and the jury gave him 3£ for his 
cost, and he bringing his action against Story and her for 
reporting about that he had stolen her sow, recovered £20 
damages of either of them. Story upon this searcheth town 
and country to find matter against Captain Keayne about this 
stray sow, and got §one§ of his witnesses to come into Salem 
court and to confess there that he had forsworn himself; and 
upon this he petitions in Sherman's name, to this general 
court, to have the cause heard again, which was granted, and 
the best part of seven days were spent in examining of witnesses 
and debating of the cause; and yet it was not determined, for 
there being 6 1 |nine magistrates! | and thirty deputies, no sentence 
could by law pass without the greater number of both, which 
neither plaintiff nor defendant had, for there were for the 
plaintiff two magistrates and fifteen deputies, §and for the 
defendant seven magistrates, and eight deputies 7 §, the other 
seven deputies stood doubtful. Much contention and 
earnestness there was, which indeed did mostly arise from the 
difficulty of the case, in regard of cross witnesses, §and some 
prejudices! (as one || 8 professed||) against the person, which 
blinded some men's judgments that they could not attend the 
true nature and course of the evidence. For all the plaintiff's 
witnesses amounted to no more but an evidence of probability, 
so as they might all swear true, and yet the sow in question 
might not be the plaintiff's. But the defendant's witnesses 
gave a certain evidence, upon their certain knowledge, and 



6 My search for any traces of this man has been unsuccessful. 

•||one magistrate|| 

7 It is Btrange how the former editor could have suffered the mutilated sentence to pass. 

8 | (protested 1 1 



236 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

that upon certain grounds, (and these as many and more and 
of as good credit as the others,) so as if this testimony were 
true, it was not possible the sow should be the plaintiff's. 
Besides, whereas the plaintiff's wife was admited to take her 
oath for the marks of her sow, the defendant and his wife 
(being a very godly sober woman) was denied the like, although 
propounded in the court by Mr. Cotton, upon that rule in the 
law he shall swear lie hath not put his hands to his neighbour's 
goods. Yet they both in the open court solemnly, as in the 
presence of God, declared their innocency, &c. Further, if 
the case had been doubtful, yet the defendant's lawful pos- 
session ought to have been preferred to the plaintiff's doubtful 
title, for in equali jure melior est conditio possidentis. But 
the defendant being of ill report in the country for a hard 
dealer in his course of trading, and having been formerly 
censured in the court and in the church also, by admonition 
for such offences, carried many weak minds strongly against 
him. And the truth is, he was very worthy of blame in that 
kind, as divers others in the country were also in those times, 
though they were not detected as he was; yet to give every man 
his due, he was very useful to the country both by his hospi- 
tality and otherwise. But one dead fly spoils much good 
ointment. 9 

9 Frequent animadversions are found in our record.* on cases of real or supposed over- 
charge for labour and commodities. A ludicrous one, mentioned by Hubbard, 248, is 
more satisfactorily stated in our records of the colony I. 250, at a general court 22 of 3, 
1639: " Edward Palmer, for his extortion, taking 1 pound 13.7, for the plank and wood- 
work of Boston stocks, is fined 5 pounds, and censured to be set an hour in the stocks. " 
Afterwards the fine was "remitted to ten shillings." The remainder of the sentence, I 
fear, was executed. Our Ipswich chronicler is almost facetious about this part: he "had 
the honour to sit an hour in them himself, to warn others not to offend in the like kind. " 

The unhappy subject of the controversy in the text was exposed to very general blame, 
and several particular complaints. I have seen an original affidavit of Thomas Wiltshire, 
that for work done at Captain Keayne's house there was due to the deponent 38 shillings, 
and that K. sold him a piece of broad cloth, " which he said was Spanish broad cloth, and 
delivered for payment to this deponent at seventeen shillings per yard, the which cloth 
this deponent showed to Henry Shrimpton, and he said it was not worth above ten 
shillings per yard, for it was but cloth rash, and he said goodman Read, and his wife 
showed a waistcoat of the same kind of cloth, which cost but nine shillings per yard, and 
in this deponent's judgment was better cloth; and this deponent showed the same cloth 
to Mr. Rock, and he said it was worth but ten shillings per yard, for it was but cloth rash, 
and this deponent showed it also to Mr. Stoddard, and he said likewise that it was cloth 
rash, and was not worth above ten shillings per yard, and was dear enough of that 
price, or words to that effect." Such was the dangerous form and matter of judicial 
investigations in the early days. 

2 History of New England by John Winthrop, pp. 69-72 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 237 

There was great expectation in the country, by occasion of 
Story's clamours against him, that the cause would have 
passed against the captain, but falling out otherwise, gave 
occasion to many to speak unreverently of the court, especially 
of the magistrates, and the report went, that their negative 
voice had hindered the course of justice, and that these magis- 
trates must be put out, that the power of the negative voice 
might be taken away. Thereupon it was thought fit by the 
governour and other of the magistrates to publish a declaration 
of the true state of the cause, that truth might not be condemned 
unknown. This was framed before the court brake up; for 
prevention whereof, the governour tendered a declaration in 
nature of a pacification, whereby it might have appeared, that, 
howsoever the members of the court dissented in judgment, 
yet they were the same in affection, and had a charitable 
opinion of each other; but this was opposed by some of the 
plaintiff's part, so it was laid by. And because there was 
much labouring in the country upon a false supposition, that 
the magistrate's negative voice stopped the plaintiff in the 
case of the sow, one of the magistrates published a declaration 
of the necessity of upholding the same. It may be here 
inserted, being but brief. 



Appendix III 

2 Winthrop's History of New England, 115-119. 

1643. 

The sow business not being yet digested in the country, 
many of the elders being yet unsatisfied, and the more by 
reason of a new case stated by some of the plaintiff's side and 
delivered to the elders, wherein they dealt very | Impartially ||, 
for they drew out all the evidence which made for the plaintiff, 
and thereupon framed their conclusion without mentioning 
any of the defendant's evidence. This being delivered to the 
elders, and by them imparted to some of the other side, an 
answer was presently drawn, which occasioned the elders to 
take a view of all the evidence on both parties, and a meeting 



°||particularly|| 



238 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

being procured both of magistrates and elders (near all in the 
jurisdiction) and some of the deputies, the elders there declared, 
that notwithstanding their former opinions, yet, upon examina- 
tion of all the testimonies, they found || n such|| contrariety and 
crossing of testimonies, as they did not see any ground for the 
court to proceed to judgment in the case, and therefore 
earnestly desired that the court might never be more troubled 
with it. To this all consented except || 12 Mr. Bellingham|| who 
still maintained his former opinion, and would have the 
magistrates lay down their negative voice, and so the cause to 
be heard again. This stiffness of his and singularity in opinion 
was very unpleasing to all the company, but they went on 
notwithstanding, and because a principal end of the meeting 
was to reconcile differences and take away offences, which were 
risen between some of the magistrates by occasion of this sow 
business and the treatise of Mr. Saltonstall against the council, 
so as Mr. Bellingham and he stood divided from the rest, 
which occasioned much opposition even in open court, and 
much partaking in the country, but by the wisdom and faith- 
fulness of the elders, Mr. Saltonstall was brought to see his 
failings in that treatise, which he did ingenuously acknowledge 
and bewail, and so he was reconciled with the rest of the 
magistrates. They laboured also to make a perfect reconcilia- 
tion between the governour and Mr. Bellingham. The gover- 
nour offered himself ready to it, but the other was not forward, 
whereby it rested in a manner as it was. * * * The 
deputies, also, who were present at this meeting and had 
voted for the plaintiff in the case of the sow, seemed now to be 
satisfied, and the elders agreed to deal with the deputies of 
their several towns, to the end that that cause might never 
trouble the court more. But all this notwithstanding, the 
plaintiff, (or rather one G. Story || 13 her|| solicitor,) being of an 
unsatisfied spirit, and animated, or at least too much counte- 
nanced, by some of the court, preferred a petition at the court 
of elections * * * it was returned that the greater part of 
them did conceive the cause should be heard again, and some 



u ||muchj| 
w ||b]anki| 
» a ||hi8|| 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 239 

others in the court declared themselves of the same judgment, 
which caused others to be much grieved to see such a spirit in 
godly men, that neither the judgment of near all the magistrates, 
nor the concurrence of the elders and their mediation, nor the 
loss of time and charge, nor the settling of peace in court and 
country could prevail with §them§ to let such a cause fall, (as in 
ordinary course of justice it ought,) as nothing could be 
found in, by any one testimony, to be of criminal nature, nor 
could the matter of the suit, with all damages, have amounted 
to forty shillings. But two things appeared to carry men on 
in this course as it were in captivity. One was, the deputies 
stood only upon this, that their towns were not satisfied in the 
cause (which by the way shows plainly the democratical 
spirit which acts our deputies, &c.) The other was, the desire 
of the name of victory; whereas on the other side the magis- 
trates, &c. were content for peace sake, and upon the elders' 
advice, to decline that advantage, and to let the cause fall for 
want of advice to sway it either way. 

Now that which made the people so unsatisfied, and unwill- 
ing the cause should rest as it stood, was the 20 pounds which 
the defendant had recovered against the plaintiff in an action 
of slander for saying he had stolen the sow, &c. and many of 
them could not distinguish this from the principal cause, as if 
she had been adjudged to pay 20 pounds for demanding her 
sow, and yet the defendant never took of this more than 3 
pounds, for his charges of witnesses, &c. and offered to remit 
the whole, if she would have acknowledged the wrong she had 
done him. But he being accounted a rich man, and she a poor 
woman, this so wrought with the people, as being blinded with 
unreasonable compassion," they could not see, or not allow 
justice her reasonable course. This being found out by some of 
the court, a motion was made, that some who had interest in 
the defendant would undertake to persuade him to restore the 
plaintiff the 3 pounds (or whatever it were) he took upon that 
judgment, and likewise to refer other matters to reference 
which were between the said Story and him. This the court 
were satisfied with, and proceeded no further. 

There was yet one offence which the elders desired might 
also be removed, and for that end some of them moved the 



240 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

governour in it, and he easily consented to them so far as they 
had convinced him of his failing therein. The matter was this. 
The governour had published a writing about the case of the 
sow, as is herein before declared, wherein some passages gave 
offence, which he being willing to remove, so soon as he came 
into the general court, he spake as followeth, (his speech is set 
down verbatim to prevent misrepresentation, as if he had 
retracted what he had wrote in the point of the case:) "I 
understand divers have taken offence at a writing I set forth 
about the sow business; I desire to remove it, and to begin 
my year in a reconciled estate with all. The writing is of 
two parts, the matter and the manner. In the former I 
had the concurrence of others of my brethren, both magis- 
trates and deputies; but for the other, viz. the manner, that 
was wholly mine own, so as whatsoever was blame-worthy in 
it I must take it to myself. The matter is point of judgment, 
which is not at my own disposing. I have examined it over 
and again by such light as God hath afforded me from the 
rules of religion, reason, and common practice, and truly I can 
find no ground to retract any thing in that, therefore I desire I 
may enjoy my liberty herein, as every of yourselves do, and 
justly may. But for the manner, whatsoever I might allege 
for my justification before men, I now pass it over: I now set 
myself before another judgment seat. I will first speak to 
the manner in general, and then to two particulars. For the 
general. Howsoever that which I wrote was upon great pro- 
vocation by some of the adverse party, and upon invitation 
from others to vindicate ourselves from that aspersion which 
was cast upon us, yet that was no sufficient warrant for me to 
break out into any distemper. I confess I was too prodigal of 
my brethren's reputation: I might have obtained the cause 
I had in hand without casting such blemish upon others as I 
did. For the particulars. 1. For the conclusion, viz. now let 
religion and sound reason give judgment in the case; whereby 
I might seem to conclude the other side to be void of both 
religion and reason. It is true a man may (as the case may be) 
appeal to the judgment of religion and reason, but, as I there 
carried it, I did arrogate too much to myself and ascribe too 
little to others. The other particular was the profession I 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 241 

made of maintaining what I wrote before all the world, which, 
though it may modestly be professed, (as the case may require,) 
yet I confess it was now not so beseeming me, but was indeed a 
fruit of the pride of mine own spirit. These are all the Lord 
hath brought me to consider of, wherein I acknowledge my 
failings, and humbly intreat you will pardon and pass them by; 
if you please to accept my request, your silence shall be a 
sufficient testimony thereof unto me, and I hope I shall be 
more wise and watchful hereafter." 

The sow business had started another question about the 
magistrates' negative vote in the general court. The deputies 
generally were very earnest to have it taken away; whereupon 
one of the magistrates wrote a small treatise, wherein he laid 
down the original of it from the patent, and the establishing 
of it by order of the general court in 1634, showing thereby how 
it was fundamental to our government, which, if it were taken 
away, would be a mere democracy. He showed also the 
necessity and usefulness of it by many arguments from scrip- 
ture, reason, and common practice, &c. Yet this would not 
satisfy, but the deputies and common people would have it 
taken away; and yet it was apparent (as some of the deputies 
themselves confessed) the most did not understand it. An 
answer also was written (by" one of the magistrates as was 
conceived) to the said treatise, undertaking to avoid all the 
arguments both from the patent and from the order, &c. 
This the deputies made great use of in this court, supposing 
they had now enough to carry the cause clearly with them, so 
as they pressed earnestly to have it presently determined. 
But the magistrates told them the matter was of great con- 
cernment, even to the very frame of our government; it had 
been established upon serious consultation and consent of all 
the elders; it had been continued without any inconvenience 
or apparent mischief these fourteen years, therefore it would 
not be safe nor of good report to alter on such a sudden, and 
without the advice of the elders: offering withal, that if 
upon such advice and consideration it should appear to be 
inconvenient, or not warranted by the patent and the said 
order, &c. they should be ready to join with them in taking it 
away. Upon these propositions they were stilled, and so an 



242 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

order was drawn up to this effect, that it was desired that every 
member of the court would take advice, &c. and that it should 
be no offence for any, either publicly or privately, to declare 
their opinion in the case, so it were modestly, &c. and that the 
elders should be desired to give their advice before the next 
meeting of this court. It was the magistrates' only care to 
gain time, that so the people's heat might be abated, for then 
they knew they would hear reason, and that the advice of 
the elders might be interposed ; and that might there be liberty 
to reply to the answer, which was very long and tedious, 
which accordingly was done soon after the court, and 14 published 
to good satisfaction. One of the elders also wrote a small 
treatise, wherein scholastically and religiously he handled the 
question, laying down the several forms of government both 
simple and mixt, and the true form of our government, and the 
unavoidable change into a democracy, if the negative voice 
were taken away; and answered all objections, and so concluded 
for the continuance of it, so as the deputies and the people also, 
having their heat moderated by time, and their judgments 
better informed by what they had learned about it, let the 
cause fall, and he who had written the answer to the first 
defence, appeared no further in it. 



Appendix IV 

2 Winthrop's History of New England, 160. 
1644. 

At the same court in the first month, upon the motion of 
the deputies, it was ordered, that the court should be divided 
in their consultations, the magistrates by themselves, and the 
deputies by themselves, what the one agreed upon they should 
send to the other, and if both agreed, then to pass, &c. This 
order determined the great contention about the negative 
voice. 



^Publishing does not here mean printing. The tract, written for circulation by Win- 
throp, is in Our [Mass.] Historical Society's library, dated 5 of 4th mo, 1643. It contains 
sixteen pages, and is among the Hutchinson MSS. 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 243 

Appendix V 

2 Records of Massachusetts, 3. 
1642. 

"George Story undertook for Rich r d Sherman that if he 
shalbee cast, what cost shalbee ceased he will beare it. " 



Appendix VI 

2 Records of Massachusetts, 12. 
1642, June 14. 

In the case between Rich r d Sherman & Capt. Keayne, this 
was ppounded to vote: Whether the defend 1 bee found to 
*have bene possest of the plaintiff's sowe, & converted her to 
his owne use, or not: it was voted by 2 ma trata & 15 deputies 
for the plaintiffe, & by 7 ma trata & 8 deputies for the defend*, 
& 7 deputies were newters. 



Appendix VII 

2 Records of Massachusetts, 51. 
1643, October 17. 

Mr. Stories petition is answered thus: Wee conceive that 
hee can blam none but hemselfe that his causes were not tryed 
the last Quarter Co r t; & therefore hee must stay till the Co r t 
come againe, unlesse in the mean time Capt- Keayne & hee 
come to an agreem 1 betwixt themselues, w ch wee much desire. 

Goodm Shermans petition is answered thus : Wee conceive 
that if Capt. Keayne bee willing, & accordingly shall pforme 
what was undertaken for him in the first session of this Co r t, 
that then Sherman shall give him a discharge for all differences 
& controversies concerning the sowe; w oh if hee refuse to do, 
hee shall bee debarred any further hearing forever; but if 
Capt Keayne refuse, Goodm Sherman may take the benefit 
of the la we. 



244 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Appendix VIII 

2 Records of the Court of Assistants Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay, 119. 
1642, December 20. 

George Story appearing is discharged of his Bond for 
appearance to answer Capteine Keayne this Co r t. 

Appendix IX 

Hubbard's History of New England, 382-383. 
1642. 

In the same year [1642] fell out a new occasion of starting 
the old question about the negative vote in the magistrates ; 
for the country, and all the Courts thereof, (General and 
Particular,) in a manner, were filled with much trouble, about 
something 15 that strayed from a poor man's possession in the 
year 1636; but in this year were revived so many controversies 
about the true title thereof, as engaged all the wisdom and 
religion in the country to put an end thereunto. The poor 
man's cause is like to engage the multitude with a kind of 
compassion, against which, as well as against the bribes of the 
rich, the law of God doth caution judges. It proved almost 
as long and chargeable as Arrestum Parliament Tholosanni, 
in the case of Martin Guerra, 16 to find who was the right owner 
of the thing in controversy. 17 It is much to see the restless and 
unreasonable striving in the spirit of man, that a lessor Court, 
that hath power to determine an action of an hundred or a 
thousand pounds, could not put an issue to a matter of so small 
a value. It proceeded so far at the last, (through some preju- 
dice taken up against the defendant,) that the very founda- 
tions of the whole authority of the country were in danger to be 
blown up thereby; a report being taken up by the common 
people of the country that the negative vote of the magistrates 
(who did in that, as they should in all cases, look more to the 
nature of the evidence than any preoccupating notion or 
prejudice to or against the plaintiff or defendant) had hindered 
the course of justice. On that occasion it was strongly moved 

16 Firat written, a swine, which was, in truth, the "something." See Sav.Win. II. 69. — H. 
16 The "thing in controversy," in this case, was a woman, whom two individuals 
claimed as wife. — H. 

17 First written, of the said swine. — H. 



' 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 245 

that the said negative vote might be taken away; for, by 
the Patent, no matter should pass in the General Court, 
without the concurrence of six of the magistrates, at the least, 
with the Governor or Deputy, which, in this case, could not be 
found; therefore was it the more on this account solicitously 
endeavored that the power of the negative vote in the 
General Court might be taken away. And it was so impet- 
uously now carried on, that there was scarce any possibility to 
resist the torrent of common fame, jealousy, 18 * * * * and 
prejudice of minds, so as at the last, for peace sake, and 
quieting the minds of the people in the present exigence of the 
said 19 business, the magistrates yielded to a private reference, as 
to some circumstances of the action; and the defendant was 
persuaded to return the poor woman her charges, i. e. what he 
had received upon the account of a former action, viz., £3, as 
/- . part of £20, that was granted by the jury; which was done 

rather out of charity, and respect to the public good, than out 
of conviction of duty in point of justice, as wise men always 
apprehended the case. But for the negative vote, it will more 
naturally fall to be spoken to afterwards. 

Appendix X 

Hubbard's History of New England, 389-391. 
1643. 

But this business of the book against the Standing Council 
was no sooner ended, but another controversy was revived 
about the negative vote, upon occasion of the forementioned 
controversy, which at this time, in the year 1643, was, by the 
restless importunity of some, that liked to labor in the fire, 
called over again; and this caused the same question to be 
moved afresh, about the magistrates' negative vote in the 
General Court. The deputies were very earnest to have it 
taken away. Whereupon one of the magistrates wrote a small 
treatise, wherein he laid down the original of it from the 
Patent, and the establishing of it by order of the General 
Court, in the year 1634; showing thereby how it^was funda- 



18 MSS. illegible. — Ed. I am obliged to acknowledge it. — H. 
19 FiT8t written sow. — H. 



246 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

mental to the government, which, if it were taken away, would 
be a mere democracy. He showed also the necessity and use- 
fulness of it, from Scripture, reason, and common practice, &c. 
Yet this would not satisfy, but the deputies were earnest to 
have it taken away; and yet it was apparent, (as some of the 
deputies themselves confessed,) the most did not understand 
it. But where men's affections are once engaged upon any 
design, whether reason persuade to it or not, it is usually with 
great earnestness pressed on. Those that were, at this time, 
inclined that way were much strengthened in their purpose by 
a discourse that fell into their hands, (drawn up by one of the 
magistrates, as was conceived;) supposing they had now 
enough clearly to carry the cause, and avoid the danger of all 
arguments and reasons laid down in the former treatise, and 
therefore pressed earnestly to have the matter presently 
determined.. But the magistrates told them the matter was of 
great concernment, even to the very frame of their government, 
and that it had been established upon serious consultation and 
consent of all the ministers, and had been continued without 
any apparent mischief and inconvenience now these fourteen 
years; therefore it would not be safe nor convenient to alter 
on such a sudden, and without the advice of the ministers of 
the country, offering withal that if, upon such advice and 
consideration, it should appear to be inconvenient, and not 
warranted by the Patent and by the said order, &c, they 
should be ready to join with them in the taking it away. 
Upon these propositions their heat was moderated, and an 
order drawn up that every member of the Court should take 
advice; and that it should be no offense for any, either publicly 
or privately, with modesty to declare their opinion in the case; 
and that the ministers should be desired to give their advice, 
before the next meeting of the Court. It was the magis- 
trates' only care to gain this, that so the people's minds might 
be the more easily quieted; for they knew the ministers would 
hear reason, and that so there might be liberty to reply to the 
said answer of one of the magistrates, (very long and tedious, 
but not with that strength of reason, as was by some appre- 
hended,) which accordingly was done soon after the Court, and 
published to good satisfaction. One of the ministers also 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation. 247 

wrote a small treatise, wherein he, both scholastically and 
religiously, handled the question, laying down the several 
forms of government, both simple and mixed, and the true 
form of the Massachusetts government, and the unavoidable 
change of the government into a democracy, if the negative 
vote were taken away. 

Thus the deputies, and the people also, having the heat of 
their spirits allayed by time, and their judgments better 
informed by what they had learned about it, let the cause fall, 
and the gentleman who had written the answer to the first 
defence, &c, appeared no further in it for that time; and it 
was conceived that there would have been a final end put to 
that controversy by an Order made in the next Court, March 
25, 1644, when there was a motion of the deputies that the 
Court should sit apart in their consultations, the magistrates 
by themselves, and the deputies by themselves, and what the 
one agreed upon they should send to the other, and if both 
agreed, then to pass, &c. But the controversy could not be so 
easily determined, so it was laid aside for that time; but after- 
wards it was agreed that, in case the major part of the deputies, 
and also of the magistrates, did not unite in the same conclusion 
in any matter of judicature, that then, the whole Court being 
met together, the vote of the major part should put an issue to 
the case; which establishment continued for a long time after. 

Appendix XI 

1 Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts Bay, 142-144. 
1645. 

About this time [1645] there was another struggle for power 
between the assistants or magistrates, and the deputies. The 
latter could not bear their votes should lose their effect by 
the non-concurrence of the former who were so much fewer in 
number; but, by the firmness of Mr. Winthrop, the assistants 
maintained their right at this time, and (March 25, 1644) the 
deputies, not, being able to prevail, moved that the two houses 
might sit apart, and from that time votes were sent in a parli- 
mentary way from one house to the other, and the consent of 
both was necessary to an act of the court. This continued a 



248 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

short time, without any further provision, but finally the 
magistrates consented, that in appeals from the lower courts 
and all judicial proceedings, if the two houses differed the 
major vote of the whole should determine. The deputies 
also looked with envy upon the powers exercised by the 
magistrates in the recess of the general court, and sent up a 
vote or bill to join some of their number with the magistrates, 
who should receive a commission from the court, but this was 
refused as an innovation upon the charter. The house then 
desired the magistrates would suspend the exercise of their 
executive power until the next session. They answered that 
they must act as occasion required according to the trust 
reposed in them. The speaker told them they would not be 
obeyed. The court broke up in this temper. But, distur- 
bances happening with the Indians, it was called together 
again in a short time, and the deputies voted that (salvo jure) 
for the peace and safety of the colony the governor and assis- 
tants should take order for the welfare of the people, in all sud- 
den cases which may happen within the jurisdiction, until the 
next session of the court. By agreement, all the ministers were 
called in at the next session, in order to give their opinion upon 
the point in difference. They determined that the governor, 
deputy governor, and assistants were invested with the magis- 
tratical power, (the nature and extent of this power is left in the 
dark,) and that they do not derive it from the people, who were 
only to design such persons as they thought fit for the exercise 
of those powers. Several other points were referred to the 
ministers at the same time, and all agreed to by both houses 
with some small amendment. 

The controversy between the two houses at this time, was 
occasioned by a difference in sentiment upon the identity of a 
swine, which was claimed by a poor woman as having strayed 
from her some years before, and her title being disputed by a 
person of more consequence, divided not the court only but 
the whole country. The identity of Martin Guerre was not 
more controverted in France. Pity and compassion for the 
poor woman prevailed with the common people against 
right. At last those magistrates who had been in favour 
of the other side, for the magistrates were divided too, 



1920.] A Famous Colonial Litigation 249 

Dudley on one side and Bellingham the other, persuaded the 
person who they supposed had a good title, and who had 
recovered below, to relinquish it, Uiat the public peace might 
be restored. 



Appendix XII 

Mass. Archives, Vol. 38B, p. 214 a. 

The Humble Peticeon of Richard Shearman Humbly 
Sheweth That: 

Wheareas yo r Petio r at the last Court did humbly Peticeon 
that an issue might bee put to the differrance depending 
betwixt Cap fc Keayne & himself e since w ch tyme in answeare 
therevnto the wor 131511 M r Hibbins resolud your Petic r that he 
was sent as from that Hon rd Court to tender his goods againe 
(and that the Petic r should receiue them as full satisfacon and 
thervpon discharge the Captaine from all former contra- 
versies &c the w ch he could not doe (because therein he should 
not onely wronge his owne conscience but alsoe as much as in 
him Lyeth condemne the vote of the Gennerall Courte, (And 
if the cause doth remayne Dubious in the Highest Courte yo r 
Petice r knoweth not how the former Act of an inferrio r Court 
can rest certaine or that it is Lawf ull for the Captaine to keepe 
his goods. 

Wherefore yo r Petic r haueing ben damnifyed aboue 30 1 : in 
expence & lose of tyme by waiting for Justice Doth humbly 
supplicate that he maye nowe obtaine the same and not suffer 
for some speeches of his wifes any longer Seing the wittness 
Against her haue erred in there testimony es & since doe 
confesse that she vttered not those words as he shall pue 
before this Hon rd Courte. 

Maye it therefore please this Honoured Courte tenderly to 
Compasionate the condiceon of yo r poore Petic r and to releiue 
him therein According to the wayes of Justice 

And yo r Petic r shall praye &c 

Wee conceaue that if Capt Keayne be willing & accordingly 
shall pforme w* was vndertaken for him in the first sessione of 
this Court that then Sherman shall giue him a discharge for 



250 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

all differences & controversies concerneing the sowe w ch if 
hee refuse to doe hee shalbee debarrd any furth r heareing 
fo r euer but if Capt Keayne refuse Sherm may take the benefitt 
of the lawe. 

Appendix XIII 
Bibliography 

Colonial Records of Mass., Vols. I and II, numerous 

pages. 
Winthrop's History of New England, Vol 2, numerous 

pages. 
Life & Letters of John Winthrop, Vol. 2, pp. 280 to 295. 
Palfrey's History of New England, Vol. 1, pp. 617 to 623. 
Three Episodes of Mass. History, C, F. Adams, Vol. 1, 

p.456. 
Washburn's Judicial History of Mass., pp. 22, 23. 
History & Antiquities of Boston, Drake, pp. 246-7, 260 

to 262. 
Memorial History of Boston, (Winsor) Vol. 1, p. 130. 
Laws & Courts of the Mass. Bay Colony by Frank E. 

Bradbury, (Vol.X, Publications of Bostonian Society, p 142.) 
The Bay Colony, Northend, pp. 243 to 248. 
Publications of the Prince Society "Antinominian- 

ism," pp. 393 to 402. 
History Ancient & Honorable Artillery Co., Vol. 1, p. 14. 
Hubbard's History of New England, pp. 382-383, 389 to 

391. 
Hutchinson's History of Mass. Bay, Vol. 1, pp. 142 to 144. 
Proceedings of Mass. Historical Society, Jan. 1913, Vol. 

46, p. 276. 
Some Interesting Boston Events: printed for the State 

Street Trust Co., pp. 16-17. 
Representation and Suffrage in Massachusetts, 1620- 

1691, George H. Haynes, in Johns Hopkins University . 

Studies in Historical and Political Science. Vol. VIII-IX> 

pp. 411-414. 
English Colonies in America, Doyle, Vol. II, pp. 255-257. 
English Colonies in America, Lodge, p. 351. 





. dlAairtfeai^ 




-' ,w •• • «'•■'» tU 


i 




i 

7 

* 





Pastel by Sharples 



1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 251 



THE PORTRAITS OF ISAIAH THOMAS 

With some Notes upon His Descendants. 

by charles lemuel nichols 



ONE hundred years ago, on the 24th of August (1820) , 
the first library building of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society was dedicated. On that occasion a formal 
address was delivered by Isaac Goodwin and during that 
year the first volume of our Transactions was published 
under the title,"Archaeologia Americana. " It seems not 
inappropriate that we should recall, at this meeting, 
Isaiah Thomas, by whose gift that building was erected, 
by whose foresight the books, then placed in it, were 
gathered together and by whose interest and active 
exertions the Society itself had been originated eight 
years before. In the eulogy delivered by the Hon. Levi 
Lincoln, in 1831, soon after the decease of Mr. Thomas, 
we have the only word picture of our founder by a 
contemporary. While without question a faithful 
description and an interesting statement, this pen por- 
trait leaves much to be desired by those who would see 
the features and realize the form of one of the famous 
figures of the past. 

A recent editorial in the daily press 1 claims that the 
present progress in the use of the pictograph seems 
certain to destroy all need of written language. What- 
ever may be in store for us in the future, because of the 
remarkable development of the film and the grapho- 
phone, singly and combined, it is a curious fact 
that, after more than sixty centuries in perfecting the 
alphabet, we should seem to be returning to the 
ideographic form of recording our thoughts in the 

*New York Times, August 15, 1920. 



252 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

abstract and our impressions and pictures of people in 
particular for the benefit of posterity. This statement 
does not ignore the fact that the arts of painting and 
sculpture, from the dawn of history, have preserved to 
us most of the knowledge of those early times which we 
possess. It is my desire merely to indicate a probable 
development, along these different lines, of these new 
processes in the future. 

In the early part of the 18th century, oil painting and 
crayon were the favorite forms of preserving the features 
and figures of their contemporaries, together with that 
art, which was named in derision, because of his pleas for 
economy, after the minister of finance of Louis XV, 
Etienne de Silhouette. The silhouette picture was not 
only cheap and popular, but the method was practiced by 
artists whose reputations were the best of their time as 
well as by many peripatetic wielders of brush and scissors. 
A high grade of artistic skill was often manifested in these 
and it would surprise those whose attention has not 
been called to the subject, to learn the size and number 
of collections accumulated at the present day, by 
persons interested in preserving these a shadow pictures'' 
as they were called by Benjamin Franklin. It was my 
hope to discover an outline portrait of Isaiah Thomas 
cut by William Brown, by George B. King, or by 
William M. S. Doyle, the latter a Boston miniature and 
silhouette artist of merit, but none has yet come to my 
attention. 

In June, 1818, Thomas wrote in his diary, " Engaged 
Mr. (Ethan Allen) Greenwood to take my likeness. 
I sat at his request five weeks since, when he finished 
one for himself. I sat again today for him to make 
one for myself. I sat six times for this last picture." 
That the result of Greenwood's work was satisfactory 
to his sitter is proved by the fact that ten years later in 
1828, Thomas commissioned Henry Harding of Boston 
to make, for him, two copies of this portrait. One of these 
was presented to Alleghany College of Pennsylvania, 
from which he had received the degree of LL. D. July 2, 




Painted by Greek wood 






1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 253 

1818, the other being reserved for "another purpose/' as 
he wrote in his diary. Knowing the intense interest of 
Thomas in free-masonry and knowing that the Morning 
Star Lodge of Worcester, which was founded by him, has 
a portrait of him, like the Greenwood, with the addition 
of a masonic jewel, it is a fair inference that the other 
purpose was a gift to that lodge. On the frame of this 
portrait is inscribed, "1769 — Isaiah Thomas,— 1831 
Master of Morning Star Lodge, 1793-4-7-9-1801-2. 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Mass. 1803-4-5-9. 
Grand High Priest of the Grand R. A. Chapter of Mass. 
1806-7-8." This masonic portrait was copied in 1875 by 
Charles K. Hardy of this city, and presented by the 
Worcester lodge to the Royal Arch Chapter of Boston 
of which Thomas was a member and high official, as the 
inscription, just read, indicates. There are two other 
portraits which are evidently copies of the Greenwood, 
one of which hangs on the walls of Leicester Academy, 
an institution in which Thomas was warmly interested 
and to which he sent at least two of his grandsons for 
education. This portrait has the inscription, — "Isaiah 
Thomas — Donor, 1831," but it has not been possible to 
discover from the records of the Academy the occasion 
of this gift, nor can we be certain by whom it was copied 
although it resembles very closely the other Harding 
pictures. The other portrait hangs in the masonic 
lodge room at Millbury and was presented to that lodge 
in 1906 by the Misses Randall, now of Boston, who 
lived in that town until after the death of their father, 
Abraham G. Randall. In the letter of gift, it is stated 
that the painting was an heirloom, having been given 
by the hand of their great grandfather, Isaiah Thomas, 
to their mother, Elizabeth C. (Simmons) Randall. 
This portrait, while unsigned and in poor condition 
was copied from the Greenwood by Edward Dalton 
Marchant who was born at Edgartown in 1806, and is 
the only American painter of that name in this period. 
As he was only 20 at this time, the portrait must be 
placed among his early work, it having been done before 



254 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

1828. The proof of this statement lies in the following 
facts: a portrait of Thomas was drawn on stone and 
printed by William Pendleton of Boston. On the left 
side of this plate we find, " Marchant, from the painting 
by Greenwood," and on the right, " Pendleton's Litho- 
graphy, Boston. " The peculiarities in the face of the 
portrait, repeated in the print, prove that it was copied 
from that painting and that therefore the artist of the 
painting was Marchant. Our associate, Charles H. 
Taylor, Jr., who has studied this print, and is an 
authority on thees lithographs, states that Mr. Scott, 
one of Pendleton's workmen, told him that the date of 
this print was 1828. As Pendleton Bros., who claim to 
have introduced lithography into America, moved to 
Philadelphia in 1829, it is probable that this date is cor- 
rect. As it is also a fact that Thomas owned the 
painting at this time, it is probable that he intended 
this print as a frontispiece for his "History of Printing," 
which had had none. This print is found in some of the 
copies of that book which had not been bound when 
published in 1810. An additional argument, that the 
print was ordered by Thomas lies in the fact that 
copies of it finished in color are in the possession of 
several of his descendants of today, through the 
bequests of a previous generation, no other copies in 
color being known. 

Other portraits of Thomas were made by W. M. S. 
Doyle, Henry Williams, and Sarah Goodrich. W. M. S 
Doyle, previously referred to as a silhouette artist, made 
a miniature before 1811. This was engraved by 
William R. Jones of Philadelphia, for the November 
number of the "Freemason's Magazine," 1811, published 
in that city. It accompanied an address by Thomas 
on the occasion of his resignation as Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The plate of this 
engraving is in the possession of this Society and the 
picture is recorded in Stauffer's list of American 
Engravers as number 1526. 




Painted by Marchant after Greenwood 



1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 255 

The portrait by Williams, was engraved on copper, 
in stipple, by John R. Smith for the "Polyanthos," a 
magazine published in Boston by Joseph T. Bucking- 
ham. The portraits for the larger series of this magazine 
which began in 1812, were all done by J. R. Smith or 
David Edwin. This appeared in the number for 
August, 1814 and accompanied a short sketch of Mr. 
Thomas. It is listed in Stauffer as number 2932. 

The more recent picture by Henry Billings was 
engraved on steel by Stephen A. Schoff and was used in 
connection with an account of the life and work of 
Thomas, in Buckingham's ' 'Reminiscences, " published 
in Boston, in the year 1852. It is an excellent likeness 
and must have been very satisfactory to his lifelong 
friend, Mr. Buckingham. 

Sarah Goodrich, or Goodridge, as Dunlap records it, 
was born in Templeton in 1788, and died in 1853. The 
picture by her was copied on steel by Henry W. Smith 
and the plate used in the second edition of Thomas's 
"History of Printing," published in 1875. These three 
plates, also, are in the possession of the Society. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, one of the 
attractions for the entertainment of people was found 
in museums containing paintings of eminent men, 
sculptures, wax figures and objects of local, or national 
interest and importance. One of the earliest of these, 
the Columbian Museum, was opened in 1795, in Boston, 
by Daniel Bowen and Edward Savage. In 1807, W. M. 
S. Doyle became one of the proprietors and continued 
his interest until the collection was sold, in 1825, to the 
New England Museum, of which E. A. Greenwood was 
the proprietor. Greenwood had opened a small room, 
in 1812, called the New York Museum, which, in 1818, 
was named the New England Museum and was 
enlarged from time to time by the purchase of three, or 
four other museums in addition to the Columbian, 
acquired in 1825. This undertaking proved too expen- 
sive and it was sold, in 1834, to Moses Kimball, by the 
assignees of Greenwood, who had failed and retired to 



256 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Hubbardston. In 1841, Kimball changed its name to 
the Boston Museum and, for the first time, combined 
the performance of theatrical plays with the museum 
attractions. This action proved so successful that, in 
1846, he erected the building in which was housed for 
many years the famous Boston Museum, which is so 
familiar to us of the older generation. 

These facts are given in such detail because Dunlap 
states that many of the portraits in the Columbian 
Museum were painted by Greenwood and Savage, its 
proprietors. It is therefore certain, that the Greenwood 
painting, noted in the Thomas diary in 1818, was 
placed in that museum and indeed hung in the Boston 
Museum until quite recent years. It is not known 
today where that or any of the paintings are, as Kimball 
sold some of them, from time to time, and when the 
last reconstruction of the Museum took place, the 
remainder were sent away. While we have been 
able to trace, thus far, the original Greenwood, we 
know nothing of the portraits of Thomas by Henry 
Williams, and Henry Billings, if indeed they were more 
than sketches for the engravings made from them. 
In addition to these pictures and standing in this hall 
is a marble bust of Mr. Thomas, made in 1859 by 
Benjamin H. Kinney of Worcester, which reflects very 
happily the expression of the Greenwood painting. 
An etched plate of Isaiah Thomas, with very ornate 
border, made for the Society of Iconophiles, hangs on our 
walls, but the miniature of him in the bookplate of this 
Society, made by John A. J.Wilcox, better preserves the 
accepted likeness by Greenwood. 

These portraits and prints, largely copied from the 
Greenwood painting were more or less for the public eye, 
but there were others, intended for the intimate family 
life, which should be included in this summary. Isaiah 
Thomas was married three times, but had children by 
his first wife only, the names of the living children 
being, Mary Anne and Isaiah, Junior. The daughter by 
her second and third husbands had four children, who 



1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 257 

were living in 1819. The son, by his wife, Mary Weld 
had twelve and from these have come the many branches 
of this Thomas family of the present day. Appended 
to this paper is a genealogy of Isaiah Thomas, Senior, 
prepared in part from his Ms. notes, deposited in this 
library in 1819, and brought to date by correspondence 
with those of the family within our reach. While there 
are more than seventy in the present generation, it will 
be interesting to state here that, of the direct descend- 
ants, there are at this date but four bearing the name 
Thomas: William Thomas, of San Francisco, a mem- 
ber of this Society and his son, Benjamin Franklin 
Thomas, and William R. Thomas of New York and 
his son, William Trumbull Thomas. Among many be- 
quests in the will of Isaiah Thomas, written in the year 
1820, we find the following of interest in connection 
with the present subject: 

"I bequeath, to my grandson, Isaiah Thomas the 
large crayon picture of myself together with the small 
crayon picture of his deceased grandmother. 

to my granddaughter, Augusta, the daughter of my 
son, I give a miniature picture of myself, which picture 
is set in a gold frame and has plaited hair in the back of 
it. 

to my granddaughter, Caroline, I give another 
miniature of myself (a crayon). 

to my granddaughter, Hannah, I give the crayon 
picture of her aunt, Miss Hannah Weld, together with a 
profile framed and a print of myself. 

to my grandson, Isaiah Thomas Simmons, I give 
another crayon picture of myself, a small one but 
drawn on a larger scale than that given to Caroline. 

to my granddaughter, Elizabeth C. Simmons, I give a 
miniature picture of myself, set in gold, which is now in 
a small oval wooden box, in the sideboard standing in 
the parlor, In the same box is the other miniature 
picture bequeathed to my granddaughter, Caroline.' ' 
(This bequest appears in the codicil added in 1830.) 



258 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and finally " to the American Antiquarian Society, the 
recent portrait of myself by Greenwood. " (written in 
1820.) 

To trace these bequests among the members of the 
present generation has been a very interesting problem 
and my efforts have everywhere met with keen interest 
and active assistance. A most interesting miniature, 
because it represents Thomas as a young man, is in 
the possession of Mrs. George R. Minot and came from 
her mother with a miniature of Benjamin F. Thomas, 
her grandfather. It is set in gold and has the old style 
of loop at the top showing it to be contemporary work. 

A miniature on ivory has just been found by Mrs. 
George R. Minot, among the papers of Miss Mary 
Thomas, recently deceased. There has been a tradi- 
tion for many years that this was painted by Sarah 
Goodrich and this fact is proved by its resemblance 
to the engraving by Henry W. Smith in the second 
edition of Thomas' "History of Printing. " 

The two miniatures, described in the will as "in a small 
wooden box" and given to Caroline and Elizabeth, 
are in the hands of two members of the Thomas family. 
The one set in gold, left to Elizabeth, belongs to Isaac 
Rand Thomas, a member of this Society who traces his 
descent from Elias Thomas, an uncle of Isaiah. This, 
also is in the original setting. 

The unmounted miniature was acquired by William 
Sloane of New York, who after having it suitably 
mounted has given it to his daughter Margaret Sloane, 
she being descended from Frances, wife of William A. 
Crocker of Taunton. Both of these miniatures came 
from the Misses Randall, who are granddaughters of 
Mary Thomas Simmons. The miniature, set in gold 
with hair in the back, is now in the possession of 
William Guild Taussig of Boston. 

In the preparation of such a paper, one is certain to 
come across interesting and important information in 
unexpected places, and it is just this element of dis- 
covery which makes pioneer work often seem like 




Miniature, Artist Unkno 




Miniature by Doyle 



1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 259 

romance. One such example has been cited in the dis- 
covery, from the lithographic print, that Marchant 
painted the Millbury portrait. The miniatures be- 
longing to Mr. Sloane and to Mr. Thomas are not 
signed but must have been painted by the same artist. 
They resemble also so closely the print which appeared 
in the "Freemason's Magazine" of 1811 that there can 
be no question that W. M. S. Doyle, whose name 
appears on that print as the painter, is the artist who 
made these two miniatures. The inscription on this 
print reads "Isaiah Thomas, P. G. Master of Massachu- 
setts and Author of History of Printing, " and thus 
proves the miniature to have been painted before 1811, 
and we know that Doyle was active in Boston in his 
profession from 1807. 

The crayon profile framed, given by will to Hannah, 
first wife of Samuel L. Crocker, descended to Leonard 
C. Couch of Taunton. This portrait is now presented 
by Mr. Couch and myself to this Society. On the back 
of the frame is written in ink in the handwriting of 
Thomas, " Isaiah Thomas* 1804, aged 55 when this 
picture was taken. " There is nothing to indicate the 
artist of this pastel, but through the energy of our 
librarian, Mr. Brigham, it was examined by Frank W. 
Bailey and Lawrence Park, both of whom feel sure that 
it is the work of James Sharpies. In the edition of 
Dunlap's "History of the Arts of Design in the United 
States/' published by Goodspeed and Bailey, it is stated 
that Sharpies painted large numbers of distinguished 
people, travelling throughout the United States for that 
purpose. These portraits were finished in about two 
hours and when in profile were strikingly like the sub- 
ject, but when in full face never so good. The cost in 
profile was $15.00, and most of these are today very 
valuable, but those in full face have not the same value 
although the original cost was $20.00. 

In the possession of Mr. Francis H. Bigelow of Cam- 
bridge are two pastels, one of Thomas and the other of 
his wife, Mary. The size of the Thomas head is a 



260 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

little larger than ours but the resemblance of these 
profiles to ours proves them to have been made by the 
same artist. A third pastel, formerly belonging to Mr. 
Bigelow, is of Mary, wife of Dr. Simmons and has on 
the back of its frame the date 1804. This would con- 
firm the belief that these, also, were made by Sharpies. 

These constitute all the known portraits and prints of 
Isaiah Thomas which have come to my notice, and 
these facts regarding them have been gathered together 
in order to preserve in our records, before it is too late, 
all the definite knowledge of the likenesses of our 
founder that can be obtained. 

In the manuscript will, which is in our archives, duly 
signed by Mr. Thomas and later probated, he wrote: 

" As I think it the duty of every man, who is a mem- 
ber of any institution established for the public good, 
to contribute some thing in time and attention or 
property during his life time or otherwise by legacy 
for the promotion of its objects and as there are 
several such institutions of which I have received 
the honor of membership and for which I have done 
but little, I do will and bequeath etc, etc. " 

Then follow bequests to eighteen masonic, literary 
and historical societies as an earnest of his convictions 
thus expressed. 

It is needless to state that, of all these bequests, the 
largest was to the child of his heart and brain, our own 
Society. Let me quote his opinion of the Society 
recorded in the same document: 

"The American Antiquarian Society is, in some 
respects, different from all other societies established 
in the United States. Membership is restricted to no 
state, or party. There are no members merely 
honorary, but all have an equal interest and concern 
in its affairs and the objects of this institution, what- 
ever part of the United States they may reside in. It 
is truly a national institution. It has no local views 
nor private concerns. Its objects (to collect and 
preserve) embrace all time, past, present and future. 







Miniature by Goodrich 



1920.] Portraits of Isaiah Thomas 261 

* * * The benefits resulting from the American 
Anitquarian Society will be increased by time and will 
be chiefly received by a remote posterity. " 

These quotations from the last will and testament 
of Isaiah Thomas, like the recorded acts of his long 
life, prove the existence of those qualities of intellect, 
benevolence and vision which are so perfectly portrayed 
in the Greenwood painting, and so well shadowed 
forth in the profile presented to the society this day. 

List of Portraits, Prints and Other Representations 
of Isaiah Thomas, Senior 

1. Painting by E. A. Greenwood, in 1818, for New England 
Museum and later the Boston Museum. Present 
location unknown. 

2. Painting by E. A. Greenwood, in 1818, for Thomas. 
Gift to American Antiquarian Society. 

3. Painting, copied by Henry Harding of Boston by order 
of Thomas, in 1828, for Alleghany College of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

4. Painting, copied by Henry Harding of Boston by order 
of Thomas in 1828. Probably the one now in Morning 
Star Lodge of Worcester. 

5. Painting, copied by E. D. Marchant (by order of 
Thomas?). Given by Thomas to his granddaughter 
Elizabeth C. Simmons and given by her daughters, the 
Misses Randall, to the Olive Branch Lodge of Millbury. 

6. Painting, copied from Greenwood (by whom unknown) 
given by Thomas to the Leicester Academy. 

7. Portrait by Henry Williams, a Boston painter who 
lived from 1787 to 1830. This was engraved by J. R. 
Smith. See below. Present location unknown. 

8. Portrait by Henry Billings, location unknown. Copied 
on steel by S. A. Schoff. See below. 

9. Portrait by W. M. S. Doyle of Boston, 1769 to 1828. 
He painted a miniature of Thomas, unsigned. This 
was given, unframed, by Thomas to his granddaughter 
Caroline and is now owned by Miss Margaret D. 
Sloane, great granddaughter of Frances (Thomas) 
Crocker. This was engraved by W.. R. Jones by whose 
plate Doyle is acknowledged as the painter. See 
below. 



262 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

10. Miniature of Thomas, set in gold, given, by codicil of 
1830, to Elizabeth C. Simmons, from whose daughters 
it was obtained by Isaac Rand Thomas, a member of 
this Society and descended from Elias Thomas, an 
uncle of Isaiah. This must have been painted by the 
same artist as No. 9. 

11. Miniature of Thomas, set in gold, in possession of Mrs. 
George R. Minot. Artist unknown. Represents 
Thomas as a young man. 

12. Miniature of Thomas, in possession of Mrs. George R. 
Minot unsigned but undoubtedly by Sarah Goodrich. 
See No. 18. 

13. Pastel by Sharpies? Bequeathed to Hannah, first wife 
of Samuel L. Crocker. Owned by Leonard C. Couch, 
her grandson. Given to American Antiquarian Society. 

14. Pastel, now owned by Mr. Francis H. Bigelow, who 
received it from the Misses Randall, by same artist as 
No. 13. 

15. Print engraved on copper in stipple by W. R. Jones of 
Philadelphia, for the "Freemason's Magazine," Nov., 
1811. From the Sloane miniature. Plate in American 
Antiquarian Society. 

16. Print engraved on copper in stipple by J. R. Smith, for 
the "Polyanthos." August, 1814. From picture by 
Henry Williams. Plate in American Antiquarian 
Society. 

17. Print engraved on steel by S. A. Schorl, from picture by 
Henry Billings for Buckingham's "Reminiscences," 
published in 1852. Plate in American Antiquarian 
Society. 

18. Print engraved on steel by H. W. Smith, from picture 
by Sarah Goodrich, for second edition of "History of 
Printing." Plate in American Antiquarian Society. 

19. Lithograph by Pendleton Brothers of Boston, from 
Marchant painting. 

20. Etching for Society of Iconophiles. 

21. Etching by J. A. J. Wilcox, for the American Anti- 
quarian Society bookplate. 

22. Marble Bust by B. H. Kinney in 1859, in American 
Antiquarian Society. 

23. Miniature of Thomas set in gold, with hair in back. 
Owned by William Guild Taussig. 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 263 



THE DIRECT DESCENDANTS 
OF ISAIAH THOMAS OF WORCESTER 



EVAN 1 and Jane Thomas of Wales, came to Boston in 
1640 with four children, one being named GEORGE. 
In Boston, they had two more children : 

i. Jane, b. May 16, 1641; m. Nov. 14, 1657, John Jackbon. 

ii. Dorcas, b. Jan. 25, 1643; d. Feb. 28, 1643. 

Jane, wife of Evan, died Jan. 12, 1658 and Evan 
married, as second wife, the widow of Philip Kirkland 
in 1659 or 1660. The Boston Vital Records state that 
Seargant Evan Thomas died Aug. 25, 1661. Alice, the 
second wife, at first with some difficulty but later with 
profit, continued the business of Evan and she died in 
1697. The records state that Evan had many children 
and grandchildren, one of the latter being the wife of 
the Rev. Joseph Belcher. 

GEORGE 2 THOMAS, one of the children born in Wales, 
m. Rebecca Maverick, b. Jan. 1, 1660 in Chelsea. 
They had eight children. 

3. i. PETER, b. Feb. 6, 1681-2. 
ii. Martha, b. Sept. 22, 1683. 
iii. George, b. March 16, 1684-5; m. June 16, 1709, Susanna 

Gutridge. 
iv. Rebecca, b. March 25, 1687. 
v. Ann, b. April 30, 1688. 
vi. Dorothy, b. Dec. 20, 1690. 
vii. Elizabeth, b. July 28, 1693. 
viii. Maverick, b. Feb. 24, 1694-5; m. Joanna and had four 

children: 1. James, b. Oct. 5, 1720. 2. English, b. 

Jan. 4, 1722. 3. Love, b. Mar. 19, 1725. 4. George 

b. July 9, 1729. 



264 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

3. PETER 3 THOMAS, b. Feb. 6, 1681-2. m. twice. 1st., 

Nov. 2, 1704, Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. George 
Burroughs. They had six children, all born in Boston. 
2nd., March 1, 1719, Mary Roby, by whom he had 
five children, two of whom died in infancy. 
Children by first wife. 

i. George, b. July 20, 1705. 

ii. Peter, b. ; m. Mar. 7, 1728, Katharine Webber and 

had two daughters, 
iii. Elias, b. June 4, 1710; m. July 22, 1735, Hannah Mac- 

Millon and had several children, 
iv. Elizabeth, b. Aug, 18, 1714. d. before 1721. 
4. v. MOSES, b. Feb. 25, 1715. 

vi. Mary, b. ; m. twice, 1st: March 12, 1732, Thomas 

Newman and had two children. 2nd: George Gibds. 

Children by second wife. 

vii. Elizabeth, b. May 31, 1721. She died unmarried. 

viii. Mercy, b. Dec. 23, 1724; m. Oct. 20, 1741, George Eustis. 

ix. William, b. ; m. Oct. 20, 1748, Rebecca Bass, 

daughter of Samuel and Christian Bass, born Dec. 27, 
1727. They had a daughter Mary, b. June 9, 1750. She 
was second wife of 8. ISAIAH. William d. April 19, 1760 
and Rebecca m. June 12, 1769, Zechariah Fowle who d. 
in 1776 and she g\ in Worcester, July 17, 1803. 

4. MOSES 4 THOMAS and Fidelity Grant were married 

about 1740 and had five children. Moses was born in 
Boston in 1715 and died in North Carolina in 1752. 
Fidelity Grant of Rhode Island was born in 1725 and 
died in Worcester, at the home of her son Isaiah, Jan. 
17, 1798. She married June 12, 1764, Ebenezer 
Blackman of Westcambridge and they had a daughter, 
Mary, who married and lived in Westcambridge. 
Moses and Fidelity had five children, two being born 
at Hempstead, Long Island and brought up there. 
The other three were born in Boston. 

m. at Hempstead and went to the 





i. Elizabeth, . m. a 




West Indies. 


5. 


ii. Peter. 


6. 


iii. Joshua, b. March 3, 1745. 


7. 


iv. Susanna Amelia, b. 1747. 


8. 


v. ISAIAH, b. Jan. 19, 1749. 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 265 

5. Peter 8 Thomas, lived at Hempstead. He was twice 

married. By his first wife, he had two sons, John and 
Amos. John died at the age of 17 and Amos became a 
sailor. By the second wife, he had one daughter, 
Elizabeth, born Jan. 10, 1785. She was formally 
adopted by her uncle Isaiah and later married, Dec. 9, 
1811, Stephen T. Soper of Boston. She died at 
Braintree, July 12, 1813. Peter also had by second 
wife a son Isaiah, who died in infancy. 

6. Joshua 5 Thomas, born March 3, 1745 in Boston, married 

twice. 1st. Mary Twing of Brighton, Mass. and 
had by her seven children. She died in Lancaster, 
May 27, 1808. 2nd. Mary Armstrong, daughter of 
John Armstrong of Boston. Joshua lived at Arlington 
for many years and finally went to Lancaster where he 
died, Feb. 4, 1831. 

7. Susanna 5 Amelia Thomas, b. 1747, married four times, 

the last husband being Capt. Hugh McCullouch of 
Philadelphia. She, again a widow, died on Feb. 20, 
1815. 

8. ISAIAH 5 THOMAS, born Jan. 19, 1749, in Boston was 

apprenticed by his mother on June 4, 1756 to Zachariah 
Fowle and brought up as a printer. He lived in Boston 
until 1775 when, because of his newspaper activities 
in behalf of the Colonies, he moved to Worcester. He 
gave up active work as a printer, in 1802. In 1810 he 
published a "History of Printing" and founded the 
American Antiquarian Society in 1812. He received the 
honorary degree of A. M. in 1814, from Dartmouth 
College, and that of LL.D. in 1818, from Alleghany 
College of Pennsylvania. He died, April 4, 1831, in 
Worcester. 

He married three times: 1st. Dec. 25, 1769, in 
Charleston, S. C, Mary, daughter of Joseph and Anne 
Dill, of Bermuda, and had three children. He was 
divorced from her in 1777 by decree of the Supreme 



i ** 



266 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Court of Mass. 2nd. May 26, 1779, in Boston, 
Mary Fowle, who died in Worcester, Nov. 16, 1818. 
She was daughter of William and Rebecca (Bass) 
Thomas and was born June 9, 1750. She married, 
May 11, 1769, Isaac Fowle and had two daughters, 
Rebecca T., b. Feb. 4, 1770., d. Dec. 6, 1773 in 
New York, and Dorothea Whitmarsh, b. Nov. 5, 1771, 
d. Sept. 10, 1772. Isaac Fowle died in the Continental 
Army in 1777. 3rd. Aug. 10, 1819, in Boston, 
Rebecca Armstrong, daughter of John and Christian 
Armstrong of Boston. 

Her mother, Christian, was daughter of Samuel and 
Christian Bass whose other daughter, Rebecca, wife of 
William Thomas, had a daughter Mary, who was the 
second wife of Isaiah and they were thus cousins. She, 
born in 1757, died Oct. 21, 1828, in Roxbury. 

Children by first wife. 
i. Son, stillborn, Sept. 1770. 
9. ii. Mary Anne, b. March 27, 1772. 
10. iii. ISAIAH, JUN. b. Sept. 5, 1773. 

9. MARY ANNE 6 THOMAS, daughter of Isaiah and Mary 
(Dill) Thomas, b. March 27, 1772, in Boston. 

While living with her uncle, Joshua, she was admitted 
to the Precinct Church in Arlington (Menotomy), and 
baptized Aug. 21, 1791. After her first marriage, she 
was dismissed to the first church in Springfield, where 
she went with her husband. She was married three 
times. 1st. In Arlington, at her uncle's on Jan. 16, 
1792, to James R. Hutchins of Windsor, Vt. He was a 
printer and published the "Federal Spy" in Springfield 
from 1793-96, when he sold it. In 1795 he printed 
books in Worcester but after that time his career is not 
known. 2nd. On Oct. 1, 1797, to Samuel Mather, 
who was b. March 19, 1773 in Whately, Mass., 3rd. 
In Worcester, May 7, 1805, to Dr. Levi Simmons. 
They lived in St. Albans, Vt., where her children by 
this marriage were born, and later in Burlington. She 
was divorced from both second and third husbands by 
decree of the Supreme Court of Vt. 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 267 

Child by second marriage. 

i. Valeria, b. Nov. 24, 1801. She married Samuel Williams 
of Burlington, Vt., in April, 1818. 
i 

Children by third marriage. 

ii. Isaiah, b. July 24, 1806; d. March 7, 1808. 

11. hi. Mary Thomas, b. Sept. 17, 1808. 

iv. Isaiah Thomas, b. April 20, 1810. He was educated as a 
printer by his grandfather, and it is said that he worked 
at his trade in Little Falls, N. Y. 

12. v. Elizabeth Cornelia, b. Feb. 12, 1813. 

The Mss. records prepared by Isaiah Thomas, 

senior, and placed by him in the library of the American 

Antiquarian Society state that another child by one of 

j her marriages was named Babbet (Barbara) but no other 

trace of such child has been found in record or tradition. 



L / 



10. ISAIAH 6 THOMAS, Jun., born, Sept. 5, 1773 in Boston. 
He lived in Worcester from 1779 to 1810, when hemoved 
to Boston where he died, June 25, 1819, in consequence 
of an accident. He married, in May 1797, Mary, 
daughter of Edward Weld of Boston formerly of 
Marblehead. He was educated as a printer by his 
father and bought out his business in 1802. Pie moved 
this business to Boston in 1810 where he continued 
until his death. His wife died, April 26, 1825, in Boston. 
They had twelve children, six daughters and then 
six sons. 

Daughter, stillborn, Feb. 5, 1798. 

Mary Rebecca, b. July 6, 1799; d. June 17, 1859 in Bos- 
ton. She m. May 23, 1821, Hon. Pliny Merrick. He 
was b. Aug. 2, 1794 and d. Feb. 1, 1867 in Boston. They 
had no children. 

Frances Church, b. Aug. 12, 1800. 

Augusta Weld, b. Aug. 1, 1801; d. Aug. 19, 1822 in 
Taunton. She never married. 

Caroline, b. Sept. 26, 1802. 

Hannah Weld, b. Oct. 25, 1803. 

Isaiah, b. Dec. 11, 1804; d. Oct. 4, 1805 in Worcester. 
16. viii. ISAIAH, b. Nov. 29, 1805. 





l. 




ii. 


13. 


iii. 




iv. 


14. 


v. 


15. 


vi. 




vii 



268 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

17. ix. William, b. April 11, 1808. 

x. Edward Weld, b. Feb. 15, 1810; d. Oct. 4, 1810 in Wor- 
cester. 

xi. Edward Isaiah, b. Nov. 11, 1811, in Boston; m. Harriet, 
daughter of Bishop Brownell of Hartford and d. on his 
wedding journey at Saratoga 

18. xii. Benjamin Franklin, b. Jan. 25, 1813. 

The last two were born in Boston the others in Worcester. 



11. Mary 7 Simmons, b. Sept. 17, 1808 in St. Albans; d. Nov. 

21-1873 in New Orleans. She married twice: 1st. 
A. Deming of Montpelier, Vt., The diary of Isaiah 
Thomas (Sept. 1, 1826) reads "aged 18, and lately 
married." 2nd. Col. Albert Gallatin Tarleton 
of Benton, Ala. They had six children. He was a 
confederate soldier, although of northern sympathies, 
and was killed with his four sons in the same year. She 
went to New Orleans, lived with her daughter and died 
there of yellow fever in 1873. 
Children of second marriage : 

i. James. 

ii. Thomas. 

iii. Moses. 

iv. John. 

These sons were killed during the Civil War the same year 
as their father. 

v. Jane, who married Mr. Nelson of Montreal. 

vi. Cornelia Ferris, b. July 29, 1841 in Vermont; m 
Francis McKeough. They lived in New Orleans and 
had a son, John, who died at the age of four. She died, a 
widow, October 12, 1911, in New Orleans. 

12. Elizabeth 7 Cornelia Simmons, b. Feb. 12, 1813 in 

St. Albans; d. July 8, 1891 in Boston. She married, 
Nov. 23, 1831, Abraham Garland Randall and lived 
in Millbury, Mass. He was born Jan. 19, 1804 in 
Manchester, Mass., and died in 1878. He entered Yale 
in 1822, but transferred his studies to Harvard, where 
his father, Rev. Abraham Randall graduated in 1798. 
He continued with the Class of 1826. He was admitted 
to the Worcester County bar in 1831 and practiced law in 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 269 

Millbury until 1860 when he moved his office to Wor- 
cester. He was, in 1849, postmaster of Millbury. 
Children : 

i. Clara Elizabeth b. Dec. 7, 1838, now living in Boston. 
ii. Mary Thomas, b. May 9, 1845, now living in Boston. 

13. Frances 7 Church Thomas, b. in Worcester, Aug. 12, 

1800; d. in Staten Island, Apr. 23, 1868. She married, 
Nov. 10, 1824, William Allen ^rocker of Taunton. 
He was b. in Taunton, March 14, 1801; d. in New 
York, May 13, 1871. He was in Class of 1822 at 
Brown University, was a Trustee from 1841-1871, and 
lived in Taunton from 1824 to 1863, when he moved to 
Staten Island and in 1868 to New York. He was a 
prominent business man in Taunton, establishing many 
important industries and taking an active part in 
the growth of the city. 

They had eleven children, all born in Taunton. 

Children: 

i. William Augustus, b. Aug. 5, 1825; d. Aug. 18, 1825. 

ii. William Augustus, b. July 4, 1826; d. Feb. 26, 1828. 

iii. Sally Augusta, b. Sept. 29, 1827; d. Feb. 22, 1828. 

19. iv. Frances Thomas, b. Eeb. 19, 1829. 

v. Isaiah Thomas, b. Feb. 3, 1830; d. Aug. 10, 1830. 

20. vi. George Augustus, b. Sept. 1, 1831. 

vii. Elizabeth Andrews Baylies, b. Dec. 23, 1834; d. Feb. 9, 
1910. She was unmarried. 

21. viii. William Baylies, b. July 22, 1836. 

ix. Mary Augusta, b. July 26, 1839; d. Mar. 17, 1916. Un- 
married. 

x. Harriet Behling, b. Nov. 26, ; d. March 17, 1846. 

xi. Louisa Marston, b. Sept. 18, 1844.. Unmarried, living 
in New York. 

14. Caroline 7 Thomas, b. Sept. 26, 1802; d. about 1875. 

She married, as second wife, Hon. Samuel Leonard 
Crocker of Taunton, who was born there Mar. 31, 1804, 
and died in Boston, Feb. 10, 1883. He graduated from 
Brown University in the Class of 1822, was elected a 
Trustee in 1882, to which office he never qualified 
because of his sickness and death the following year. 



270 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

He was a man of large affairs in Taunton, aided in its 
industries and was in the National House of Representa- 
tives from 1853 to 1855. 

They had three children, all born in Taunton. 

22. i. Sally, b. Nov. 24, 1832. ' 

23. ii. Samuel Leonard, Jr., b. May 25, 1835. 

iii. Ellen, b. about 1843; d. July 1904, in Boston; m. in 1870 
George Gordon Crocker. No children. He was in 
Class of 1855, Harvard. 

16. Hannah 7 Weld Thomas, b. Oct. 5, 1803, in Worcester; 
d. Nov. 22, 1827. m. June 14, 1825, as first wife, Hon. 
Samuel Leonard Crocker. 

Child: 

24. Mary Caroline, b. May 1826. 

16. ISAIAH 7 THOMAS, b. Nov. 29, 1805. d. lost at sea in 
1862. He, graduate of Harvard, Class of 1825, 
married, May 30, 1831 Mary Ann, eldest daughter of 
Nathaniel Reeder of Virginia. She was born, June 
3, 1808 and died, March 19, 1851. They had nine 
children. He was appointed by President Lincoln 
Consul to Algiers and sailed with three children on 
S. S. Milwaukee in Feb., 1862, for Havre, but the ship 
was never heard from. 

Children: 

i. Mary Louise, b. Feb. 26, 1832, at Cincinnati; d. Feb. 16, 
1833. 

25. ii. Edward Isaiah, b. Nov. 19, 1833, at Cincinnati. 

iii. Elizabeth Andrews, b. Dec. 1, 1835, at Cincinnati; d. 

May 23, 1842. 
iv. Augusta Weld, b. Jan. 13, 1838 at Cincinnati; d. Feb. 18, 

1838. 
v. Mary Caroline, b. Jan. 26, 1839 at Detroit; d. at sea in 

1862. 
vi. Henry Clay, b. May 18, 1841 at Detroit; d. at sea in 1862. 

26. vii. William Reeder, b. July 18, 1843 at Mt. Auburn, Ohio, 
viii. Pliny Merrick, b. Mar. 17, 1847 at Springfield, O; d. 

lost at sea in 1862. 
ix. Alice, b. May 16, 1849 at Springfield; d. April 15, 1852. 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 271 

17. William 7 Thomas, b. April 11, 1808 in Worcester; d. in 
Longwood, June, 1872. He married twice, 1st. in 
Aug., 1831, Catherine, daughter of Calvin and Naomi 
Crombie. She died June 16, 1838 in Boston. 2nd. 
Aug. 28, 1839, Cornelia Jane, daughter of Benjamin 
Bangs. 
There were no children by this marriage. 

Children by first wife: 

27. i. Helen, b. Sept. 8, 1832. 

28. ii. Mary Merrick, b. July 31, 1834. 

iii. Catherine Crombie, b. June 15, 1836; d. Nov. 28, 1918; 



18. Benjamin 7 Franklin Thomas, b. Feb. 12, 1813 in Boston ; 
d. Sept. 27, 1878, in Beverly. He graduated from 
Brown, Class of 1830, and received the degree of LL.D. 
from Brown in 1853, and from Harvard in 1854. He 
was a Trustee of Brown from 1874 to 1878 and its 
Chancellor during that time. He was on the Supreme 
Bench of Mass. 1853-59, and in the National House of 
Representatives, from 1861 to 1863. He m. Mary 
Anne, daughter of John and Agnes Park of Worcester, 
on Oct. 1, 1835. She died Nov. 13, 1885, in Boston. 

Children: 

29. i. Agnes Park, b. July 19, 1837. 

ii. Pliny Merrick, b. Aug. 24, 1839; d. Feb. 28, 1883. 

iii. Mary, b. Jan. 25, 1841; d. July 20, 1920. Never married. 

iv. Benjamin Franklin, Jr., b. Oct. 11, 1842; d. July 21, 

1861. 
v. John Park, b. F«b. 23, 1845; d. Oct. 18, 1870. 
vi. Augusta, b. Feb. 23, 1848; d. July 25, 1848. 

30. vii. William, b. Sept. 5, 1853. 

31. viii. ISAIAH, b. Sept. 24, 1855; d. April 10, 1890. 



19. Frances 8 Thomas Crocker, b. Feb. 19, 1829 in Taunton; 
d. Oct. 16, 1874 in Brookline. m. April 12, 1855 Wil- 
liam Russell Paine who was b. Jan. 26, 1823 in 
Worcester and d. Jan. 9, 1877 in Brookline. 



272 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Children : 

i. Lillie Crocker, b. May 11, 1856; d. Feb. 19, 1905. 

ii. Mary Pickford, b. Dec. 5, 1858; d. April 28, 1859. 

iii. Frances Thomas, b. Sept. 6, 1861. 

iv. Bessie Sturgis, b. Dec. 15, 1862. 

v. Frederick William, b. Feb. 22, 1866; m. Nov. 2, 1910 in 

Providence, R. I., Elizabeth Harriet (Lynch) Pegram. 

No children. 



20. George 8 Augustus Crocker, b. Sept. 1, 1831; m. Jan. 

26, 1875, Leah Reese, d. Oct. 20, 1906. 

Children : 

i. Jacob Reese, b. Jan. 1, 1876; m. and lives in Cleveland, 
ii. Frances Church, b. Aug. 23, 1877; m. Nov. 22, 1904. 

William Sloane of New York. Child Margaret Douglas, 

b. June 28, 1910. 
iii. George Augustus, Jr., b. Aug. 6, 1880; m. Elizabeth 

Masten of New York. Children: 1. Arthur Masten, 

b. March 6, 1909. 2. William Reese, b. June 17, 1919. 

21. William 8 Baylies Crocker, b. July 22, 1836. A. M., 

Brown, 1856. m. Alice Fellowes in 1866. He d. 
January 1886. 

Children : 

i. Robert Ives, d. in 1915, unmarried. 

ii. William Baylies, Jr., unmarried in Cleveland. 

22. Sally 8 Crocker, b. Nov. 24, 1832 in Taunton; d. Oct. 

11, 1911. m. June 29, 1853 Edmund Hatch Bennett 
of Taunton. He was born in Manchester, Vt., April 6, 
1824. d. Jan. 2, 1898. A. B., Univ. of Vt., 1848. 
LL.D., in 1872 from same college. Judge of Probate, 
Bristol County, many years. First Mayor of Taunton. 
Dean of Law School of Boston University. 

They had four children: 

Caroline, b. Oct. 6, 1854; d. July 25, 1855. 

Edmund Neville, b. May 23, 1856; d. May 28, 1881 while 

at Brown University. 
Samuel Crocker, b. April 19, 1858. See number 35. 
Mary Andrews, b. Jan. 18, 1861. 





l. 




ii. 


35. 


iii. 


32. 


iv 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 273 

23. Samuel 8 Leonard Crocker, Jr. b. May 25, 1835. A. M 
Brown, 1856. LL.B., 1859, Harvard, d. May 27, 
1904, at Naples, Italy, m. May 25, 1885 in Italy, 
Clementina Cioffi. A widow, she m. Edgar W. 
Smith. 

Children: 

i. Alice Leavenworth, b. 1891; m. Percy G. Smith of 
Montpelier, Vt. Children: 1. Emma Crocker, b. 
1916. 2. Samuel Crocker, b. 1917. 

ii. Samuel Leonard, Jr., b. 1893; m. Ruth Bigelow. 
Children: 1. Nina Bigelow. 2. Lucille Ruth. 



24. Mary 8 Caroline Crocker, b. May 1826. m. Major 

General Darius Nash Couch of Taunton in 1854. 
He was born July 23, 1822, and graduated from West 
Point in 1846. He was a Lieutenant in the Mexican 
War and Colonel at beginning of the Civil War. Later 
he was General in command of a division in the Army 
of the Potomac— the division later headed by Gen. 
Devens. He had charge of the ceremonies at Gettys- 
burg when Lincoln delivered his address. He, later, 
resigned from the army and lived in Norwalk, Conn. 

Children: 

33. i. Alice Leavenworth, b. July 5, 1855. 

34. ii. Leonard Crocker, b. 1857. 

25. Edward 8 Isaiah Thomas, b. Nov. 19, 1833 at Cincinnati. 

m. Dec. 31, 1857 in Boston, Henrietta Williams, 
daughter of Henry and Almira Briggs. She was a 
descendant of Roger Williams, d. Jan. 22, 1905 at 
Brookline where her husband d. Dec. 26, 1890. 

Children : 

i. Ada, b. March 14, 1860 at Brookline; m. Oct. 18, 1882, 
Livingston Cushing who was born June 1856. He was 
of Class of 1879, Harvard and had LL. B. in 1882. He 
died in 1916. They had no children. 

35. ii. Amy Reeder, b. Feb. 4, 1862, at Brookline. 

36. iii. Bertha Williams, b. Jan. 2, 1869, at Brookline. 



274 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

26. William 8 Reeder Thomas, b. July 18, 1843 at Cincinnati ; 

m. Harriet D. Trumbull of New York. They had 
two children. 

Children : 

i. Katharine Trumbull, b. Nov. 26, 1892; m. Jan. 20, 1916, 
Leslie B. Cooper of Morristown, N. J. Child, b. 1920. 
ii. William Trumbull, b. May 12, 1894, unmarried. 

27. Helen 8 Thomas, b. Sept. 8, 1832. m. June 5, 1862, 

Charles Mayo Ellis. She d. Dec. 28, 1878. They 
had two children. 

Children : 

i. William Thomas, b. Aug. 14, 1865; d. Oct. 15, 1865. 
ii. Helen, b. May 4, 1870; m. June 5, 1893, Rev. Stopford 

Brooke, later M.P. for Cranleigh. Children: 1. 

Somerset Stopford, b. June 16, 1906. 2. Edith Howe 

Stopfard,h.Feb.U,19ll. 

28. Mary 8 Merrick Thomas, b. July 31, 1834, who d. in 

Nov. 1915. m. twice, 1st. Sept. 13, 1860, George 
Dwight Guild, Class of 1845, Harvard, who d. 1862. 
2nd. William H. Gorham, M.D., Harvard, 1850, who 
d. in Florence, April, 1895. No children by this 
marriage. 

Child by first marriage. 

37. i. Edith Thomas, b. Sept. 22, 1861. 

29. Agnes 8 Park Thomas, b. July 19, 1837. m. Richard 

Olney of Oxford, who was born there Sept. 5, 1835. 
He graduated from Brown University in 1856 and 
received the degree of LL. D. 1893, Harvard. He was 
member of Board of Fellows at Brown from 1894 to 
1897. Attorney General of United States from 1893 to 
1895 and Secretary of State from 1895 to 1897. He d. 
April 1917 and his wife d. Jan. 25, 1919. 

Children: 

38. i. Agnes, b. Dec. 3, 1861. 

39. ii. Mary, b. Aug. 15, 1864. 



to 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 275 

30. William 8 Thomas, b. Sept. 5, 1853. Class of 1873, Har- 

vard LL.B. 1878. Overseer of Harvard from 1916- 
m. Emma A. Gay of Ashland, Mass. 

Children: 

i. Molly, b. 1875; m. Latham McMullin. Child: Virginia. 
ii. Helen, b. 1878; m. Fred W. Kimble. Child: Barbara. 
iii. Benjamin Franklin, b. 1880; m. Charlotte M. Evans. 

Children: 1. Charlotte, died in infancy. 2. Mary 

Emma. 3. Grace. 
iv. Grace, b. 1887; d. 1890. 
v. Gertrude, b. 1891; m. Roger Boqueraz. Children: 

1. Jeannie. 2. Marie Louise. 

31. ISAIAH 8 THOMAS, b. Sept. 24, 1855 in Worcester; d. 

April 10, 1890 in Goffstown, N. H. He entered Har- 
vard with the Class of 1872 , but did not graduate 
because of ill health. He married, Dec. 27, 1875, at 
Nashua, N. H., Caroline Ware, daughter of George 
and Elizabeth Lane of Newton. They lived at Goffs- 
town, until his death. His widow married, in 1894, Rev. 
Cyrus W. Heizer of Wayland and they moved to 
Ithaca, N. Y. where he died in a few years when she 
returned to Newton. *■ 

Children: 

40. i. Elizabeth, b. April 12, 1877 in Manchester, N. H. 
ii. Marian, b. August 12, 1879; d. Sept. 27, 1880. 

32. Mary 9 Andrews Bennett, b. Jan. 18, 1861. m. Nov. 

12, 1884 William Merritt Conant, M.D. He was 
born Jan. 5, 1856, at Attleboro, R. I. Class of 1879, 
Harvard and M.D., 1884. Children born in Boston 
except Ira. 

Children: 

i, Ruth, b. Sept. 14, 1885; m. June 10, 1909 Clarence Mason 

Joyce. 
ii. Edmund Bennett, b. Dec. 6, 1886; m. Oct. 11, 1911 

Eleanor Eastman Hawkesworth. Child: Robert H. 

b. Aug. 25, 1913. 
iii. Ira Merritt, b. Aug. 17, 1888 at Bridgewater. m. Nov. 

12, 1914, Grace Madeleine Loud. 



! 



■ 



1920.] Direct Descendants of Isaiah Thomas 277 

37. Edith 9 Thomas Guild, b. Sept. 22, 1861; d. Apr. 15, 

1910. m. June 29, 1888, Prof. Frank W. Taussig of 
Harvard College, Class of 1879. Ph. D. & A. M. 1883, 
and LL.B. in 1886 from Harvard. 

Children: 
i. William Guild, b. May 3, 1889; m. Jan. 5, 1918, Beatrice 

Murray of England. She b. Dec. 1, 1891. 
ii. Mary Guild, b. May 8, 1892; m. Nov. 10, 1918, Gerard 

Carl Henderen of New York, 
iii. Catherine Crombie, b. Dec. 7, 1896. 
iv. Helen Brooke, b. May 24, 1898. 

38. Agnes 9 Olney, b. Dec. 3, 1861. m. Oct. 28, 1890, 

George Richards Minot, Class of 1871, Harvard. He 
b. Mar. 3, 1849; d. 1894. 
Child: 

Francis, b. Nov. 8, 1891; m. Apr. 30, 1914, Isabel 
Quackenbush. Child: Agnes Olney, b. July 17, 1915. 

39. Mary 9 Olney, b. Aug. 15, 1864. m. Oct. 9, 1886, 

Charles Henry Abbott, D.D.S. Harvard, 1885. He 
b. Sept. 6, 1862 in Berlin. 
Children: 

i. Mary Perkins, b. March 22, 1888 in Berlin. 

ii. Francis Peabody, b. Aug. 15, 1889 in Berlin. Class of 

1914, Harvard, 
iii. Charles Benjamin, b. June 6, 1892 in Berlin. Class of 

1911, Harvard, 
iv. Agnes Ann, b. Aug. 24, 1897 in Boston. 

40. Elizabeth 9 Thomas, b. April 12, 1877. m. April 12, 

1895 in Boston at the home of her guardian, Miss Mary 
Thomas, to Frederic Christopher Dumaine. They 
had seven children, all born in Concord, Mass. 
Children : 

i. Mary Thomas, b. April 19, 1897. 

ii. Elizabeth, b. January 3, 1900. 

iii. Harriette Rodman, b. March 12, 1901. 

iv. Frederic C, Jr., b. Sept. 5. 1902. 

v. Cordelia, b. Feb. 17, 1907. 

vi Christopher, b. April 6, 1910. 

vii. Pierre, b. August 21, 1912. 



278 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 



THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT 

BY ARTHUR LORD 



THE incident in Pilgrim history often selected 
as best representing the idea of civil liberty and 
local self-government is the signing of the Compact. 

The poet and the artist are more successful than 
are the historians in preserving and symbolizing 
some of the great events of human history. The 
canvas of Sargent portrays and the verses of Mrs. 
Hemans describe their ideas of the Landing at 
Plymouth rather than what in fact happened on the 
Plymouth shore on the 21st of December, 1620. But 
the picture and the poem have impressed themselves 
upon the popular imagination and best describe the 
idea of the Landing which is held apparently by the 
great majority of English-speaking people who have 
occasion to consider that event. 

Monuments are erected, historical and hereditary 
patriotic societies meet on the 21st day of successive 
Novembers to commemorate the signing of the Com- 
pact on that day in 1620, because the Compact 
expresses and typifies to them that ideal of civil 
liberty and pure democratic government which Theo- 
dore Parker first expressed in the line which Lincoln 
made famous: — 

"Government of the people, for the people, and by the 
people. " 

In 1841, Dr. Alexander Young, the learned annalist 
and editor of "The Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers/ ' 
printed therein, under the title of "Bradford and 
Winslow's Journal, A Diary of Events from Novem- 
ber 9, 1622 to December 11, 1621," that early 
relation of events usually cited as " Mourt's Relation," 
published in London in 1622. 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 279 

In "Mourt's Relation, " which contains the earliest 
printed reference to the instrument now known as 
the " Mayflower Compact, "it is stated that "This 
day before we came to harbor, observing some not well 
affected to unity and concord but gave some appear- 
ance of faction, it was thought good there should be 
an association and agreement that we should combine 
together in one body and to submit to such govern- 
ment and governors as we should by common consent 
agree to make and choose and set our hand to this that 
follows word for word." Then appears for the first 
time in print the familiar Compact. 

In Dr. Young's note to that extract from "Mourt's 
Relation" he says — 

"And yet it seems to me that a good deal more has been 
discerned in this document than the signers contemplated. * * 
Their purpose in drawing up and signing this compact was 
merely, as they state, to restrain certain of their number who 
had manifested an unruly and factious disposition. This wa3 
the whole philosophy of the instrument, whatever may since 
have been discovered and deduced from it by astute civilians, 
philosophical historians and imaginative orators." 

Since I first read this statement of Dr. Young some 
years ago, I have given some consideration to the real 
meaning, purpose and effect of this agreement, as 
Bradford terms it, the circumstances which occasioned 
it, and the form of government adopted by the Pil- 
grims before leaving England, under the provisions of 
their patent. The result of that inquiry I take this 
occasion to submit for your consideration. 

It may be noted in the first place that this instru- 
ment was not signed in the harbor of Provincetown, 
as often erroneously stated. The statements of 
Bradford and Winslow in "Mourt's Relation" that 
the instrument was executed " before we came to 
harbor, " is conclusive. 

It is an interesting fact that the term " compact" 
apparently was not applied to that instrument before 
1793. The elaborate researches of Mr. Albert 



280 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

Matthews and Mr. George E. Bowman show no 
earlier references. Mr. Bowman notes that the word 
" compact, " as applied to this agreement, first 
appears in "A Topographical Description of Dux- 
borough, in the County of Plymouth/' by Alden 
Bradford, which was published in the Collections of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society's first series, 
Volume 2 : 

"John Alden, who came to Plymouth in 1620, was one of 
the signers of the compact established immediately upon the 
arrival of the first settlers," etc. 

The reference to the instrument found in "Mourt's 
Relation," describes it as "an association and agree- 
ment." Bradford, in his History of Plymouth 
Plantation, (Ford, Volume 1, Page 189,) refers to 
it as a "combination made by them before they came, 
a shore," and states that it was — 

"Occasioned partly by the discontented and mutinous 
speeches that some of the strangers amongst them had let fall 
from them in the ship ; That when they came ashore, they 
would use their owne libertie, for none had power to command 
them, the patente they had being for Virginia, and not for New 
england, which belonged to another Government with which 
the Virginia company had nothing to doe" 

And in the Plymouth Colony Records, the same 
term "combination" is used. In Prince's Chronologi- 
cal History, he refers to it as "a solemn contract," 
and the Rev. Charles Turner, in his sermon at the 
church in Plymouth in 1774, describes it as "the 
covenant. " The Rev. Chandler Robbins defines it as 
"a solemn contract" in his Anniversary Sermon in 
1793. 

The first historian or orator who found in it the 
meaning and importance which is sometimes given to 
it at the present time, when referred to in public 
addresses, was John Quincy Adams, in his oration at 
Plymouth in 1802. 

The most complete account of the cause and effect 
of the Compact, and the one which most fully and 
accurately defines the antecedent procedure of the 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 281 

Pilgrims in the matter of civil government, written by 
an historian of the 17th century, is by the Rev. 
William Hubbard in that manuscript history which 
secured for the author a grant from the General Court 
of fifty pounds in 1682, "as a manifestation of thank- 
fulness" for his work. 

He was born in 1621, graduated in the first Har- 
vard Class of 1642, and settled in the ministry at 
Ipswich in 1656 or 1657, and died in 1704. He is 
described as "a learned and ingenious author/' by the 
Rev. Thomas Prince. 

The Rev. John Eliot, in his " Ecclesiastical History 
of Massachusetts and the old Colony of Plymouth" 
pays to William Hubbard this high compliment: 
"He was the best writer in New England while he 
lived; learned, judicious and capable of giving a 
proper arrangement to his facts." (M. H. S. Coll. 
First Series, Vol. VII, page 263.) Hubbard writes: 

"That which our Savior once affirmed concerning a kingdom 
is as true of the smallest colony, or puny state, or least society 
of mankind, that if it be divided against itself it cannot stand ; 
and how can divisions be avoided where all sorts of people are 
to be at their liberty, whether in things civil or sacred, to do all 
that doth, and nothing but what doth, seem good in their own 
eyes. Our first founders of this new colony, were aware of this, 
before they removed themselves from the parts of Europe, 
whether England or Holland, to those of America, and, 
therefore, according to the prudent advice of Mr. Robinson, 
their Pastor, they had procured a Patent for themselves, or 
had a power granted from their Sovereign Prince, whereby 
they might form themselves into a body politic in the place 
specified in their Patent. But missing of the place, the things 
contained therein were utterly invalidated, and made useless 
thereby, which they wisely considered in the first place, as was 
said before, and therefore they all signed an instrument, 
concerning some way of order and government, which they, 
according as necessity required, intended to mould themselves 
into, upon the first opportunity which should offer itself, after 
they found a place of habitation fit to settle upon. By the 
aforesaid accident, things so fell out, that for the present they 
coujd not fall into any order of government, but by way of 
combination; with which they intended to content themselves 
till occasion might serve for the obtaining another Patent from 



282 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

the King, for that place where Providence now had cast their 
lot. For the present, therefore, they devolved the sole power 
of government upon Mr. John Carver, in whose prudence they 
so far confided, that he would not adventure upon any matter 
of moment without consent of the rest, or at least advice of 
such as were thought to be the wisest amongst them, and not 
to increase the number of rulers where the persons were so 
few to be ruled; knowing also that they could at their pleasure 
add more as there might be occasion, much better than to have 
eased themselves of the burden, if they should pitch upon too 
many at first. One Nehemiah is better than a whole 
Sanhedrim of mercenary Shemaiahs. 

"The Laws they intended to be governed by were the 
Laws of England, the which they were willing to be subject 
unto, though in a foreign land, and have since that time con- 
tinued in that mind for the general, adding only some partic- 
ular municipal laws of their own, suitable to their constitu- 
tion in such cases where the common laws and statutes of 
England could not well reach or afford them help in emergent 
difficulties of the place, possibly on the same ground that 
Pacuvius sometimes advised his neighbors of Capua, not to 
cashier their old magistrates till they could agree upon better 
to place in their room. So did these choose to abide by the 
Laws of England, till they could be provided of better." 

This statement of Hubbard's that their combination 
or compact was the instrument merely "with which 
they intended to content themselves till occasion might 
serve for the obtaining another Patent from the King, 
for that place where Providence now had cast their 
lot," is a clear statement by one of the foremost 
authorities of that century in which the Compact was 
written that the instrument was but a temporary 
expedient, based upon the scheme of a body politic 
found in their first patent and described by Robinson 
in his letter hereafter referred to, and entirely super- 
seded upon the arrival of the second patent, defining 
their powers and conferring an authority which they 
fully recognized as of superior weight. 

The text of the Compact varies slightly in punctua- 
tion and a few verbal changes not material to the 
enquiry, as printed in "Mourt's Relation," Bradford's 
"History of Plymouth Plantation," and Morton's 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 283 

" New England's Memoriall. " In " Mourt's Relation" 
it is printed as follows : 

"In the name of Cod, Amen. We, whose names are 
underwritten, the loyal Subjects of our dread soveraigne 
Lord King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britaine, 
France, and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith. &e. 

Having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement 
of the Christian Faith, and honour of our King and Countrey, 
a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northerne parts of 
Virginia, doe, by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the 
presence of God & one of another, covenant and combine 
ourselves together into a civill body politike, for our better 
ordering and preservation, and furtherance of the ends afore- 
said; and by vertue hereof, to enact, constitute, and frame such 
just and equall Lawes, Ordinances, acts, constitutions, offices, 
from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and con- 
venient for the generall good of the Colony: unto which, we 
promise all due submission and obedience. 

In witnesse whereof we have here-under subscribed our 
names, Cape Cod, 11 of November, in the yeare of the 
raigne of our soveraigne Lord King James, of England 
France and Ireland 18. and of Scotland 54. Anno Domino 
1620. " 

Its recitals follow the formal phrasing of the time 
and describe its signers as the loyal subjects of the 
King of England. It states the purpose of their 
undertaking to be for the glory of God and advance- 
ment of the Christian Faith and honor of our King 
and country, and to plant the first colony in the north- 
ern part of Virginia. Then follows the expression not 
unlike that found in the Church covenant, "We do by 
those presents solemnly and mutually in the presence 
of God and of one another covenant and combine our- 
selves together." 

The political agreement follows the phraseology of 
the religious agreement. It presents in form the 
Church covenant idea, and properly uses the term 
covenant. The material provisions of the Compact, 
which follow, are three in number: first, the organi- 
zation of a civil body politic for certain definite pur- 
poses (a) their better ordering, (b) their preservation, 
(c)the glory of God and the honor of King and country, 



284 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

and (d) the planting of a colony in the northern part of 
Virginia; secondly, to enact, constitute and frame just 
and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions and 
offices from time to time as shall be thought most meet 
and convenient for the general good of the colony; 
and thirdly, their promise to pay to these just and 
equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions and offices 
all due submission and obedience. 

It may be here noted that the promise was a 
cautious and a qualified one. There was no unlim- 
ited and unrestricted submission and obedience 
pledged to any law, ordinance, act or constitution 
which might be framed, or to any office which might 
hereafter be established, for it was distinctly provided 
that their submission and obedience was to just and 
equal laws, ordinances and constitutions. Was the 
individual Pilgrim or were a majority of the Pilgrims, 
or all of the Pilgrims, to determine whether the law, to 
which they pledged submission and obedience, was just 
and equal or not? Was the law to be enacted by all 
or a part of the Company? Was it necessary before 
the law became effective and compulsory that all 
should assent to it, or was the law enacted by a 
majority binding on the minority? Some ingenuity 
has been exercised by commentators upon the im- 
portance of the qualifying adjectives "just" and 
"equal," and high praise paid to the wisdom and fore- 
sight which thus defined the laws which they were to 
enact and promised to obey. But that qualification 
had but a brief life in the history of legislation, 
colonial, provincial, state and national. It lasted 
with the Pilgrims not later than the arrival of the 
Fortune in 1621. 

Over the entrance of your Court House, I note the 
fine line, "Obedience to Law is Liberty." If you had 
written in the words "just and equal laws, " in place of 
"Law," its meaning and effect would be materially 
changed. When the will of the majority is expressed 
in law today, the only relief from its provisions, 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 285 

which may seem to some unjust or unequal, is that 
the law as enacted is unconstitutional. If the law 
were not binding on anybody who thought it unjust 
and unequal, we should not proceed far with its 
strict enforcement. If we assume that the Pilgrim 
meant that all laws passed by the majority were of a 
necessity just and equal and binding upon a recalci- 
trant minority, then the phrase was unnecessary and 
unfortunate. If we assume that the recalcitrant 
minority were to determine whether the law was just 
and equal before it submitted to and obeyed it, then 
majority rule is an idle term and government by the 
majority hopeless and ineffective. There is no record 
of any law, constitution, act or ordinance framed and 
enacted under the provisions of the agreement, and 
while it is stated by Winslow and Bradford that some 
laws and orders were in fact enacted, it does not appear 
whether they were put in operation by the vote of all 
or only a majority of these signers. In view of the fact 
that only twenty of the forty-one signers survived the 
first year, it perhaps may be assumed that any law 
which was adopted expressed the will of all. There is 
nothing, however, in the phraseology of the Compact 
which declares the voice of the majority to be the voice 
of God, or that any individual is bound by any law 
/ which in his opinion is not just and equal. 

It is important to consider the provisions of the 
charters and patents material to our inquiry. 

The first charter from King James of date April 10, 
1606, made provision for the establishment of two 
colonies or plantations in Virginia and other parts and 
territories in America. 

. The first colony, viz., the Southern or London 
Company, was authorized to locate between 34° and 
41° north latitude. The second colony was authorized 
to locate between 38° and 45° north latitude. The 
territorial limits overlapped each other and provision 
was made that neither was to make a plantation within 
100 miles of the other. 



286 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

To the settlers and their children who are born 
within the limits of these colonies were granted all the 
liberties, franchises and immunities of Englishmen 
within the realm of England, and all lands were to be 
held " as of our manor of East Greenwich in the county 
of Kent in free and common socage only and not in 
capite, " thus abolishing primo-geniture and granting 
the broadest possible title. 

The second charter of May 23, 1609, gave to the 
London Company additional privileges and further 
enlarged their prior grant. 

The third charter of March 12, 1612, further 
enlarged the boundaries of the London Company's 
prior grants and gave it additional privileges. 

To the Virginia Company of London, the representa- 
tives of the Pilgrim Company made application for a 
patent which would authorize the location of a 
plantation in the new world. 

The patent was taken by the advice of friends in the 
name of John Wincob, or more accurately, Whincop 
or Wincop, "a religious gentleman then belonging to 
the Countess of Lincoline. " 

The patent could not have included the territory 
where Plymouth is situated, which is north of the 42° 
north latitude, but " where it (the patent) is or how 
it came to be lost is not known to any that belong to 
the said colony." — Hubbard, p. 95. 

In February, 1620, the Virginia Company passed 
the following order: 

"It was ordered also by general consent that such captains 
or leaders of particular plantations that shall go there to 
inhabit by virtue of their grants and plant themselves, their 
tenants and servants in Virginia, shall have liberty till a form 
of Government be here settled for them, associating unto 
them divers of the gravest and discreetest of their companies, 
to make orders, ordinances and constitutions for the better 
ordering and directing of their servants and business provided 
they be not repugnant to the Laws of England." Records 
Vol. 1. p. 303. 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 287 

Before the Pilgrims left Southampton a letter from 
John Robinson was received, which, as Bradford 
describes it, was " large 7 ' and " fruitful in itself and 
suitable to their occasion." In this letter Robinson 
refers to their "intended course of civill communitie," 
which, as he says, "will minister continual occasion of 
offence, " and then proceeds to state — "Wheras you 
are become a body politik, using amongst yourselves 
civill governments, " thus clearly anticipating the 
material purpose of the Compact, viz. the formation of 
a "civil body politic. " 

Robinson then refers to the fact that they "are not 
furnished with any persons of spetiall eminencie above 
the rest to be chosen by you into office of government. 
Let your wisdom and godlines appeare not only in 
chusing shuch persons as doe entirely love and will 
promote the commone good, but also yeelding unto 
them all due honour and obedience in their lawfull 
adminstrations. " And again to the same effect that 
they are "at least for the present to have them only 
for your ordinarie governours which you yourselves 
shall make choyse of for that worke. " 

We find here in Robinson's letter the recognition of a 
1 ' body politic, * • of a " civil government, ' \ of the election 
of officers by the members of the Company as an 
accomplished fact, and the direction to yield unto those 
elected into the offices of government "due honor and 
obedience in their lawful administrations. " Then 
when all things were "ready, and every bussiness dis- 
patched, the company was caled together and this 
letter read amongst them, which had good accepta- 
tion with all and after fruit with many/' writes 
Bradford. And they chose a Governor and assistants 
for each ship to "order the people by the way and see 
to the dispossing of their provissions and shuch like 
affairs." When they executed the Compact at Cape 
Cod, they chose, "or rather confirmed" Mr. John 
Carver their Governor for that year. 



288 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

It is not material to the inquiry to determine why 
Bradford made use of this expression, but the evidence 
seems to justify the conclusion that the body politic, 
the civil government, and the majority rule, which it is 
claimed the compact exemplifies and symbolizes for 
the first time, was fully determined and acted upon 
prior to the departure of the Mayflower from South- 
ampton water. 

On November 3-13, 1620, the charter for the Council 
for New England passed the seals on the Petition of 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges granting to the Duke of Lenox 
and his associates the territory from 40 to 48 degrees 
north latitude, with the same provision as to the tenure 
of land, and giving to the settlers "and their children, 
all the rights of natural born Englishmen. " The 
Mayflower was then on the ocean westward bound. 
They had formed their civil body politic and had 
elected officers by the most voices. 1 

The Pilgrim company having adopted a polity, its 
form defined in this letter from the Pilgrim pastor and 
authorized by the provisions of their Patent, now find 
themselves, upon landing in the New World, outside of 
the territorial limits of the patent. So long as they 
remained on the ship the problem which confronted 
them was not serious. The master of the ship had the 
right and authority to enforce discipline whenever 
necessary, for the security of the vessel and the safety 
of the passengers. When the passengers have been 
landed and the master's authority over them is 
terminated, some practical method must be promptly 
adopted to maintain law, order and discipline and 
restrain any unruly and dissatisfied person in the 
company. 

lu The body politic is formed by a voluntary association of 
individuals. It is a social compact by which the whole 
people covenants with each citizen and each citizen with the 
whole people that all shall be governed by certain laws for the 
common good." — (Preamble of the Constitution of Massachu- 
setts.) 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 289 

Now the obvious thing for a company of English- 
men, wisely led, to do under the then existing cir- 
cumstances, was to enter into an agreement which 
shall carry into effect the existing plan under the new 
conditions with which they are surrounded and to 
follow, as nearly as may be, the language of the instru- 
ment which they had received before they sailed and 
under which they had so far proceeded in their 
voyage to the New World, until a new patent could be 
secured. It was not only the practical, sensible and 
natural thing to do, but there was a clear direction in 
the Order of the Virginia Company, passed inFebruary 
1620, which authorized and justified the course 
adopted. Under that Order, before referred to, they 
had "liberty till a form of Government be here settled 
for them, of associatinge unto them divers of the 
gravest and discreetest of their companies to make 
orders and ordinances for the better orderinge and 
directing of their servants and business." 

Of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower, 41 signed 
the Compact; and of the entire number 29 were female 
and 73 male passengers. Prof. Arber in his Story of 
the Pilgrim Fathers gives the number of adult males at 
65. Later investigations lead to the conclusion that 
there were only 50 adult males. Of that number 7 
were probably servants, 2 were seamen, hired under 
contract for a single year. Under the Order of the 
Virginia company, above referred to, there was no 
occasion for the servants to sign, for the purpose of the 
association was the better ordering and directing of the 
servants. 

Upon the return of the Mayflower, which reached 
England in May 1621, a formal application through Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, was made in behalf of the Ply- 
mouth settlers to the Council for New England. In 
Gorges' Description of New England (M.H.S. Coll. 
Third Series, Vol. VI, p. 73), he clearly states the 
course of procedure. 



290' American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

" After they had well considered the state of their affairs, 
and found that the authority they had from the Company of 
Virginia could not warrant their abode in that place, which 
they found so prosperous and pleasing to them, they hastened 
away their ship, with order to their Solicitor to deal with me to 
be a means they might have a grant from the council of New 
England's affairs to settle in the place; which was accordingly 
performed to their particular satisfaction and good content 
of them all; which place was after called New Plymouth, 
where they have continued ever since very peaceable and in all 
plenty of all necessaries that nature needeth, if that could 
satisfy our vain affections. Where I will leave them for the 
present.' ' 

The application was granted and on June 1, 1621, 
the patent issued to John Peirce and his associates, 
bearing the signatures of the Duke of Lennox, the Earl 
of Warwick, the Marquis of Hamilton, Lord Sheffield 
and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and one other signature, 
now illegible. 

This patent, the oldest state paper in New England, 
is now preserved in Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth. 

The grant of land under this patent was one hundred 
acres for every person at any place in New England 
"not already inhabited by any English" at a yearly 
rental of two shillings for the term of seven years, and 
provided that at any time within seven years the 
Council would grant to Peirce and his " Associate 
Undertakers & Planters their heires and assignes" 
request, " Letters & Graunts of Incorporacon" 
with liberty "to make orders, Lawes, Ordynaunces 
and Constitucons for the rule, governement, ordering 
and dyrecting of all persons," etc. Then follows the 
important and material provision: 

"And in the meantyme untill graunt made it shall be lawfull 
for the said John Peirce his Associate Undertakers and 
Planters their heires and assignes by consent of the greater pt of 
them To establish such Lawes and ordynaunce as are for their 
better government and the same by such Officer or Officers as 
they shall by most voyces elect and chose to put in execucon. " 

On the 9th of November, 1621, the "Fortune," a 
vessel of 55 tons with some 35 passengers, of whom the 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 291 

adult males exceeded in number the survivors of the 
original signers of the Compact, arrived bringing the 
patent which gave them the full authority for their 
civil government. The patent was in terms more 
democratic than the Compact in that it more clearly 
defined the rule of the majority. The Compact had 
well served the temporary purpose and its further use- 
fulness, except as a symbol, ended. 

There is no record of any action under this Compact 
by the Pilgrim company, except the statement in 
Mourt's Relation that on Friday, the 23rd day of 
March, 1621, we " concluded both of Military Orders 
and of some Laws and Orders: as we thought behove- 
ful for our present estate and condition. And did 
likewise choose our Governor for this year, which was 
Master John Carver, a man well approved amongst 
us," and the statement of Bradford in his History of 
Plymouth Plantation that "they mette and con- 
sulted of lawes and orders, both for their civil and 
military Govermente as the necessitie of their condi- 
tion did require." 

No copy of these u Laws<and Orders" remains and 
there is no other evidence of their nature and purpose. 
The only references to the Compact found in the laws 
of the Colony of New Plymouth are in the recital of 
authority to make laws, declared at a meeting of the 
Governor and Assistants and members of the Commit- 
tee for the Towns of Plymouth, Duxbury and Scituate, 
held on the 15th of November , 1636, at Plymouth, in 
which the "combinacon made at Cape Cod the 11th 
of November, 1620" and the letters patent of 1629 
are referred to, and also in "A forme to be placed 
before the records of the several inheritances granted 
to all and every the King's subjects inhabiting with the 
government of New Plymouth." (Plymouth Colony 
Laws, p. 49.) 

In this they define their authority for their govern- 
ment and base the title to their lands subsequent to 
the arrival at Cape Cod on the civil combination 



292 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

formed at Cape Cod, Nov. 11, 1620, the treaty with 
Massasoit, who " freely gave them all the lands, 
adjacent to them, and their heirs forever/' the charter 
to John Peirce and his associates "whose name we only 
made use of and the charter to William Bradford and 
his associates, whose name we likewise used and whose 
associates as formerly we are. " 

A fair construction of these formal declarations at 
the meeting of November 15, 1636, seems to establish 
that the Compact was temporary in its nature and 
superseded by the charter to John Peirce and his 
associates, before referred to, the provisions of which 
were further enlarged by the charter to William Brad- 
ford and his associates of 1629. 

Of late years especially the philosophical historians 
and imaginative orators, as Dr. Young calls them, 
have described and defined this agreement as a 
constitution. A slight examination shows that the 
term "constitution" applied to this instrument is 
inaccurate and misleading. 

The draughtsman clearly distinguished between the 
agreement which the Pilgrims signed, and a constitu- 
tion, for the agreement in terms provides that later, or 
from time to time, they were to constitute and frame a 
constitution under and by virtue of their agreement. 
The agreement gave the authority to make a constitu- 
tion, but the signers never thought that they had made 
a constitution when they combined themselves into a 
civil body politic. Nor does the term constitution, as 
applied to this agreement, find any support in our 
American use of the word. 

"In American Constitutional law the word 'Constitution' 
is used in a restricted sense as implying the written instrument 
agreed on by the people of the Union, or any one of the states, 
as the absolute rule of action and decision for all departments 
and offices of the Government in respect to all the points 
covered by it which must control until it shall be changed by 
the authority which established it. " 

(Cooley, Constitutional Limitations," p. 3.) 



1920.] The Mayflower Compact 293 

Or better still, as Justice Miller defines it : 
"A Constitution, in the American sense of the word, is a 
written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the 
government are established, limited and defined, and by 
which these powers are distributed among several departments 
for their more safe and useful exercise for the benefit of the 
body politic," 

and, he added, 

"A search for a more satisfactory definition has been in 
vain, but this language perhaps fairly expresses the meaning 
of the term in this country." 

If we will use the exact and admirable definition of 
Blackstone, the distinction between a compact and a 
law, ordinance, act or constitution is easily recognized 
and appreciated. 

"A compact," writes Blackstone, "is a promise proceeding 
from us; a law is a command directed to us." 

The Mayflower Compact was a promise not a com- 
mand. Cotton Mather's analysis of the cause and 
effect of the Compact is well supported by the evidence. 

"Finding at their arrival that whatever powers they had 
were made useless by the undesigned place of their arrival, 
they did as the light of nature itself directed them, * * * * 
sign an Instrument as a Foundation of their future and need- 
ful Governmenet. " 

The statement in Neal's History of New England 
(Ed. 1720) Vol. 1, p. 81, is to the same effect. 

"But then there was an Inconvenience attending it, (their 
settling here) which was, That Cape Cod not being within the 
Limits of their Patent, the Powers they had received from the 
Crown of England would become void. But necessity has no 
Law, and therefore before they went ashore they entered into 
a solemn Combination to submit to such Laws as should by the 
Majority be approved of." 

The claim often made for the Compact by some 
writers and orators, that it is the basis of our Ameri- 
can Constitution, finds little support from any direct 
authority. So far as my examination goes, and I 
should be glad to be corrected by any gentleman 
present, it never was referred to by any statesman who 
took part in the constitutional conventions which 



294 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

framed either the state or federal constitution, nor 
was it ever cited in the deliberations and discussions 
which preceded the final adoption of either of those 
important instruments. The Pilgrim story has suffi- 
cient to justify the admiration, respect and reverence 
of succeeding generations without making exaggerated 
or unfounded claims, the effect of which tends to 
weaken the real meaning and influence of their lives 
and labors, of their teachings and their example. 
Among the many admirable qualities which 
characterized the great leaders of the Mayflower 
Company not the least important and effective was 
their sound common sense. Constrained by the imper- 
ious necessities of their present situation, they put into 
practical effect the civil policy already adopted under 
the only plan possible to make it immediately opera- 
tive until they could secure the requisite authority 
under a second patent to govern and direct the persons 
and affairs of the members of the Company in their 
new and undesigned home. 

"They did the work 

They had to do; 

They builded better 

Than they knew, 

So must the few whom fate 

Selects to found a state." 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's u American Engravers" 295 



AN ARTIST INDEX TO STAUFFER'S 
"AMERICAN ENGRAVERS" 

BY THOMAS HOVEY GAGE 



Introductory Note 

NO more impossible subject upon which to address 
this Society could be found then an " Index" 
unless it were the dictionary, or the encylopedia. If, 
as has been said, the last thing in a book to read is the 
preface, it may be that the first thing to examine is 
the index. Certainly no book of reference is worth 
anything without an index. 

Stauffer's and Fielding's works on American En- 
gravers bid fair to remain authoritative, and both are 
well indexed for engravers and partly indexed for 
subjects. But engravers^ are for the most part only 
copyists; they reproduce on copper, steel or stone the 
work of another. 

The late Frank Bulkeley Smith, whose pictures at 
one time hung on these walls, became very much 
interested in early American portraiture. It occured 
to him that much valuable information as to the 
identity of the painters of early portraits would be 
obtained from an examination of engraved copies, and 
he expressed a purpose to prepare such a list. After 
his death there were enquiries for it from gentlemen in 
New York and Boston and among his papers was 
found an Artist Index to Stauffer and Fielding which 
his sons and daughter presented to this Society as a 
contribution to the study of art in America. 

Stauffer and Fielding do not pretend to bring their 
list down later than to include men who were working 
before 1825. They therefore deal with the beginnings 



296 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

of art in America. Now the engraver copies; he 
seldom originates. When photography made copy- 
ing easy, his art languished. But when he flourished 
he reproduced the work of artists which appealed to the 
public taste and would sell. There were artists whose 
chief employment was to supply material for the 
engravers. In England during the eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries, portraits were painted for 
the express purpose of being engraved. Everyone 
knows the fine mezzotints issued by the Fabers, father 
and son. Thomas Hudson must have been kept 
fairly busy supplying their needs and some of the 
rarest and best impressions of their prints are now 
worth as much as the original portraits in oil. 

In this country personages were not so much res- 
pected. There are innumerable prints of a few 
persons of distinction and popularity like Washington 
and Franklin; but we find a brisk business in painting 
or drawing scenes and buildings. For example our 
index shows 90 engravings after Birch, father and son, 
most of them views. Their work was more admired 
by Dunlap and Tuckerman than it is by us, although 
some of Thomas Birch's marine views are still esteemed. 
It seems quite certain that they painted for the 
engraver. So we find 35 prints after John Paradise, 
many of them by his son, John W. Paradise. Dunlap 
tells us that the Methodists contributed to the elder's 
employment as a portrait painter and that most of the 
engravings in the Methodist Magazine are from 
paintings by him. 

Those who contend that contemporary judgment of 
art is usually wrong will notice that the index gives 
very few prints after Copley and only one after 
Malbone. But to offset this we find 104 reproductions 
of Gilbert Stuart and 42 of Thomas Sully. There 
are also 40 prints after Joseph Ward, 33 after Neagle, 
23 after Inman and 11 after Henry Williams, including 
one of Isaiah Thomas. 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 297 

The student will be glad to know that George 
Catlin, besides painting Indians, made portraits of 
De^Witt Clinton, Timothy Pickering and Tapping 
Reeve. There are also listed 15 portraits or miniatures 
by William M. S. Doyle or his daughter Margaret (one 
of Isaiah Thomas among them). One wonders why 
Doyle's portrait of Harriet Newell should have been 
engraved by three different engravers. The inscrip- 
tion on Ralph Rawdon's plate discloses that she died 
at Port Louis in the Isle of France, November 30, 1812, 
in the 20th year of her age, having accompanied her 
husband in the benevolent attempt to preach Christ 
to the heathen. The inference is irresistible that the 
reproductions were to embellish missionary tracts. 

The versatile Peale family is well represented in the 
index. There are engravings from the work of Charles 
Wilson, Rembrandt, Titian, Anna, James and Raphael. 
These brief references will show the sort of informa- 
tion to be found in this Artist Index. Of course, 
comparatively few portraits were ever engraved, but 
with this index and access to a good collection of 
American prints like the Goodspeed collection owned 
by the Worcester Art Museum, enough authenticated 
work of early artists can be identified to afford the 
student and collector some basis for attributions to be 
given early American paintings. 

This index also suggests a subject which has never 
yet received any attention. I refer to the itinerant 
portrait painters. They were interesting and pic- 
turesque personalities who have preserved for us the 
forms, features and dress of the people of their day. 
They were self-taught or received some meager 
instruction from one of the craft. Some of them, like 
Morse and Harding and Greenwood, settled down to 
careers of distinction; but most of them lived and 
worked in obscurity. In the small classes graduating 
at Dartmouth College in the year 1806 and 1807 there 
were three young men who became itinerant painters. 
One wonders what influence directed' them, for, so far 



298 American Antiquarian Society [Oct., 

as is known, there was absolutely nothing at the time 
in that outpost of education to stir the artistic 
imagination. 

A few years ago I talked with a very old lady, the 
daughter of one of these itinerant painters, and 
learned from her somewhat of her father's life. There 
were no supply houses then, and in the winter he pre- 
pared his own canvases, stretchers and panels and 
most important of all ground his own colors in oil and 
so prepared his paints. In the summer he set out, 
avoiding large places and cities and keeping to the 
countryside. He stopped with the farmers and in 
return for his keep, and such modest sums as they 
could pay, he painted the family. I have seen many 
examples of his work. Some of it is as hard and cold 
and stiff as the hospitality and pay were meager. 
Sometimes, however, he reflected, in the warmth of his 
color and ambitious attempt to vitalize the subject, 
the cheer and sociability of a happy home. So they 
wandered about, bringing the mysteries of the art into 
the family circle. Once in a while, either because they 
satisfied their own standards or because of the import- 
ance of the subject, or because the compensation and 
hospitality were generous, they signed and dated a 
portrait. But this was rare. For the most part they 
left it to speak for itself. 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 299 



STAUFFER'S LIST 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Agate 


Jones, George 


Durand 


603 


Albano 


St, Francis 


Boyd 


261 


Albright 


Washington's Headquarters 


Steel 


3036 


Allbton 


The Valentine 


Longaore 


2145 


Ames, E. 


Allen, Solomon 


Tanner-Jones 


1507, 3081 




Clinton, George 


Maverick 


2195 




Hamilton, Alexander 


Leney 


1768 




Hamilton, Alexander 


Hoogland 


1423 




Nott, Eliphalet 


Durand 


625 


Anderson 


Newark Presbyterian Church 
New York City 


Tiebout 


3219 




Columbia College 


Tiebout 


3205 




Trinity Church 


Tiebout 


3232 




Sandy Hook Lighthouse 


Tiebout 


3227 




Sandy Hook Monument 


Tiebout 


3228 


Andrews 


Yellow Springs, Pa. 


Murray 


2297 


Arlatjd 


Bruen, M. 


Longacre 


1945 


Atkenson 


The Retreat, Pa. 


Kennedy 


1638 


Badger, J. W. 


Emmons, Nathaniel 


Pelton 


2486 




Page, Harlan 


Prud'homme 


2597 


Bailie 


McNiece 


Leney 


1805 


Baquoy 


Molay, Jacques de 


Tanner 


3098 


Barber, J. W. 


Hartford, Conn. 


Willard 


3396 




New Haven, Conn. 


Willard 


3399 


Barber, T. 


White, Henry Kirke 


Annin 


83,84 




White, Henry Kirke 


Boyd 


267 


Barker, J. 


Smith, Elizabeth 


Leney 


1855 


Barnett 


St. Helena, Island of 


Strickland 


3062 


Barr 


Hell-Gate, N. Y. 


Tiebout 


3210 


Barralet, John J. 


America, Frontispiece 


Edwin 


925 




America Guided by Wisdom 


Tanner & Co. 


3115 




* Baptism of Christ 


Tiebout 


3237 




Francisco, Peter 


Edwin 


921 




"Fulton First", Launch of 


Tanner 


3131 




Macpherson Blues 


Lawson 


1693 




Master of Ships 


Edwin 


938 




Society of, Penn, William 


Lawson 


1683 




Perry's Victory 


Tanner 


3138 




Philadelphia, Pa. 








Academy of Fine Arts 


Tanner 


3137 




Water Works, Centre Square Tiebout 


3234 




Schuylkill Bridge 


Lawson 


1695-96 




Trenton Bridge 


Murray 


2294 




Washington, George 


Houston 


1464 




Washington, George 


Lawson 


1688-89 


Bartlett, J. J. 


Partridge, Alden 


Willard 


3386 


Bartoli, F. 


Washington, George 


Edwin 


905 




Washington, George 


Galland 


1024 


Bartram 


Mico-Chlucco 


Tren chard 


3275 



300 



American Antiquarian Society 



Ar|jst 
Bayley 



Bbbchby 

Bell 

Bennett, 



Bevan 

BlGQ 

Billing 
Birch, T. 



W.J. 



Wm. 
T. 



Wm. 
T. 



Wm. 



T. 
Wm. 



T. 

Wm. 
T. 



T. 

W. 

T. 
T. 
T. 
W. 



Subject 


Engraver 


New York City 




Grace Church 


Prud'hornme 


St. Stephen's Church 


Prud'hornme 


Trinity Church 


Prud'hornme 


George III — England 


Longacre 


Anatomy 


Edwin 


"Archipelago" U. S. Sloop 


Bennett 


Falls of the Sawkill 


Durand 


Niagara Falls, N. Y., 


Hill 


Weehawken, N. J. 


Durand 


Penn, William 


Edwin 


Cottage Scene 


Tiebout 


McLean Asylum, Mass. 


Smith, G. G. 


"Albion," Loss of the 


Tiebout 


Andalusia, Pa. 


Steel 


Bethlehem, Pa. 


Strickland 


Breck, Samuel, Residence 


Steel 


China Retreat, Pa. 


Birch 


"Constitution" and 




"Guerriere" 


Tiebout 


Decatur, Stephen 


Edwin 


Delaware River 


Tucker 


Delaware Water Gap 


Strickland 


Devon, Pa. 


Birch 


Echo, Pa. 


Birch 


Elysian Bower, Pa. 


Birch 


Fountain Green, Pa. 


Birch 


Hampton, Md. 


Birch 


Hermitage, The 


Steel 


Hoboken, N. J. 


Birch 


Landsdown, Pa. 


Birch 


Market St. Bridge, Pa. 


Seymour 


Mendenhall Ferry, Pa. 


Birch 


Montibello, Md. 


Birch 


Mount Sidney, Pa. 


Birch 


Mount Vernon, Va. 


Birch 


Mount Vernon, Va. 


Seymour 


Mount Vernon, Va. 


Tucker 


New York City 


Seymour 


View of Battery 


Tucker 


View from Niagara Falls, N. Y. Steel 


Pass of La Cabrera 


Kearny 


Passaic Falls, N. J. 


Tucker 


"Peacock" and "L'Epervier* 


' Strickland 


Perry's Victory 


Lawson 


Philadelphia 




View of 


Birch 


View of 


Cone 


View of 


Seymour 


View of 


Tucker 


Almshouse, Spruce St. 


Birch 


Arch St. Ferry 


Birch 


Bank of Pennsylvania 


Birch 


Bank of Philadelphia 


Birch 


Bank of United States 


Birch 


Chestnut St. Theatre 


Fox 


Christ Church 


Birch 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 301 



Artist 
Birch, W. 
T. 



W. 



X 

w. 

T. 



Subject 

Congress Hall, etc. 

Fairmount Water Works 

Fairmount Water Works 

Fairmount Water Works 

High St., View on 

High St. Markets 

High St. Markets 

Jail, Walnut St. 

Library and Surgeon's Hall 

Lutheran Church, Old 

Lutheran Church, New 

Market St. Bridge 

New Market, Second St. 

New Theatre 

Pennsylvania Hospital 

Presbyterian Church, 1st 

Presbyterian Churcn, 2nd 

Robert Morris House 

State House 

State House, Back View 

State House Garden 

Swedes' Church 

Third and Market Sta. 

Third and Spruce Sta. 

Washington's Funeral 

Waterworks, Centre Square Birch 
Philadelphia Views 
Sacketts Harbor, N. H. 
Sacketts Harbor, N, H. 
Schuylkill Bridge 
Sedgley, Pa. 
Solitude, Pa. ^ 

" United States" and 

" Macedonian" 
" United States " and 

"Macedonian" 



Engraver 


Number 


Birch 


171 


Campbell 


302 


Tanner 


3124 


Tiller 


3248 


Birch 


184 


Birch 


174-79 


Birch 


155 


Birch 


172 


Brich 


159, 176 


Birch 


166 


Birch 


167 


Seymour 


2885 


Birch 


177 


Birch 


171 


Birch 


159, 179 


Birch 


168 


Birch 


169 


Birch 


173 


Birch 


181 


Birch 


182 


Birch 


183 


Birch 


169, 179 


Birch 


186 


Birch 


185 


Birch 


187 


Birch 


188 


Barker 


117 


Plocher 


2548 


Strickland 


3063 


Seymour 


2885 


Birch 


205 


Birch 


206 


Seymour 


2879 



Tanner 



3143 





Upper Ferry Bridge, Pa. 


Plocher 


2549 




Washington, George 


Lawapn 


1690 


w. 


Washington, Capitol 


Birch 


190 


T. 


" Wasp " and " Frolic " Battle 


Seymour 


2880 




Water Gap, Pa. 


Strickland 


3066 




Woodlands, Pa. 


Birch 


277 


T. 


Woodlands, Pa. 


Tucker 


3320 


w. 


York Island 


Birch 


208 


Blackburn 


Otis, James 


Durand 


629 




Otis, James 


Smith, J. R. 


2925 


Blanchard 


Cooper, J. Fennimore 


Dodaou 


487 


Blodqet 


Lake George, Battle of 


Johnston 


1501 


Blyth 


Washington, Martha 


Norman 


2356 




Washington, George 


Norman 


2351 


Blythb 


Adams, Abigail 


Pelton 


2477 


Boom 


Chase, Philander 


Prud'homme 


2561 




Gillies, John 


Chapin 


305 


BONNETHEAU 


Greene, Nathanael 


Longacre 


1993 




Pinckney, Charles C. 


Durand 


635 


Bowman 


Eastburn, Joseph 


Frederick 


1917 


BOXALL 


Wordsworth, William 


Longacre 


2131 



302 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Brackenridqb 


Dickinson College, Pa. 


Tanner 


BrANWHTTB 


• Jay, William 


Durand 




Ryland, John 


Hoogland 


Brbnton 


Perry, 0. H., Memorial 


Willard 


Brewster 


Allen, Benjamin 


Edwin 


Bridges 


New York City, Plan of 


Maverick 


Bridport 


Bordentown, N.J. 


Steel 




Tilghman, William 


Bridport 




Versailles Insurrection 


Nesmith 




York, Attack on 


Nesmith 


Brougham 


Warren, Joseph 


Kelly 


Brown, W. H. 


Bruce, Archibald 


Hoogland 




Johnson, Samuel 


Maverick 


Geo. L. 


Crown of New England 


Smith, G.G. 


Buck 


Jerningham, Edward 


Leney 


Bolfinch, C. 


Hollis St. Church 


Vallance 




Washington, Capitol 


Child 




Washington, Capitol 


Stone 


Burnet 


Playing Draughts 


Otis 


Burney 


Ovid 


Scoles 


Burton 


New York City 






Bay of New York 


Smith, W. D. 




Park Row 


Smith, W. D. 




Wall Street 


Hoogland 


Busby 


New York City 






Almshouse 


Hooker 


Byrd, H. 


Horton, James 


Smith, W. D. 


Calton 


Caslon, Mrs. E. 


Leney 


Carleton 


Maine, Map of 


Norman 


Carman 


Riley, James 


Gimbrede 


Carter 


Freemasons' Charity School 


Leney 


Catlin, Geo. 


Clinton, De Witt 


Longacre 




Pickering, Timothy 


Longacre 




Reeve, Tapping 


Maverick 




Washington, President's House Frederick 




West Point Academy 


Hill 


Cerrachi 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Durand 




Hamilton, Alexander 


Leney 




Washington, George 


Prud'homme 


Chadwick 


Cambridge, Colleges at 


Revere 


Chamberlin 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Haines 


Chamberlaynb 


Strahan, William 


Leney 


Chandos 


Shakespeare, William 


Field 




Shakespeare, William 


Kelly 


Chantry 


Montgomery, James 


Jones 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Kelly 




Wordsworth, William 


Pelton 


Chapman, John G. 


Landing at Jamestown 


Danforth 




Montpelier, Va. 


Prud'homme 


Choquet 


Bichat, M. F. X. 


Annin & Smith 


Chorley 


Peak, John 


Annin & Smith 


Clay, E. W. 


Governor's Guard 


Childs 




Sedgley Park, Pa. 


ChildB 




Stag and Hound 


Longacre 


Claxton 


"Wrbp" and "Frolic" 
Battle 


Kearny 


Cochin 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Tanner 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 303 



Artist 
Coffee 
Cole, T. 



Coles 
comerford 
conarroe 
Cooke, Geo. 



Cooper, Samuel 
Copley, J. S. 



Corbould 

CORNE, M. 



CORREGGIO 

COSSE 



COSWAY 



COUPIN 
CoYPEL 

Cbaiq, W. M. 



Cranch 
Crawley 
Croome 
Cruikshank 

cumminqs 



Dacieb 
Dana 
Darley, J. C. 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Clinton, De Witt 


Durand 


509 


Fort Ticonderoga 


Kearny 


1574 


Lake George 


Chapin 


311 


Winnipiseogee Lake 


Durand 


678 


Strong, Caleb 


Edwin 


882 


Tighe, Mrs. 


Boyd 


265 


Ware, Thomas 


Longacre 


2101 


Gaston, William 


Durand 


589 


Moring, Christopher S. 


Danforth 


449 


Richmond, Va. 


Bennett 


143 


Washington, D. C. 


Bennett 


149 


West Point, N.Y. 


Bennett 


151 


Milton, John 


Hoogland 


1427 


Adams, John 


Srnither 


2971 


Adams, Samuel 


Goodman & Piggot 


1126 


Adams, Samuel 


Longacre 


1923 


Hancock, John 


Longacre 


1994 -96 


Hancock, John 


Pelton 


2495 


Paca, William 


Maverick 


2225 


Welsteed, William 


Copley 


440 


Junius 


Anderson 


55 


Junius 


Pekenino 


2448 


Bainbridge's Return 


Leney 


1881 


" Chesapeake " and 


Wightman 


3360 


"Shannon" 






Macdonough's Victory 


Hoogland 


1437 


Perry's Victory 


Annin 


87-88 


Jesus Christ 


Paradise 


2416 


Scott, Thomas 


Danforth 


453 


Scott, Thomas 


Longacre 


2088 


Scott, Thomas 


Main 


2162 


Errington, John * 


Leney 


1750 


Erskine, Thomas 


Maverick 


2202 


Infancy of Scottish Music 


Edwin 


939 


Contemplation 


Longacre 


2157 


Rollin, Charles 


Scoles 


2805 


Rollin, Charles 


Smith, W. D. 


2963 


Calcutta 


Campbell 


300 


Edinburgh 


Campbell 


301 


Jerusalem 


Kelly 


1634 


Jerusalem 


Main 


2164 


Memphis, Egypt 


Kelly 


1G33 


Naples, Italy 


Campbell 


303 


Paris, France 


Neagle 


2316 


Dawes, Rufus 


Prud'homrne 


2567 


Thresher, G. 


Leney 


1862 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Tucker 


3307 


Wilberforce, William 


Murray 


2287 


Wilberforce, William 


Tanner 


3109 


Furman, Garrit 


Durand 


587 


New York City 






Castle Garden 


Steel 


3023 


Calvin, John 


Kneass 


1647 


Dartmouth College 


Bowen 


226 


Darley, Ellen Westray 


Steel 


3004 


Wells, Joshua 


Paradise 


2414 



304 



American Antiquarian Society 



, ' 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


David 


Napoleon Bonaparte 


Hooker 




Napoleon Bonaparte 


Houston 




Napoleon Bonaparte 


Pekenino 


Davis, A. J. 


New York City 






Exchange, The 


Yeager 




Jews' Synagogue 


Smith, W. D. 




Masonic Hall 


Smith, W. D. 




Merchants' Exchange 


Smith, W. D. 




Rotunda, The 


Smith, W. D. 




St. John Chapel 


Smith, W. D. 




South Street 


Yeager 




Unitarian Church, 


Smith, W. D. 




U. S. Branch Bank 


Smith, W. D. 


Davis, W. 


O'Neill, Miss 


Longacre 


Da Vinci 


Last Supper, The 


Kearny 


De Berniere 


Bunker Hill, Battle 


Smith, G. G. 


De -La Tour 


Voltaire, F. M. A. 


Gimbrede 


De Hose 


Crocket, David 


Durand 


De Wilde 


Angelo, Mr. 


Leney 




Barclay, Miss 


Leney 




Barrymore, Earl of 


Leney 




Blanchard, Mrs. 


Leney 




Bland, Mrs. 


Leney 




Caulfield, Mr. 


Leney 




Collins, Mr. 


Leney 




Cooke, George Frederick 


Anderson 




Esten, Mrs. 


Leney 




Goodall, Mrs. 


Leney 




Hull, Mr 


Leney 




Kelly, Mrs. 


Leney 




Kemble, Mrs. S. 


Leney 




Lewes, Lee 


Leney 




Martyr, Mrs. 


Leney 




Merry, Mrs. 


Leney 




Miller, Miss 


Leney 




Powell, Mrs. 


Leney 




Siddons, Sarah Kemble 


Leney 




Wallis, Miss 


Leney 




Wells, Mrs. 


Leney 




Wilson, Mr. 


Leney 




Withero, Capt. 


Leney 




Wroughton, Mr. 


Leney 


Demino 


Cowen, E. 


Smith, W. D. 


Derby 


Bunyan, John 


Smith, W. D. 




Clarke, Adam 


Paradise 




Clarke, Adam 


Smith, W. D. 


Devis 


Jones, Sir William 


Haines 


Dickinson, A. 


Cheverus, John 


Hoogland 




Cutler, B. C. 


Prud'homme 




Salaberry, C. M. d'l. 


Durand 




Van Rensselaer, Stephen 


Durand 




Washington, George 


Steel 


Dickson 


Charlotte Elizabeth 


Smith, W. D 


Diqhton 


Business Card, Ashton's 


Sparrow 




Horsley, Samuel 


Leney 


Dodqe 


Canton Factories 


Scoles 




Jackson, Andrew 


Danforth 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 305 



Artist 
Doughty, 



F. 
Thos. 



Douglas 
Douglass 
Downman 
Doyle, 

Miss M. 



W. 

Miss M. 
Drayton 

Drummond 
Duche 

DaNCANNON 

Dunham 

Dunlap, Wm. 



DURAND, A. B. 



Subject 


Engraver 


Numb r 


Athens 


Lang 


1670 


Baltimore, Md. 


Steel 


3026 


Flat Rock Dam, Pa. 


Steel 


3038 


Gilpin's Mills, Pa. 


Steel 


3038 


Harper's Ferry, Va. 


Steel 


3028 


Harper's Ferry, Va. 


Tucker 


3321 


Highlands on Hudson 


Tucker 


3320 


Juniata River 


Ellis 


978 


Montmorenci Falls 


Childs 


363 


Philadelphia, Pa. 






Fairmount Water Works 


Cone 


428 


Fairmount Water Works 


Hill 


1333 


Fairmount Water Works 


Tucker 


3319 


Water Works, Chestnut St 


. Childs 


382 


President's House, Wash. 


Steel 


3038 


Washington, Capitol 


Steel 


3038 


Fort Erie, Siege of 


Vallance 


3342 


Kollock, Henry 


Longacre 


2031-32 


Rosalind and Orlando 


Leney 


1906 


Baldwin, Thomas 


Gobrecht 


1108 


Baldwin, Thomas 


Hoogland 


1415 


Darley, Ellen Westray 


Edwin 


745 


Eaton, William 


Snyder 


2990 


Fennell, James 


Snyder 


2991 


Knowles, James D 


Chorley 


387 


Newell, Harriet 


Annin 


78 


Newell, Harriet 


Edwin 


838 


Newell, Harriet 


Rawdon 


2636 


Porter, Jacob 


Gimbrede 


1081 


Stillman, Samuel 


Annin & Smith 


102 


Stillman, Samuel 


Leney 


1858 


Strong, Caleb ,. 


Smith, J. R. 


2931 


Thomas, Isaiah 


Jones 


1526 


Winchell, James M. 


Annin & Smith 


104 


New York City 






Battery, The 


Hill 


1387 


Preston, William 


Leney 


1839 


Seabury, Samuel 


Gimbrede 


1089 


Portsmouth, England 


Birch 


156 


Dartmouth College 


Hill 


1401 


Braithwaite, Anna 


Durand 


560 


Cooke, George Frederick 


Leney 


1735 


Darley, Ellen Westray 


Leney 


1742 


Hallam, Mrs. Lewis 


Tiebout 


3173 


Hodgkinson, John 


Tiebout 


3175 


Hodgkinson, Mrs. John 


Tiebout 


3178 


McFarland, Francis F. 


Leney 


1803 


Melmoth, Mrs. 


Tiebout 


3187 


Moore, Richard Channing 


Maverick 


2220 


Wignell, Anna Brunton 


Edwin 


913 


Adams, John Quincy 


Paradise 


2385 


American Landscape 


Smillie 


672 


Catskill Mountains 


Durand 


673 


Cooke, Monument of 


Durand 


671 


Delaware Wuter Gap 


Durand 


674 


Musidora 


Durand 


683 


Ogden, Aaron 


Durand 


626 



306 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 

DUBAND, A. B. 
Du SlMITIERE 

Duval 

Earl, R. E. W. 

or 
Earle 



Eckstein, John 



Edes 

Edgeworth 
Edwards 

Edwin 

Eicholtz 

Elouis 

Elwell 

Emmons 
Evers 

Fairman, Q. 



Fanning 
Fellowes 
Fermin 
Field, Robt. 



Fisher 



Folwell 
Forrest 

Fountain 
Fouquel 
Franks 
Frasbr, Chas. 

or 
Frazer 

or 
Frazieb 



Subject 


Engraver 


Paulding, William 


Durand 


Pekenino, Michele 


Durand 


Arnold, Benedict 


Smith, G. G. 


Claiborne, William C. C. 


Longacre 


Jackson, Andrew 


Longacre 


Jackson, Andrew 


Prud'homme 


Lexington-Concord Battle 


Doolittle 


Rutledge, Edward 


Longacre 


Sherman, Roger 


Jocelyn 


Sherman, Roger 


Pelton 


Schmidt, John F. 


Eckstein 


Staughton, William 


Eckstein 


Washington, George 


Eckstein 


Lighthouse 


Hill 


Eden Vale, Mass. 


Hill 


Edgeworth, Maria, Residence 


i Childs 


Bolles, Lucius 


Pelton 


Huntington, S. 


Hoogland 


Penn, William 


Longacre 


Wirt, William 


Maverick 


Harlan, R. 


Pekenino 


Wayne, Anthony 


Graham 


Hyde, Alvan 


Pelton 


Sewall, Samuel 


Pelton 


New York City 




Rutgers' Medical College 


Durand 


Dennie Memorial 


Fairman 


Ellison, Thomas 


Fairman 


Ewing, J. S. 


Childs 


Hicks, Elias 


Childs 


Jay, John 


Hooker 


Washington, George 


Kearny 


Washington Grays 


Childs 


Bainbridge's Squadron 


Smith, G. G. 


Abelard and Heloise, Tomb 


Hill 


Budgell, Eustace 


Leney 


Carroll, Charles, of C. 


Longacre 


Cliffton, William 


Edwin 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Fairman 


Harwood, John Edmund 


Edwin 


Sherbrooke, John Cope 


Field 


Connecticut River 


Ellis 


Harvard College 


Annin & Smith 


Harvard College 


Bowen 


Harvard College 


Torrey 


Manheim Family, The 


Maverick 


New York City 




Christ Church 


Prud'homme 


Bunyan, John 


Longacre 


Mara, Madame 


Leney 


Stanford, John 


Tiebout 


Boston, Mass., View of 


Childs 


Dalcho, Frederick 


Durand 


Haddril's Point, S. C. 


Hill 


Horry, Elias 


Longacro 


Horry, Mary Shubrick 


Longacre 


Horry, Thomas 


Steel 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 307 



/ 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 




Hudson River 


Hill 


1341 




James River, Va. 


Childs 


366 




Passaic Falls, N. J. 


Childs 


370 




Richmond, Va. 


Hill 


1352 




West Rock, Conn. 


Childs 


381 


Freebairn 


Haverstock Hill 


Childs 


365 


Freeman 


Woodworth, Samuel 


Gimbrede 


1104 


Frey 


Cruden, Alexander 


Tucker 


3303 


Frothinoham 


Brooks, John 


Chorley 


384 




Webster, Daniel 


Hoogland 


1434 


FuLLERTON 


Washington, George 


Smith, G. G. 


2907 


Fulton, Robt. 


Barlow, Joel 


Durand 


555 


Fuseli 


Falstaff 


Leney 


1908 




Nightmare, The 


Boyd 


273 


Gains 


Honeyman, James 


Okey 


2372 


Gardneb 


Masonicus 


Leney 


1814 


Garvey 


Plymouth Dock, Eng. 


Birch 


155 


Gibson 


Nisbet, C, Monument of 


Boyd 


272 


GlMBREDE, T. 


Adams, John Quincy 


Gimbrede 


1032 




Gallatin, Albert 


Jones 


1513 




Madison, James 


Jones 


1521 




Scott, Winfield 


Gimbrede 


1090 


GlOSAFATTI 


Milan, Italy 


Horton 


1451 


GODEFROY 


Baltimore, Battle Monument Tanner 


3118 




Baltimore Court House 


Cone 


427 




Baltimore Independent Church Tanner & Co. 


3129 


Goodrich, Miss Sarah 


Ballou, Hosea 


Bowen 


210 




Grafton, Joseph 


Annin & Smith 


93 




Stuart, Charles Gilbert 


Durand 


653 


Graham, J. 


Crouch, Mrs. 


Leney 


1738 




Gough, Miss 


Leney 


1764 




Hannum, William" 


Leney 


1771 




Holman, Mr. 


Leney 


1781 




Hull, Mr. 


Leney 


1787 




Mary, Queen of Scots 


Longacre 


2049 




Othello and Desdemona 


Leney 


1910-11 


Grassi 


Kosciuszko, Thaddeus 


Houston 


1461 


Gray 


Salem Court House 


Hill 


1413 


Greenwood, 


Prince, Thomas 


Pelham 


2472 


Groombridge 


Hodgkinson, John 


Leney 


1780 


GUERARD 


Maria Louisa, France 


Edwin- 


821 


GlJERIN 


Marcus Sextus 


Hooker 


1443 


Guido 


Jesus Christ 


Pekenino 


2458 


Hailes 


Pepys, Elizabeth 


Steel 


3013 


Haines, W. 


Barton, Benjamin Smith 


Haines 


1190 




Moore, Thomas 


Haines 


1206 




Rush, Benjamin 


Haines 


1212 




Rush, Benjamin 


Jones 


1524 




Wistar, Caspar 


Haines 


1221 




Wistar, Caspar 


Jones 


1528 


Halloway 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Allardice 


41 


Hamilton, W. 


Adam and Eve 


Newcomb 


2326 




Siddons, Sarah Kemble 


Leney 


1852 


Harding, Cheater 


Boone, Daniel 


Longacre 


1941 




Carroll, Charles, of C. 


Durand 


566 




Carroll, Charles, of C. 


Longacre 


1953 




Channing, Win. Ellery 


Hoogland 


1417-18 



308 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Harding, Chester 


Howard, John Eager 


Prud'homme 


2580 




Washington, Bushrod 


Longacre 


2103 


Harrison 


Dallas, George Miiflin 


Harrison 


1279 


Haviland 


Philadelphia 








Eastern Penitentiary, 


Childs 


360 




Presbyterian Church 


Boyd 


271 


Heins 


Cowper, Mrs. 


Maverick 


2199 


Herring 


Francis, John W. 


Prud'homme 


2573 




Hibbard, B. 


Danforth 


443 


» 


Lewis, Morgan 


Durand 


609 




Lewis, Morgan 


Paradise 


2403 


Hervieu 


Spencer, Mrs. E. 


Longacre 


2093 




Spencer, H. E. 


Longacre 


2094 


Hewinb 


Hawes, Joel 


Pelton 


2498 


HlCKEL 


Lambton, William H. 


Leney 


1799 


Hill, S. 


Boston, Mass., View of 


Hill 


1390 




Hancock House 


Hill 


1406 


P. 


Maffitt, John N. 


Kelly 


1614 


I. W. 


Philadelphia, View of 


Hill 


1350-51 


Hoffman, Jacob 


Broadhead's Creek, Pa. 


Scoles 


2827 




Bush Hill, Pa. 


Tiebout 


3203 




Green Hill, Pa. 


Hill 


1405 




Minisink, Pa. 


Scoles 


2834 




Pahaqualing, N. J. 


Clarke 


414 




Pahaqualing, N. J. 


Scoles 


2842 




Pennsylvania Hospital 


Hill 


1411 




Philadelphia, View of 


Scoles 


2844 




Schuylkill Falls, Pa. 


Tiebout 


3229 


Hogarth 


Fielding, Henry 


Leney 


1754 


Hoit 


Harrison, William H. 


Pelton 


. 2496 


Holbein, H. 


Bacon, Sir Francis 


Haines 


1189 




Boleyn, Anne 


Cook 


430 




Luther, Martin 


Eckstein 


684 




Luther, Martin 


Eckstein 


684 


Hooker 


Albany Dutch Church 


Snyder 


2996 




Albany Lancaster School 


Willard-Rawdon 


3397 




New York City, Plan of 


Hooker 


1448 


Hoppin 


Wharton, Capt., Escape of 


Prud'homme 


2621 


Hoppneb 


Nelson, Horatio 


Prud'homme 


2595 


HOPBON 


Curran, John Philpot 


Houston 


1458 


HOQUIER 


. Brown, Tipping 


Leney 


1720 


Horner 


New York City, Broadway 


Hill 


1325 


Hoodon 


Washington, George 


Durand 


660 




Washington, George 


Hamlin 


1237 




Washington, George 


Leney 


1666 


Houston 


Adams, John 


Houston 


1454-55 


Howell 


Baron, George 


Anderson 


67 


Howell-Lewis 


Pennsylvania, Map 


Scoles 


2841 


Htjbard 


Clay, Henry 


Longacre 


1959 


Huntington 


Church of God 


Hill 


1356 


Hurlbtone 


Huntington, S. 


Pelton 


2502 


Inderwick 


Mitchell's Lighthouse 


Leney 


1889 


Ingham, Chas. 


Clinton, De Witt 


Durand 


671 




Clinton, De Witt 


Prud'homme 


2563 




Cooper, Thomas 


Durand 


673 




Fuller, William 


Durand 


586 




Lafayette, Marquis de 


Danforth 


447 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's " American Engravers 11 309 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Ingham, Chas. 


Sedgwick, Catherine M. 


Durand 


648 




Stewart, Mrs. 


Paradise 


2409 


Inman, Henry 


Clarke, McDonald 


Maverick 


2194 




Clinton, De Witt 


Durand 


570 




Dismal Swamp, Va. 


Maverick 


2239 




Fisher, Clara 


Bennett 


122 




Gilpin, Henry D. 


Dodson 


490 




Griswold, Alexander V. 


Dodson 


491 




Hackett, James H. 


Durand 


591 




Hicks, Elias 


Maverick 


2205 




Macready, William C. 


Durand 


612 




Marshall, John 


Durand 


615 




Moore, Richard Channing 


Dodson 


496 




Mott, Valentine 


Durand 


623 




Mount Joliet 


Maverick 


2247 




Nevins, William 


Paradise 


2407 




Physick, Philip Syng 


Dodson 


498 




Phyaick, Philip Syng 


Durand 


634 




Rock Fort 


Maverick 


2254 




Rutgers, Henry 


Wright 


3413 




Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 


Maverick 


2255 




Stanford, John 


Main 


2163 




Swain, William 


Durand 


655 




Van Buren, Martin 


Chapin 


306 




White, Rev. William 


Dodson 


505 


I&ABEY 


Napoleon, Francois 
Charles Jos. 


Gimbrede 


1072 


Jacobs 


Humboldt, Alex, von 


Prud'homme 


2581 


Jackson, J. 


Bennett, George 


Pelton 


2479 




Clarke, Adam 


Longacre 


1958 




Emory, John 


Longacre 


1970 




McJilton, Daniel 


Piggot 


2542 




Macready, William C. 


Longacre 


2045 




Wesley, John 


Longacre 


2116-19 




Wesley, John 


Munson 


2282 


Jageman 


Luther, Martin 


Longacre 


2040 


James 


Plessis, Joseph Octave 


Durand 


638 




Sutton, Amos 


Pelton 


2523 


Janinet 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Murray 


2285 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Pekenino 


2441-42 


Jansen 


Lesley, Alexander 


Tiebout 


3183 


Jarvis, J. 


Bainbridge, William 


Durand 


553 




Bainbridge, William 


Maverick 


2183 




Baker, Rachel 


Gimbrede 


1035 




Blackburn, Gideon 


Maverick 


2184 




Brown, Jacob 


Durand 


562 




Brown, Jacob 


Maverick 


2187 




Chase, Samuel 


Longacre 


1956 




Crawford, William H. 


Durand 


576 




Decatur, Stephen 


Pekenino 


2438 




Gaines, Edmund P. 


Longacre 


1983 




Graham, Isabella 


Leney 


1765 




Graham, Isabella 


Leney-Valetine 


3337 




Graham, Isabella 


Rollinson 


2708 




Hanson, Alex. Contee 


Edwin 


774 




Jackson, Andrew 


Phillips 


2540 




McKendree, William 


Gimbrede 


1062 



310 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Artist 
Jarvis, J. 



Jennys 
Jocelyn, N. 



Johnson, E. F. 



Johnson-Doyle 
Johnston, D. C. 



Jones 
Jouett, M. H. 

JOUITT 
KlDD 

Kidder 
Kino, C. B. 



Knellbr, Sir Godfrey 



Knox 

Kranach 

Krimmel 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


MacDonough, Thomas 


Gimbrede 


1061 


Mason, John M. 


Durand 


616 


Mitchell, Samuel L. 


Durand 


621 


Moore, Benjamin 


Edwin 


830 


Moore, Benjamin 


Paradise 


2406 


Perry, Oliver H. 


Pekenino 


2451 


Randolph, John 


Gimbrede 


1085 


Ridgely, C. 


Goodman & Piggot 


1150 


Rodgers, John 


Edwin 


861 


Sampson, William 


Gimbrede 


1088 


Warrington, Lewis 


Gimbrede 


1096 


Munson, Aeneas 


Jocelyn 


1547 


Ashman, Jehudi 


Jocelyn 


1530 


Leffingwell, William 


Jocelyn 


1545 


Porter, Ebenezer 


Longacre 


2076 


Taylor, N. W. 


Jocelyn 


1558 


Truair, John 


Jocelyn 


1559 


Norwich, Vt. 


Peabody 


2421 


Norwich Military Acad. 


Peabody 


2420 


Stillman, Samuel 


Snyder 


2994 


Waters, Abigail 


Annin 


81 


Adams, Samuel 


Graham 


1161 


Alston, Washington 


Johnston 


1484 


Boston, Mass., View of 


Steel 


3021 


Breed's Hill, Mass. 


Steel 


3022 


Matthews, Charles 


Johnston 


1489-91 


Philadelphia 






Masonic Hall, Fire at 


Hill 


1345 


Transylvania University 


Gridley 


1186 


Shelby, Isaac 


Durand 


649 


Paley, William 


Prud'homme 


2598 


Hampton Beach, Mass 


Bowen 


228 


White Mountains, N. H. 


Bowen 


234 


Adams, John Quincy 


Kearny 


1565 


Adams, John Quincy 


Moore 


2275 


Barry, William T. 


Longacre 


1930 


Calhoun, John C. 


Longacre 


1949 -50 


Clay, Henry 


Maverick 


2192 


Johnston, Josiah S. 


Longacre 


2027 


McKendree, William 


Edwin 


*. 815 


Monroe, James 


Goodman & Piggot 


1145 


Pawnee Brave 


Jocelyn 


1550 


Pinkney, William 


Longacre 


2072 


Whitney, Eli 


Hoogland 


1435 


Addison, Joseph 


Ellis 


963 


Addison, Joseph 


Kelly 


1592 


Congreve, William 


Leney 


1734 


Hughes, John 


Leney 


1784 


Locke, John 


Harrison 


1281 


Pepys, Samuel 


Steel 


3014 


Pope, Alexander 


Hoogland 


1430 


P»pe, Alexander 


Longacre 


2075 


Tickell, Thomas 


Leney 


1863 


New Orleans Orphans' Asylum Hill 


1346 


Luther, Martin 


Rawdon 


2635 


Philadelplua, Election Scene 


Lawson 


1692 


Victuallers' Procession 


Yeager 


3438 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 311 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Lacoub 


New York City 








Federal Hall 


Doolittle 


533 


Lambdin 


Harrison, William H. 


Dodson 


492 


Lawrence, C. 


Bedell, Gregory T. 


Humphrys 


1469 


T. 


Cowper, William 


Gimbrede 


1046 


T. 


George IV, England 


Longacre 


1986 




Gloucester, Jeremiah 


Tiller 


3240 


C. 


Meigs, Return Jonathan 


Longacre 


2050 


C. 


Smith, Samuel Stanhope 


Goodman & Piggot 


1154 


Le Barbieb 


Barlow, Joel 


Anderson 


45 


Lehman 


Gray's Ferry, Pa. 
Philadelphia 


Steel 


3027 




Fairmount Water Works 


Steel 


3025 




Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Childs 


371 




Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Steel 


3033 




Schuylkill Canal, Pa. 


Childs 


372 


Lely 


Arlington, Earl of 


Haines 


1188 




Clarendon, Earl of 


Haines 


1195 




Cromwell, Oliver 


Prud'homme 


2565 


Lemet 


Parkinson, William 


Maverick 


2226 


Lenhart 


Livingston Monument 


Wagner 


3347 


Leubeb 


Balston Springs, N. Y. 


Hill 


1324 




Congress Springs, N. Y. 


Hill 


1326 




Elk, The 


Ellis 


980 


Leslie, C. R. 


Blisset, Francis 


Edwin 


786 




Cooke, George Frederick 


Edwin 


734 -36 




Cooper, Thomas Apthorpe 


Edwin 


737 




Cooper, Thomas Apthorpe 


Lewis 


1914 




Homer 


Edwin 


779 




Irving, Washington 


Danforth 


444-45 




Jefferson, J. and 


Edwin , 


786 




F. Blisset * 








Quixote, Don 


Danforth 


451 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Danforth 


454 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Longacre 


2089 




Sentry-Box, The 


Danforth 


460 


Lewis 


Macdonough, Thomas 


Annin 


75 




Philadelphia, New Theatre 


Ralph 


2632 


Lincoln 


Slater, Samuel 


Steel 


3016 


Linen 


Clay, Henry 


Prud'homme 


2562 




Fitz, Henry 


Smith, W. D. 


2952 


Livingston, H. 


Indian Mounds 


Tiebout 


3211 




Livingston Saw Mill 


Tiebout 


3215 




Maelstrom, The 


Tiebout 


3216 




Mohawk River 


Tiebout 


3217 




Palisades, The 


Tiebout 


3225 




West Point, N. Y. 


Tiebout 


3235 


Loqoan 


Ken, Thomas 


Humphrys 


1471 


Longacre, Jae. 


Barry, William T. 


Longacre 


1929 




Berrien, John McPherson 


Longacre 


1937 




Branch, John 


Longacre 


1943 




Chapman, Nathaniel 


Longacre 


1955 




Eaton, John H. 


Longacre 


1968 




Emmons, Richard 


Longacre 


1969 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Dodson 


489 




Hayne, Robert Y. 


Longacre 


1997 




Hewea, Joseph 


Kearny 


1567 



312 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Longacre, Jas. 


Ingham, Samuel D. 


Longacre 


2010 




Jackson, Andrew 


Longacre 2013 


2016-17 




Poinsett, Joel R. 


Longacre 


2074 




Ruter, Martin 


Longacre 


2083 




Sargent, Thomas 


Longacre 


2085 




Spencer, 0. M. 


Longacre 


2095 




Van Buren, Martin 


Longacre 


2099 




Webster, Daniel 


Longacre 


2112-14 




Wirt, William 


Longacre 


2124-25 




Woodbury, Levi 


Longacre 


2129 


Loss 


Boats on Mohawk 


Maverick 


2237 


LOUTHERBOURQ 


Windermere, England 


Birch 


157 


LOVETT 


Baker, Mr. 


HiU 


1361 




Clarke, John 


Graham 


1162 


Lubber 


Unknown Man 


Gimbrede 


1105 


Lyon 


"Constitution" U. S. Frigate 


Bowen 


233 


Maella 


Columbus, Christopher 


Maverick 


2197 


Malbone 


Tousard, A. Louis 


Edwin 


885 


Manoin 


New York City, Prison 


Fox 


1013-14 


Marling 


Forster, Anthony 


Goodman & Piggot 


1135 


Martin, D. 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Ellis 


968 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Gobrecht 


1110 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Goodman & Piggot 


1136-37 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Hamlin 


1230 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Kelly 


1603 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Longacre 1977 


-79, 2110 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Maverick, S. 


2267 




Franklin, Benjamin 


.Savage 


2745 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Smith, W. D. 


2953 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Willard 


3371 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Woodruff 


3402 




Livingston, Brockholst 


Prud'homme 


2589 




Martin, John E. 


Scoles 


2792 


Mason 


Eagleafield, Pa. 
Philadelphia 


Childs 


361 




Eastern Penitentiary 


Childs 


359 




Perm. Hospital for Insane 


Tucker . 


3326 


McArthub 


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 








Hospital 


Tucker 


3325 


McPhehson 


Clay, Henry 


Steel 


3003 


Meance 


Dufief, N. G. 


Edwin 


752 


Medley 


Pearce, Samuel 


Annin & Smith 


98 




Pearce, Samuel 


Boyd 


258 




Pearce, Samuel 


Longacre 


2066 


Metcalf, E. 


Cornelius, E. 


Longacre 


1965 




Larned, Sylvester 


Durand 


608 




Patton, William 


Durand 


630 




Wlbur, Hervey 


Durand 


667 


Metz 


Athens, Ruins of 


Kelly 


1632 


Miller 


Brooks, Nathan C. 


Horton 


1450 




King Henry VI 


Michel-Lenejr 


1909 


Mills 


De Kalb Monument 


Hill 


1327 




Dorsey's Gothic Mansion 


Tanner 


3123 


MlRBEL 


Copper, J. Fennimore 


Pelton 


2485 


Mitchell 


Adams, Samuel 


Okey 


2370 


Morgan 


Kenton, Simon 


Dodson 


494 


Morse, S. F. B. 


Cross, Jeremy L. 


Jocelyn 


1532 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 313 



Artiat 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 




Emmet, Thomas Addies 


Smith, J. R. 


2920 




Evarts, Jeremiah 


Longacre 


1972 




Evarts, Jeremiah 


Pelton 


2487 




Fisher, Alexander M. 


Jocelyn 


1538 




Paraona, Levi 


Throop 


3157 




Smith, Nathan 


Jocelyn 


1554 




Sprague, William B. 


Durand 


05 1 




Webster, Noah 


Durand 


664 




Worcester, Samuel 


Annin & Smith 


105 


Morton 


Susquehanna River 


Strickland 


3064 


MUNGER 


Cross, Jeremy L. 


Jocelyn 


1531 




Trumbull, Benjamin 


Joceiyn 


1560 


Murray 


New York City Hospital 


Leney 


1892 


Nash 


Kenyon College 


Hamm 


1259 


Nasmyth 


Burns, Robert 


Childs 


343 




Burna, Robert 


Ellis 


965 




Burns, Robert 


Lawson 


1680 


Neaglb, 3< 


Barnes, John 


Durand 


556 




Barnes, Mary G. 


Durand 


557 




Barron, James 


Steel 


3000 




Bascom, Henry B. 


Longacre 


1931 




Bedell, Gregory T. 


Longacre 


1934 




Booth, Junius Brutus 


• Ellis 


964 




Chapman, Nathaniel 


Kelly 


1599 




Collina, John 


Longacre 


1963 




Conwell, Henry 


Bridport 


274 




Cowell, Joseph 


Durand 


574 




Duff, Mrs. 


Longacre 


1967 




Duff, John 


Durand 


580 




Forrest, Edwin 


Durand 


584 




Francis, William 


Longacre 


1974 




Francis, Mrs. William 


Longacre 


1975 




Hilson, Ellen Augusta 


Durand 


594 




Hilson, Thomas 


Durand 


595 




Jefferson, Joseph 


Edwin 


785 




Kean, Charlea 


Goodman 


1121 




Kelly, Lydia 


Longacre 


2029 




Lyon, Patrick 


Kelly 


1612 




Macready, William C. 


Durand 


611 




Newton, Robert 


Dodson 


497 




Ongpatonga, Chief 


Bridport 


276 




Petalesharoo 


Maverick 


2227 




Pilmore, Joaeph 


Goodman & Piggot 


1149 




Roberta, Robert R. 


Longacre 


208 1 




Stuart, Charles Gilbert 


Edwin 


883 




Warren, William 


Longacre 


2102 




Wemyss, Mr. 


Longacre 


2115 




Wood, William B. 


Ellis 


974 




Wylie, Samuel B. 


Longacre 


2132 




Young, David 


Longacre 


2134 


Neely 


Matteawan, N. Y. 


Hill 


1344 


Neilson 


Weehawken, N. J. 


Ellis 


979 


Newton 


Irving, Washington 


Annin & Smith 


94 




McLane, Louis 


Kelly 


1613 


NORTHCOTE, J. 


Banks, Thomas 


Leney 


1710 




Bourgeois, Sir Francis 


Leney 


1718 




Grey, Lady Jane 


Longacre 


1991 




Northcote, James 


Leney 


1824 



314 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 
Oliver 



Opie 



Otis, B. 



Paon 
Paradibe, J. 



Subject 
Elizabeth, Queen 
Home, George 
Opie, John 
Opie, Mrs. 
Itees, Abraham 
Barton, Benjamin Smith 
Cooper, Ezekiel 
Eastburn, Joseph 
Eastburn, Joseph 
Ely, Ezra Stiles 
Glendy, John 
Helmouth, J. H. C. 
Jefferson, Thomas 
Jefferson, Thomas 
Madison, Dorothy T. B. 
Madison, James 
Monroe, James 
Neill, William 
Patterson, James 
Physick, Philip Syng 
White, Rev. William 
Wistar, Caspar 
Wistar, Caspar 
Wistar, Caspar 
Lafayette, MarquiB de 
Asbury, Francis 
Asbury, Francis 
Bangs, Nathan 
Beach, W. 
Between the Logs 
Capers, William 
Chase, Henry 
Clark, Laban 
Cooper, Ezekiel 
Cox, Samuel H. 
Croes, John 
Finley, James B. 
Fisk, Wilbur 
Garrettson, Freeborn 
Garrettson, Freeborn 
Garrettson, Freeborn 
Hanna, John 
Hart, N. C. 
Hedding, Elijah 
Hobart, John Henry 
Hobart, John Henry 
McKendree, William 
Ma-Nuncue 
Marsden, Joshua 
Martindale, S. 
Matthias, LB. 
Mervin, Samuel 
Olin, Stephen 
Phoebus, William 
Reece, Richard 
Ross, William 
Soule, Joshua 
Stead, Henry 



Engraver . 
Edwin 
Longacre 
Leney 
M unson 
Gobrecht 
Otis 
Jones 
Clay 
Otis 
Chads 
Longacre 

Goodman & Piggot 
Kelly 
Neagle 

Goodman & Piggot 
Neagle 

Goodman & Piggot 
Nesmith 
Smith, J. R. 
Otis 
Otis 

Goodman & Piggot 
Longacre 
Neagle 
Kearny 
Gimbrede 
Tanner 
Durand 
Paradise 
Smith, W. D. 
Longacre 
Paradise 
Durand 
Prud'homme 
Durand 
Paradise 
Durand 
Paradise 
Danforth 
Durand 
Prud'homme 
Danforth 
Paradise 
Durand 
Main 
Paradise 
Longacre 
Durand 
Gimbrede 
Smith, W. D. 
Durand 
Paradise 
Durand 
Durand 
Durand 
Durand 
Paradise 
Paradise 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 315 



Artiat 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Paradise, J. 


Thacher, William 


Paradise 


2410 




Woolsey, Elijah 


Paradise 


670 


Parkyjjs 


Philadelphia, Treaty Tree 


Cook 


438 


Partridge 


Clarke, Adam 


Durand 


568 




Gano, Stephen 


Annin & Smith 


92 




Gano, Stephen 


Pekenino 


2443 


Pate 


Sibley, E. 


Leney 


1850 


Paul 


Carroll, John 


Leney-Tanner 


1722, 3085 




Marshall, John 


Edwin 


822 




Pinckney, Charles C. 


Tiebout 


3189 




Rush, Benjamin 


Akin 


21 


Peale, R. 


Allen, Richard 


Boyd 


244 


R. 


Biddle, Nicholas, Esq. 


Longacre-Welch 


1983 


Anoa C. 


Branch, John 


Longacre 


1944 


C. W. 


Dearborn, Henry 


Edwin 


746 


C. W. 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Edwin 


764 


C. W. 


Franklin, Benjamin 


Peale 


2423 


C. W. 


Gray's Ferry, Pa. 


Trenchard 


3290-91 


C. W. 


Greene, Nathanael 


Edwin 


701, 773 




Greene, Nathanael 


Gimbrede 


1052 




Hone, Philip 


Durand 


596 


C. W. 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Akin & Harrison 


17 


R. 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Edwin 


787 


R. 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Tiebout 


3182 


R. 


Jones, Absalom 


Jones 


1519 




Jones, Jacob 


Edwin 


793 


C. W. 


Jones, John Paul 


Longacre 


2026 


C. W. 


Jones, John Paul 


Rawdon Co. 


2643 


R. 


Kemp, James 


Schwartz 


2767 


C. W. 


Knox, Henry 


Edwin 


796, 797 


C. W. 


Lafayette, Marquis de 


Peale 


2424 


C. W. 


Laurens, Henry * 


Neagle 


2309 


T. 


Mastoden, The 


Ellis 


981 


C. W. 


Montgomery, Richard 


Edwin 


701 


c. w. 


Morgan, Daniel 


Edwin 


832 


c. w. 


Muhlenberg, G. H. E. 


Goodman & Piggot 


1147 


c. w. 


Muhlenberg, Henry M. 


Steel 


3012 


c. w. 


Peale, Charles Willson 


Longacre 


2065 


c. w. 


Philadelphia State House 


Trenchard 


3299 




Pike, Zebulon M. 


Edwin 


847 


c. w. 


Pilmore, Joseph 


Peale 


2425 


R. 


Pinkney, William 


Durand 


636 


c. w. 


Pitt, William 


Peale 


2426 


James 


Poulson, Susannah 


Lawson 


1684 


c. w. 


Ramsay, David 


Longacre 


2077 


c. w. 


Randolph, John 


Goodman & Piggot 


1151 


c. w. 


Rittenhouse, David 


Edwin 


860 


c. w. 


Rittenhouse, David 


Gobrecht 


1113 


c. w. 


Rittenhouae, David 


Longacre 


2080 


c. w. 


Rittenhouse, David 


Savage 


2748 


James 


Staughton, William 


Edwin 


880 


James 


Staughton, William 


Smith, G. G. 


2906 


R. 


Torrey, Jesse, Jr. 


Goodman & Piggot 


1155 


C. W. 


Warren, Joseph 


Edwin 


701 




Warren, Joseph 


Gimbrede 


1095 


R. 


Washington, George 


Edwin 


903 


C. w. 


Washington, George 


Paradise 


2411 



316 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Peale, C. W. 


Washington, George 


Peale 




Washington, George 


■ Scott 




Washington, George 


Trenchard 


C. W. 


Wayne, Anthony 


Edwin 


C. W. 


Williams, Otho H. 


Longacre 




Wilson, Alexander 


Edwin 


C. W. 


Witherspoon, John 


Longacre 


C. W. 


Witherspoon, John 


Pelton 


R. 


Wood, Juliana W. , 


Edwin 


Peckersqill 


More, Hannah 


Pelton 


Peele, J. T. 


Dexter, Lord Timothy 


Paradise 


Pelham 


Brockwell, Charles 


Pelham 




Byles, Mather 


Pelham 




Cutler, Timothy 


Pelham 




Hollis, Thomas 


Pelham 




Hooper, William 


Pelham 




Mather, Cotton 


Pelham 




Moorhead, John 


Pelham 


Penniman 


Appleton, Jesse 
Massachusetts General 


Chorley 




Hospital 


Bowen 




Nahant Hotel, Mass. 


Annin & Smith 




Rollin, Charles 


Kelly 




Rollin, Charles 


Neagle 




Webb, Thomas S. 


Annin & Smith 




Winthrop, John 


Chorley 


Percival 


Phillips, T. 


Gimbrede 


PeRSICO 


Cristiani, Stephen 


Maverick 


Peters 


Manchester, Duke of 


Leney 




Peters, William 


Leney 




Petre, Lord 


Leney 




Resurrection of a Pious 


Clarke 




Family 






Resurrection of a Pious 


Hill 




Family 




Phillips 


Byron, Lord 


Ellis 




Bryon, Lord 


Durand 




Byron, Lord 


Gimbrede 




Byron, Lord 


Kelly 




Byron, Lord 


Pelton 


Picart 


Saurin, James 


Durand 




Saurin, James 


Longacre 


PlERPONT 


Faneuil Hall 


Hill 


PlOALT 


Columbian War 


Tiebout 


Pine, J. 


Elliott, E. 


Prud'homme 




Hamline, L. L. 


Prud'homme 




Hedding, Elijah 


Prud'homme 




Hopkinson, Francis 


Longacre 




Hopkinson, Francis 


Longacre-Nesmith 




Peck, George 


Prud'homme 




Read, George 


Longacre 




Sandford, P. P. 


Prud'homme 




Stone, Thomas 


Ellis 




Waugh, Beverly 


Prud'homme 


PlOMBO 


Michael Angelo 


Tiebout 


Plantou 


Decatur, Stephen 


Goodman &. Piggot 


PoCOOK 


Monmouthshire, England 


Birch 




Summer 


Birch 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 317 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


PORTER 


Massachusetts Bay 


Strickland 


3072 




Mouina 


Strickland 


3073 




Stilts 


Strickland 


3074 




Taawattaa 


Strickland 


3075 




War Canoe 


Strickland 


3077 


Pratt 


Payson, Edward 


Kelly 


1616 




Pierce, Ben. 


Smith, G. G. 


2903 




Yale College 


Jocelyn 


1562 


Raebuen 


Blair, Hugh 


Kelly 


1594-95 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Dodson 


500 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Maverick-Durand 


648 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Kelly 


1622 


Rabtet 


Robespierre, M. 


Prud'homme 


2603 




Roland, Madam 


Prud'homme 


2604 


Ramberq 


Abington, Mrs. 


Leney 


1705 




Farren, Miss 


Leney 


1753 




Henderson, Mr. 


Leney 


1774 


Ramsay 


Mead, Richard 


Jones 


1522 


Raphael 


Virgin Mary 


Pekenino 


2459 


Reading 


Drayton, William Henry 


Wright 


3410 


Reed 


Buell, Samuel 


Reed 


2647 


Reinaglb 


Elgin Botanic Garden 


Leney 


1884 




Fort Ticonderoga 


Fairman 


992 




Laight, Col., Camp of 


Kneass-Young 


1667 




Macdonough Farmhouse 


Childs 


367 




Macdonough's Victory 


Tanner 


3134 




Merion Meeting House, Pa. 


Steel 


3030 




Philadelphia, Unitarian Church Childs 


378 


Reynolds, Sir Joshua 


Chambers, Sir William 


Murray 


2283 




Ferguson, Adam 


Tucker 


3305 




Gibbon, Edward 


Durand 


590 




Gibbon, Edward * 


Lawson 


1681 




Gibbon, Edward 


Pelton 


2491 




Goldsmith, Oliver 


Hoogland 


1422 




Goldsmith, Oliver 


Leney 


1762 




Goldsmith, Oliver 


Longacre 


1990 




Goldsmith, Oliver 


Neagle 


2304 




Goldsmith, Oliver 


Pelton 


2492 




Hume, David 


Longacre 


2007 




Johnson, Samuel 


Kelly 


1609 




Muscipula 


Savage 


2762 




Robertson, William 


Tanner 


3099 




Robinson, Mrs. 


Birch 


153 




Siddons, Sarah Kemble 


Longacre 


2090 




Sterne, Laurence 


Longacre 


2097 


Richardson 


Steele, Sir Richard 


Leney 


1857 


Rider 


State Guards, Pa. 


Nesmith 


2325 




Washington, Capitol 


Lawson 


1699 


Ritchie 


McCrie, Thomas 


Tucker 


3309 


Roberts 


Crawford, Mrs. 


Leney 


1737 




Davenport, Mrs. 


Leney 


1743 




Hartley, Mrs. 


Leney 


1773 




Hull, Mr. 


Leney 


1786 




Middleton, Mr. 


Leney 


1817 


Robertson, Alex. 


Berthier, Canada 


Maverick 


2236 


Aroh. 


Fireman's Certificate 


Maverick 


2257 


Arch. 


Genius of Penmanship 


Maverick 


2241 


Walter 


Hamdton, Alexander 


Graham 


1163 



318 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 




Subject 


Engraver 


ROBERTSON, 


Arch. 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Prud'homme 




Arch. 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Rollinson 




Walter 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Tanner 




Arch. 


Hudson River 


Graham 




Arch. 


Jackson, James 


Maverick 




Arch. 


Mason, John M. 


Graham 




Arch. 


Truxton, Thomas 


Tiebout 




Walter 


Washington, George 


Field 






Washington, George 


Rollinson 






Washington, George 


Tisdale 






Washington, Martha 


Longacre 


Robinson 




Gloucester, John 


Tanner-Jones 






Sergeant, John 


Kelly 


Rodgers 




Drake, J. Rodman 


Kelly 


Rogers 




Da Ponte, Lorenzo 


Pekenino 






Judson, Ann H. 


Cone 






Judson, Ann H. 


Dodson 


Romney 




Cowper, William 


Maverick 






Hamilton, Lady 


Gimbrede 






Paine, Thomas 


Wright 






Paley, William 


Longacre 


ROUBILLIAC 




Pope, Alexander 


Danforth 


Rubens 




Descent from Cross 


Leney 


Ruckle 




Reed, Nelson 


Smith, W. D. 


Russell 




Newton, John 


Jocelyn 






Newton, John 


Leney 






Wolfe, Charles 


Willard 


Ryder 




United States Capitol, 1814 


Lawson 


Sanders 




Byron, Lord 


Ellis 


Sanson 




Sherburne, Nantucket 


Tanner 


Sargent 




Lincoln, Benjamin 


Smith, J. R. 






Parthenon, The 


Tucker 


Savage, E. 




Adams, John 


Savage 






"Constellation" and 


Savage 






" L'Insurgent" 








Columbus, Christopher 


Edwin 






Declaration of Independence 


Savage 






Jefferson, Thomas 


Savage 






Knox, Henry 


Savage 






Liberty as Goddess of Youth 


Savage 






Paine, Robert Treat 


Longacre 






Rittenhouse, David 


Jarvis 






Rush, Benjamin 


Savage 






Russell, Nathaniel 


Savage 






Washington, George 


Hamlin 






Washington, George 


Rollinson 






Washington, George 


Savage 






Washington, George 


Scoles 






Washington, George 


Seymour 






Washington, George 


Tanner 






Washington Family 


Savage 






Wayne, Anthony 


Savage 


Scheffer 




Lafayette, Marquis de 


Annin & Smith 






Lafayette, Marquis de 


Danforth 






Lafayette, Marquis de 


Fairman-Childs 


SCHETKY 




Edinburgh 


Drayton 






St. Leonard's Cottage 


Drayton 


Schoolcraft 


Sault Ste. Marie 


Rawdon 



1236, 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's " American Engravers" 319 



Artist 

ScHROEDER 

SCHULTZ 
ScHWANDFELDER 

scorodorumoff 

Scott 

Severn 

Sexton 

Seymour 



Shaffer 
Sharpless 



Shaw 



Shumwat 

SlEURAC 
SlMOND 

Slater 
Smart 
Smibert 



Smirke 

Smith, A. C. 

J. R. 
J. R. 
J. R. 



SODERMARK 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Harmon, Daniel W. 


Leney 


1772 


Richmond, Chas., Duke of 


Leney 


1842 


Ohio River, Map of 


Maverick 


2252 


Sharp, John 


Hoogland 


1433 


Paul I, Russia 


Leney 


1829 


Spencer, Thomas 


Haines 


1215 


Hunt, James H. Leigh 


Prud'homme 


2582 


Averill, Chester 


Prud'homme 


2557 


New Orleans, Battle of 


Steel 


3031 


Oto Council 


Lawson 


1694 


Rocky Mountains 


Kearny 


1579 


Brunson, Alfred 


Paradise 


2390 


Bard, John 


Leney 


1712 


Hamilton, Alexander 


Anderson 


53 


Boiling's Dam, Va. 


Hill 


1343 


Fayetteville 


Hill 


1343 


Hell-Gate, N. Y. 


Hill 


1343 


Jones' Falls, Md. 


Hill 


1343 


Lottery, Waite's 


Humphry s 


1474 


Lynnhaven Bay, Va. 


Hill 


1343 


Norfollk, Va. 


Hill 


1343 


North River, N. Y. 


Hill 


1343 


Oyster Cove, Va. 


Hill 


1343 


Passaic Falls, N. J. 


Hill 


1343 


Passaic River, 


Hill 


1343 


St. Anthony's Falls 


Hill 


1343 


Savannah, Burning of 


Hill 


1343 


Schuylkill Falls, Pa. 


Hill 


1343 


Spirit Creek, Ga. 


Hill 


1343 


Washington's Grave 


Hill 


1343 


West Point Monument 


Hill 


1343 


Wissahickon Creek ** 


Hill 


1343 


York Springs, Pa. 


Hill 


1355 


Hubbard, Nehim 


Jocelyn 


1540 


Moore, Thomas 


Ellis 


971 


Elgin Botanic Garden 


Leney 


1885 


Richmond, Legh 


Longacre 


2079 


Swartz, C. F. 


Pelton 


2524 


Caner, Henry 


Pelham 


2462 


Colman, Benjamin 


Pelham 


2463 


Cooper, William 


Pelham 


2464 


Pepperrill, Sir Wm. 


Pelham 


2471 


Rogers, John 


Kelly 


1618 


Sewall, Joseph 


Pelham 


2473 


Shirley, Sir William 


Pelham 


2474 


McCrea, Jane 


Annin 


74 


Seven Ages, The 


Leney 


1907 


Baptismal Scene 


Tiebout 


3237 


Brainerd, Thomas 


Smith, J. R. 


2918 


Brick Meeting House, Boston 


Kidder 


1643 


Garnett, Thomas 


Leney 


1758 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Maverick 


2212 


Keith, Isaac Stockton 


Goodman & Piggot 


1142 


Mount Carbon, Pa. 


Smith, J. R. 


2936 


National Hotel, Washington 


Longacre 


2153 


Noah, Mordecai M. 


Gimbrede 


1073 


Bremer, Fredrika 


Prud'homme 


2559 



320 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 




Subject 


Engraver 


Spencer 




Finney, Charles G. 


Paradise 






Kent, James 


Durand 


St. Aubin 




Alexander I, Russia 


Edwin 


St. Memin 




Lewis, Meriwether 


Strickland 


Staigq 




' Webster, Daniel 


Dodson-Cheney 


Stansbuby 




New York City, Broadway 


Rawdon & Co. 






Coffee House Slip 


Danforth 


Steward, J. 




Wheelock Eleazar 


Reed 


or 

Stewart 




Strong, Nathan 


Pelton 


Stothard 




Boleyn, Anne 


Kelly 


Street 




Tyson, Elisha 


Cone 


Strickland 




Ball, William 


Kneass 






"Constitution", "Levant" 


Strickland 






and "Cyane" 






Wm. 


Finley Chain Bridge 


Tanner 






Fort McHcnry, 


Kneass 






Bombardment of 








Hamilton Monument 


Plocher 




Geo. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 








Academy of Fine Arts 


Childs 




Wm. 


Almshouse, Spruce St. 


Boyd 




Geo. 


Academy of Natural Sciences Childs 




Geo. 


Bank of Pennsylvania 


Tucker 




Geo. 


Bank of United States 


Childs 




Wm. 


Bank of United States 


Kearny 




Wm. 


Bank of United States 


Kneass-Young 




Geo. 


Bank of United States 


Tucker 




Geo. 


Christ Church 


Childs 




Geo. 


Deaf and Dumb Asylum 


Childs 




Wm. 


Franklin Library 


Thackara 




Geo. 


Girard'a Bank 


Childs 




Wm. 


Market St. Bridge 


Plocher 




Wm. 


Masonic Hall 


Kneass 




Geo. 


Pennsylvania Hospital 


Childs 




Wm. 


Pennsylvania Hospital 


Seymour 




Geo. 


St. Stephen's Church 


Childs 




Geo. 


State House 


Childs 




Geo. 


University of Penna. 


Steel 




Geo. 


Washington Hall 


Strickland 




Wm. 


Quebec, Canada 


Kneass 






Queenstown, Canada 


Strickland 






Radnor Church 


Tiebout 




Wm. 


Upper Ferry Bridge, Pa. 


Plocher 






Valley Forge, Pa. 


Tiebout 






Woodlands, Pa. 


M urray 


Strdtt 




Campbell, Mr. 


Wightman 


Stuart, G. 




Adams, John 


Gimbrede 






Adams, John 


Longacre 






Adams, John Quincy 


Longacre 






Ames, Fisher 


Boyd 






Ames, Fisher 


Edwin 






Ames, Fisher 


Gimbrede 






Ames, Fisher 


Kelly 






Ames, Fisher 


Leney 






Ames, Fisher 


Prud'homme 






Bainbridge, William 


Edwin 



1920.] Index to Stauffcr's " American Engravers" 321 



Artist 
Stuart, G. 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Barry, John 


Edwin 


711 


Barry, John 


Longacre 


1928 


Bowdoin, James 


Smith, J. R. 


2917 


Bowditch, Nathaniel 


Pelton 


2481 


Brooks, John 


Durand 


561 


Buckminster, Joseph S. 


Edwin 


719 


Dallas, Alexander J. 


Goodman & Piggott 


1129 


Dallas, Alexander J. 


Leney 


1741 


Decatur, Stephen 


Edwin 


748-49 


Decatur, Stephen 


Gimbrede 


1049 


Gansevoort, Peter 


Prud'homme 


2574 


Gates, Horatio 


Tiebout 


3171 


Holley, Horace 


Kelly 


1606 


Hull, Isaac 


Edwin 


780-82 


Hull, Isaac 


Graham 


1165 


Jay, John 


Durand 


601 


Jay, John 


Leney 


1789-90 


Jay, John 


Maverick 


2211 


Jay, John 


Tiebout 


3179 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Edwin 


789 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Field 


1001 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Longacre 


2021 -23 


Jefferson, Thomas 


Pelton 


2504 


King, Rufus 


Kelly 


1610 


Knox, Henry 


Prud'homme 


2585 


Lawrence, James 


Edwin 


802 


Lawrence, James 


Leney 


1800 


Lawrence, James 


Rollinson 


2713 


Lee, Henry 


Prud'homme 


■ 2588 


Lewis, William 


Goodman & Piggot 


1143 


Livingston, John H. 


Jarvis 


1480 


Livingston, Robert It. 


Graham 


1166 


McKean, Thomas 


Edwin 


814 


McKean, Thomas 


Longacre 


2043 


Madison, Dorothy T. P. 


Edwin 


819 


Madison, James 


Edwin 


817 


Madison, James 


Jones - 


1520 


Madison, James 


Leney 


1807-8 


Mifilin, Thomas 


Bridport 


275 


Paine, Robert Treat, Jr. 


Tisdale 


3254 


Parsons, Theophilus 


Leney 


1828 


Phillips, William 


Pelton 


2516 


Pickering, Timothy 


Piggot 


2543 


Shippen, Edward 


Edwin 


873 


Shippen, William, Jr. 


Haines 


1214 


Smith, William 


Edwin 


877 


Smith, William 


Savage 


2751 


Strong, Caleb 


Longacre 


2098 


Washington, George 


Chorley 


388 


Washington, George 


Durand 


661 -62 


Washington, George 


Fair man 


995 


Washington, George 


Gimbrede 


1097 


Washington, George 


Goodman & Piggot 


1156 


Washington, George 


Harrison, C. P. 


1282-83 


Washington, George 


Jocelyn 


1561 


Washington, George 


Johnston 


1497 


Washington, George 


Kelly 


1630-31 



322 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 
Stuart, G. 



Stutson 
Sully, Thoa. 



Subject 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
White, Rev. William 
White, Rev. William 
Washington Memorial 
Adams, John Quincy 
Andrews,' John 
Beudinot, Eliaa 
Chapman, Nathaniel 
Chapman, Nathaniel 
Cooke, George Frederick 
Decatur, Stephen 
Decatur, Stephen 
Dorsey, John Syng 
Henry, Patrick 
Hosack, David 
Jackson, Andrew 
Macomb, Alexander 
Madison, James 
Morris, Gouverneur 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Swedes' Church 
Physick, Philip Syng 
Pickens, Andrew 
Ross, James 
Rush, Benjamin 
Rush, Benjamin 
Rush, Benjamin 
Rush, Benjamin 
Rush, Benjamin 
Skinner, Thomas H. 
Snyder, Simon 



Engraver 


Number 


Kennedy 


1637 


Leney 


18G9 


Longacre 


210(3-10 


Maverick 


2230-31 


Nesmith 


2319-20 


Norman 


2354 


Paradise 


2412 


Peabody 


2419 


Pekenino 


2453 


Pel ton 


2527,2531 


Prud'homme 


2616 


Reed 


2655 -56 


Roberta 


2701 


Savage 


2755 


Scoles 


2810-11 


Shall ua 


2894 


Smith, G. G. 


2908 


Smith, J. R. 


2934 


Smith, W. D. 


2966 


Steel 


3019 


Strickland 


3052 


Tanner 


3102,-04, 3106 


Tiebout 


3194-95 


Tiller 


3241, 3247 


Willard 


3390-92 


Woodruff 


3406-07 


Yeager 


3428-29 


Edwin 


911 


Tiebout 


3199 


Hill 


1360 


Durand 


551 


Edwin 


, 706 


Boyd 


247 


Goodman & Piggott 1128 


Neagle 


2303 


Edwin 


732 


Durand 


579 



Prud'homme 2568 
Goodman & Piggot 1132-34 

Leney 1776 

Durand 597 

Longacre 2012 

Longacre 2046 

Edwin 818 

Longacre 2052 

Childa 377 

Longacre 2009 

Longacre 2070 

Goodman & Piggot 1152 

Dodson 499 

Edwin 864 -65 

Gobrecht 1114 

Leney 1844 

Longacre 2082 

Goodman & Piggot 1153 

Edwin 878 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's " American Engravers" 323 



Artiat 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Sully, Thomas 


Tompkins, Daniel D. 


Jones 


1527 




Vaughan, John 


Steel 


3017 




Warren, William 


Edwin 


890 




Washington Croaaing 


Lang 


1672 




the Delaware 








White, Rev. William 


Pekenino 


2455 




Wilkea, Charlea 


Dodson 


504 




Williams, Jonathan 


Dodson 


503 




Wolcott, Oliver 


Durand 


669 




Wood, William B. 


Edwin 


919 


Sully -Kearny 


Lake Erie, Battle of 


Murray & Co. 


2288-89 


SuTLIFF 


Beacon Hill Monument 


Tanner 


3119 


SviNIN 


Alexander I, Ruasia 


Edwin 


697 




Moreau, Victor 


Annin 


76 


Taylor 


New York City, Plan of 


Roberts 


2702 


Terrigi 


Napoleon Bonaparte 


Humphreys 


1470 


Thomas 


Ulmua, New Speciea of 


Doolittle 


537 


Thompson 


Blair, John D. 


Martin 


2178 


Thomson 


Griawold, Alexander V. 


Longacre 


1992 




Sargent, Thomaa F. 


Rollinson 


2716 


Tilyard 


Mareschal, Ambrose 


Longacre 


2047 


TlSDALB 


Brainard, J. G. G. 


Longacre 


1942 




Lexington Battle 


Tiebout 


3213 




Washington, George 


Scoles 


2812 


Titian 


Charlea V, Germany 


Anderson 


47 




Francis I, France 


Anderson 


52 


Tower 


Croton Aqueduct, Views on 


Bennett 


128-134 




Croton Aqueduct, Viewa on 


Hill 


1357 


Trott, B. 


Abercrombie, James 


Edwin 


691 




Clymer, George 


Hooker 


1441 




Clymer, George 


Longacre 


1962 




Gibaon, James 


Goodman & Piggot 


1138 




Richards, James 


Bridport 


277 




Washington, George 


Fairman 


994 




Waahington, George 


Gobrecht 


1115 




Washington, George 


Longacre 


2105 




Washington, George 


Wright, C. C. 


3415 


Trumbull, J. 


Bunker Hill Battle 


Norman 


2359 




Clinton, De Witt 


Leney 


1730 




Declaration of Independence 


Durand 


679 




Declaration of Independence 


Prud'homme 


2622 -23 




Dwight, Timothy 


Leney 


1747 




Ellsworth, Oliver 


Edwin 


758 




Ellsworth, Gliver 


Maverick 


2201 




Hamilton, Alexander 


Field 


1000 




Morgan, Daniel 


Prud'homme 


2594 




Piatt, Jonaa 


Durand 


637 




Putnam, Israel 


Gimbrede 


1083 




Putnam, Israel 


Humphrya 


1472 




Schuyler, Philip 


Kelly 


1620 




Trumbull, John (Poet) 


Durand-Maverick 


657, 2229 




Trumbull, Jonathan 


Pelton 


2525 




Washington, George 


Durand 


659 




Waahington, George 


Tucker 


3314 




Wayne, Anthony 


Prud'homme 


2618 




Williamson, Hugh 


Durand 


668 


Tucker 


Moaes and the Tablets 


Kearny 


1584 



324 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



f 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Tutu ill 


Cass, Lewis 


Lewis 


TWIBILL 


Hill, George H. 


Kelly 


Underwood 


Oxford Light Infantry 


Nesmith 




Philadelphia Cadets 


Nesmith 


Vanderlyn, J. 


Ariadne 


Dur.uiJ 




Bard, Samuel 


Main 




Davie, Wm. Richardson 


Longacre 




Gerry, Elbridge 


Longacre 




Jackson, Andrew 


Durand 




Monroe, James 


Durand 




Monroe, James 


Gimbrede 




Monroe, James 


Peabody 


VanDyck 


Charles I, England 


Gimbrede 


Vertue 


Owen, John 


Gimbrede 


VlLLENEUVE 


Leo XII 


Steel 


Vivien 


F6nelon 


Clarke 




Fdnelon 


Pelton 


VOLOZAN 


Sacred Harmony 


Edwin 


Waldo, S. L. 


Gamble, Thomas 


Longacre 




Jackson, Andrew 


Maverick 




Old Pat 


Durand 




Perry, Oliver H. 


Edwin 




Pickering, Timothy 


Gimbrede 


Waldo & Jewett 


Boudinot, Elias 


Durand 




Boudinot, Elias 


Paradise 




Colden, Cadwallader D. 


Durand 




Durand, Asher Brown 


Pekenino 




. Livermore, Harriet 


Longacre 




McLeod, Alexander 


Durand 




Mathews, J. McF. 


Durand 




Milledoler, Philip 


Durand 




Milnor, "James 


Durand 




Mitchell, Edward 


Maverick 




Phillips, W. W. 


Smith, W. D. 




Romeyn, J. B. 


Durand 




Summerfield, John 


Durand 




Taylor, James B. 


Jocelyn 




Trumbull, Col. John 


Durand 


Walker 


Cromwell, Oliver 


Gimbrede 


Wall 


Dempster, John 


Paradise 




Fort Ticonderoga 


Maverick 




Hudson, near Fishkill 


Steel 




New York City, View of 


Maverick 




Troy, N. Y. 


Smith, J. R. 


Walter 


Philadelphia, Girard College 


Steel 


Watson 


Schuylkill River, Pa. 


Childs 


Weaver 


Mitchell, Mr. 


Scoles 


Weinedel 


Unknown Man 


Longacre 


Weir, Robt. W. 


Beck, Theodoric R. 


Prud'homme 




Fort Putnam 


Durand 




Red Jacket 


Danforth 




Sands, Robert C. 


Durand 




Scott, Winfield 


Prud'homme 




Washington, George 


Durand 


Wells 


Philadelphia, State House 


Neagle 


Wentworth 


Leavitt, Jonathan 


Jocelyn 


Wertmuller 


Bayard, James A. 


Goodman & Piggot 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's " American Engravers" 325 



Artist 




Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


West, B. 




Bouquet, Col., and Indians 


Revere 


2683 


W. 


E. 


Byron, Lord 


Longacre 


1947 


W. 


E. 


Byron, Lord 


Smith, W. D. 


2947 


B. 




Eliaha and the Shumanites 


Longacre 


2156 


B. 




Fulton, Robert 


Lcney 


1755-56 


B. 




Middleton, Arthur 


Longacre 


2051 






New Orleans, Battle of 


Yeager 


3433 


I.E. 


New York City 










College of Physicians 


Leney 


1891 


W. 


E. 


Olin, Stephen 


Prud'homme 


2596 


B. 




Penn's Treaty 


Moore 


2277 


B. 




Penn's Treaty 


Smith, G. G. 


2912 


B. 




West, Benjamin, Jr., 


Tiebout 


3198 


B. 




West, Raphael 


Tiebout 


3198 


West -Emmet 


Fulton, Robert 


Leney 


1757 


Westall 




Byron, Lord 


Longacre 


1948 


Westmacott 


Abercrombie Monument 


Tanner 


3116 


Westobt 




Murray, Lindley 


Durand 


624 


Wheeler 




Jackson, Andrew 


Edwin 


784 






Jackson, Andrew 


Gimbrede 


1055-57 


White 




Connecticut River 


Childs 


357 






Ramsay, David 


Gimbrede 


1084 


WlGHTMAN 


Unknown Man 


Prud'homme 


2620 


Wilcox 




New York City, City Hall 


Prud'homme 


2624 


WlLDMAN 




Codman, John 


Pelton 


2448 


WlLLARD 




McNeil, John 


Pelton 


2508 


WlLLIAMS 


W. 


Adams, John 


Houston 


1453 






Bainbridge, William 


Smith, J. R. 


2916 




H. 


Colby, John 


Williams 


3363 






Duff, John 


Edwin-Boyd 


751 




H. 


Eustis, William. 


Annin & Smith 


91 




H. 


Heath, William * 


Smith, J. R. 


2922 




H. 


Hull, Isaac 


Smith, J. R. 


2923 






Ingalls, William 


Lavigne 


1675 




H. 


Parish, E. 


Smith, J. R. 


2926 




Chas. V. 


Percival, Spencer 


Kneass 


1653 




H. 


Phillips, John 


Lavigne 


1676 




H. 


Rogers, John 


Smith, I. R. 


2929 




H. 


Sedgwick, Theodore 


Smith, J. R. 


2930 




H. 


Smith, Elias 


Williams 


3364 




H. 


Thomas, Isaiah 


Smith, J. R. 


2932 




H. 


Thomson, Samuel 


Williams 


3365 


Wilson 




Franklin, Benjamin 


Longacre 


1981 




, 


Niagara Falls, N. Y. 


Cooke 


435-36 


Wilson 




Watson, Elkanah 


Paradise 


2413 


WlVELL 




George IV, England 


Hoogland 


1421 


Wood, J. 




Backus, Azel 


Longacre 


1926 






Barney, Joshua 


Childs 


340 






Biddle, James 


Gimbrede 


1037-38 






Brown, Jacob 


Gimbrede 


1041 






Burke, Mr. 


Steel 


3002 






Chauncey, Isaac 


Edwin 


727 






Cooper, Thomas Apthorpe 


Edwin 


736 






Daggett, David 


Jocelyn 


1533 






Dale, Richard 


Dodson 


485 






Dale, Richard 


Edwin 


743-744 






Dwight, Timothy 


Leney 


1746 



326 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 
Wood, J. 



WoOLASTON 
WoOLLEY 

Wright 



Yeaobr 
Young 



Zoubt 

ZtJCCABO 



Subject 
Fennell, James 
Griffin, E. D. 
Harrison, William H. 
Inglis, James 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
Jackson, Andrew 
James, Thomas C. 
Johnson, Richard M. 
Johnson, Richard M. 
King, Rufus 
McFarland, Francis F. 
Madison, Dorothy T. D. 
Marshall, John 
Murray, Alexander 
Murray, Alexander 
New York City, View of 
Payne, Master 
Porter, David 
Porter, David 
Staughton, William 
Stewart, Charles 
Washington, Buehrod 
Wilson, James P. 
Winder, William H. 
Grove, Henry 
Henley, John 
Snyder, Simon 
Clinton, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Washington, George 
Philadelphia, Arch St.Theatre 
Gano, Stephen 
Knight, Nehemiah R. 
Shakspere, William 
Mary, Queen of Scots 



Engraver 


Number 


Boyd 


251 


Leney 


1766 


Jones 


1516 


Throop 


3156 


Childs 


347 


Fairman & Childs 


989 


Harrison 


1287 


Longacre 


2015 


Maverick 


2209 


Steel 


3009 


Willard 


3375 


Neagle 


2305 


Harrison 


1280 


Neagle 


2307 


Leney 


1798 


Edwin 


813 


Prud'homme 


2591 


Kearny 


1570 


Edwin 


833 


Willard 


3382 


Rollinson 


2723 


Leney 


1830 


Edwin 


853 


Prud'homme 


2G01 


Bowen 


217 


Goodman 


1122 


Neagle 


2312 


Boyd 


269 


Cone 


426 


Leney 


1767 


Leney 


1775 


Tiebout 


3190 


Tiebout 


3167 


Manly 


2171 


Murray 


2286 


Rollinson 


2717 


Scoles 


2808 


Todd 


3271 


Wright, J. 


3418 


Yeager 


3430 


Hamlin 


1231-32 


Sanford 


2739 


Edwin 


869 -70 


Leney 


1813 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 327 



FIELDING'S LIST 



Artist 
A.J. 

Abbott, H. 
Abernethie 
Agate 
Allan 



Alston 
Ames, 



Anderson, J. 
A. 



Andrews 



Armstrong 
Aspin 



Atkinson 
Baker, J. 



Barber, A. W. 



Barralet 



Bartlett, W. 



Subject 
New York, Plan (about 1795) Maverick 
St. Peter's and the Vatican 
Masonic Certificate 
Chief of Eta 
Rob Roy (title-page) 
Waverly Novels (Scott) 

title-pages 
Moonlight 
Blatohford, Samuel 
Clarke, Beulah Allen 
Clinton, De Witt 
Boston, Faneuil Hall Market 
Canker Worms 
Henry and Anne 
New York, Belvedere House 
Boston, State House and 

Common 
"Israel said it is enough" 
Temple of Heliopolis 
Temple of Heliopolis 
Petersburg 

Bunker's Hill, Battle of 
Christ, Resurrection of 
Departure, The 
Lexington, Battle of 
Miniature of the World in 

the 19th Century 
New Haven, Conn, (plan) 
New Haven, Conn, (plan) 
New Haven, Conn, (plan) 
Certificate, Catch Club of 

Philadelphia 
Certificate, Philadelphia 

Society 
Columbus, Landing of 
Country Cider Mill 
Emmett Memorial 
Frolic and Wasp 
Guerriere and Constitution 
Hamilton Memorial 
Milton, John (dictating 

Paradise Lost) 
Natural Bridge, Va. 
Philadelphia Acad. Fine Arts 

(Ticket) 
United States and Macedonia 
Antioch 



Engraver 


Number 


Maverick 


1047 


Neagle 


1112 


Abernethie 


1 


Paradise 


1179 


Annin & Smith 


79 


Annin & Smith 


80 


Ellis 


448 


Smith, W. D. 


1465 


Maverick 


1024 


Balch 


92 


Bowen 


169 


Anderson 


49 


Tiebout 


1596 


Scoles 


1340 


Bowen 


183 


Longacre 


1005 


Haines 


539 


Campbell 


235 


Boyd 


214 


Baker 


83 


Baker 


88 


Baker 


87 


Baker 


84 


Barber 


- 116 


Barber 


113 


Barber 


115 


Barber 


114 



Seymour 



1398 



Harrison 


575 


Humphrys 


735 


Tiebout 


1619 


Seymour 


1426 


Seymour 


1429 


Tanner 


1545 


Tiebout 


1595 


Edwin 


421 


Lawson 


933 


Harrison 


580 


a Seymour 


1430 


Prud'homrne 


1231 



328 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 
Bassano 
Bedwell 
Behan 

Behan & Lyman 
Bell 
Benjamin 
Bennett, W. J. 



Biqelow 
Billings 
Birch, T. 



Wm. 
T. 



Bloemart 

Boaden 
Boole 
Boninqton 
Boston Mao. 



Boochettb 
Bowen 



Bowman 
Bridges 
Bridport 

Bromlbt 
Brown, B. 

T. B. 
Buck 



Engraver 
Plocher 
Thackara 
Bowen 
Leney 
Anderson 
Wightmun 
Bennett 
Bennett 
Bennett 



Subject 
Wise Men, The 
South Mountain Pass 
Britannia 
Patterson Falls 
Anatomical Plates 
Church, Elevation of 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, View of 
Doubtful Shilling, The 
New York Bay, A Brisk Gale Bennett 
New York, Fulton St. Market Bennett 
Niagara Falls Rapids Bennett 

Niagara Falls from Table Rock Bennett 
Solitude Bennett 

Troy Bennett 

West Point Bennett 

Scoliophis Atlanticus (serpent) Annin 
Boston, American House Smith 

Brock, Samuel, residence Steel 

Certificate, Societas Cliosophica Kneass 
Delaplaine's Repository, 1815 Lawson 
New York Seymour 

Philadelphia, 2nd and Race 

Sts. Seymour 

Philadelphia, Schuylkill, Beck's 

Shot Tower 
Rail Shooting 
Taquendama, Falls of 
Whale 

Elijah, Translation of 
St. Paul 

Unwelcome Guest 
Chase, Philander 
Lute, The 
Animal Flowers 
Balloon, Ascent of 
Balloon, Descent of 
Balloon, Air 
Faithful Shepard 
Glass House, A 
Nightingale Monument 
Switzerland, Liberty of 
Chambly, Fort 
Nicolet, Village of 
Boston, House of Industry 
Boston, Insane Hospital 
Boston, Johnson Hall 
Boston Theatre 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Baldwin, Henry 
New York, Washington Hall 
Analectic Mag. (title pages) 

1816, Vol. 7 
Mary, Queen of Scots 
Prayer, Book of Common 
West Point 
Mother and Child 



Number 

1220 

1570 

192 

985 

33 

1737 

124 

125 

131 

141 

143 

145 

144 

149 

152 

153 

68 

1447 

1496 

873 

920 

1427 

1433 



Unsigned 


1895 


Kearny 


813 


Kearny 


817 


Hill 


663 


Hoogland 


713 


Seymour 


1420 


Ellis 


465 


Prud'homme 


1228 


Pelton 


1215 


Norman 


1148 


Norman 


1145 


Norman 


1146 


Norman 


1154 


Norman 


1156 


Norman 


1151 


Norman 


1149 


Norman 


1147 


Bennett 


1278 


Bennett 


146 


Bowen 


170 


Bowen 


171 


Bowen 


172 


Bowen 


186 


Bowen 


187 


Goodman & Piggot 


522 


Jocelyn 


752 


Kearny 


781 


Ellis 


438 


Brown 


224 


Prud'homme 


1233 


Osborn 


1167 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 329 



Artist 
Bullfinch 

BUNBURY 
BlJRGES 

Burnet 
Burnet 



Burr, H. 

Burton 

Busby 

Buss 
Campbell 

Canda 

Carbould 
Carnee 
Carr, J. 



Castona 

Cathn 

Catlin 

Chantrt 

Chapman. 



Charles, Wm, 



Chataigner 
Chevalier 
Clat, E. W. 



Cochin 



COCKERELL 
COLE 



Subject 
United States Capitol 
Washington Capitol 
Horsemanship, Lessons in 
Astronomical Chart 
Funeral of Pompey 
Alexander at Persepolis 
Caesar, Death of 
Minstrels at Vaux Hall 
Pandean Minstrels 
Yale, Elisha 
New York, Battery 
New York, City Hall 
New York, State Prison 
Soliciting a Vote 
Philip Baptizing the Eunuch 
Philip Baptizing the Eunuch 
Certificates, Mechanics & 

Tradesman Soc. 
Willoughby, Death of 
Constitution and Guerriere 
Cherbourg 
Lighthouse at Havre 
Southampton 
Torr Abbey 

St. Catherine, Marriage of 
Lockport, Erie Canal 
Hudson, from West Point 
Washington, George 
Columbus, Landing of 
Disguise, The 
New York 

Snare, The * 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 

(caricature) 
Carson, Murder of Capt. 
Court of Dover in Session 

(caricature) 
Fallen Pillar of the Kirk 

(caricature) 
John Bull's Reply 
Johnny's Old Tune 
Sculptor, The (caricature) 
Seaman's Wife Reckoning 

(caricature) 
Supper, Boney's Last 

(caricature) 
Jackson, Andrew 
Masonic Certificate 
American Monthly Mag. 

(title-page) 
Negro Duel 
Spy, The (title-page) 
Franklin, Benj. 
Franklin, Benj. 
Arcadia 

American Scenery 
Boone, Daniel, at Lake Osage 



Engraver 


Number 


Childs 


287 


Stone 


1509-1513 


Charles 


270 


Norman 


1142 


Kennedy 


860 


lloogland 


702 


Gridley 


535 


Kneass 


893 


Kneass 


893 


Balch 


106 


King 


868 


Hooker 


717 


Hooker 


718 


Ellis 


403 


Jocelyn 


753 


Campbell 


232 


Tanner 


1536 


Tanner 


1541 


Smith 


1456-1458 


Bennett 


129 


Bennett 


135 


Bennett 


150 


Bennett 


151 


Tiebout 


1652 


Mumford 


1076 


Hill 


603 


Pelton 


1212 


Danforth 


327 


Prud'homme 


1235 


Bennett 


142 


Lawson 


939 


Charles 


261-262, 264 


Charles 


253 



Charles 

Charles 
Charloa 
Charles 
Charles 

Charles 



254 

263 
245 
258 
250 

247 



Charles 


257 


Leney 


964 


Maverick 


1043 


Childs 


293 


Clay 


309 


Childs 


291 


Maverick & Co. 


1062 


Unsigned 


1815 


Kearny 


784 


Ellis 


444 


Kelly 


837 



330 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


CoLQUHOUN 


Rosa, George 


Leney 


Columbian Mao. 


Ohiopyle Falls, Pa. 


Unsigned 


Cooke 


Charleston, S. C. 


Bennett 


Copley 


Hancock, John 


Hiller 


Copper 


Reynard 


Kearny 


Cohbould 


Bible Plates 






Ahab in the Vineyard 


Anderson 




David and Goliath 


Kelly 




Jonah and the Gourd 


Anderson 




Contented Captive 


Ellis 




Johnson, Sarnl. (IHus.) 


Kearny 




Parting Hour, The 


Tanner 




Thomson's Poems, (IHus.) 


Lawson 


CORREGIO 


Holy Resignation 


Chorley 




Penitence 


Hoogland 


CORNE 


Power of Solitude 
(frontispiece) 


Akin 


COBSE 


Scott, Thos. 


Ellis t 


COSWAY 


Childhood 


Balch' 


Crackfardi 


Foot Race (caricature) 


Johnston 




Free-Masons Procession 


Johnston 


Craig, W. M. 


Alexander, Death of 


Neagle 




Alexandria 


Campbell 




Alexandria 


Hoogland 




Amsterdam 


Neagle 




Athens 


Kelly 




Babylon, Great Wall 


Chorley 




Bible Plates 






Ark, Sending Back the 


Kelly 




Charon's Integrity 


Kelly 




Christ, Suffer Little Children Palmer 




Christ, Suffer Little Children Neagle 




Christ, Temptation 


Palmer 




Jerusalem 


Haines 




Joseph Cast into the Pit 


Neagle 




Levites Receiving Treasure 


Neagle 




Xerxes and the Sea 


Neagle 




Caesar, Assassination of 


Kelly '. 




Cairo 


Neagle 




Carthage 


Chorley 




Frontispiece (A Building) 


Neagle 




Gondar 


Campbell 




Hannibal Crossing the Alps 


Neagle 




McLean, Neil 


Leney 




Morocco 


Chorley 




Porto Ferrajo 


Campbell 




Venice 


Neagle 


Crane 


Gamboy 


Boyd 


Crawley 


Norfok, Va., Orphan Asylum 


ChUds 


Crosier 


Certificates, Independent 






Benevolent Society 


Anderson 


Cruikbhank 


Seringapatam, Storming of 


Radcliffe 


CUMMINQS, T. 


Eva 


Tucker 




New York, City Hall 


Steel 




Powell, James A. 


Prud'homme 


CURTIB 


New England GlaBa Works 


Childs 


Cutler 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Cutler 



1920.] Index to Slauffer's "American Engravers 1 ' 331 



Artist 
D., P. E. 
Damkr 
Dana 
Darley 
David 
Davis, 

A. J. 



Dawkins 
Db Berniere 
Delaroche 

Denon 

or 
Denin 



Dewint 
Dickinson 



DlQHTON 

Dolce or 
Do LCI 
Doolittle 



DORSEY, J. S. 



Doughty, 



T. 



Doyle, W. M. 
Drayton 

Dunham 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Electrical Machine 


Smither 


1485 


Coriolanua 


Leney 


970 


New Hampshire (Mountains) 


Bowen 


189 


Cooper's Works, (illus.) 


Paradise 


1181 


Bonaparte, Napoleon 


Pekenino 


1188 


Columbia College 


Balch 


108 


New York 






Adelphi Hotel 


Rawdon & Wright 


1262 


American Hotel 


Throop 


1586 


Battery 


Eddy 


414 


Bowery Theatre 


Rawdon & Wright 


1261 


Public Buildings 


Smith 


1468 


St. Paul's 


Eddy 


416 


St. Thomas's Church 


Rawdon & Wright 


1263 


Trinity Church 


Eddy 


417 


Louisiana (Map) 


Dawkins 


330 


Charlestown, Ma3s., Battle of 


Kncass & Young 


905 


Joan of Arc 


Neaglc 


1104 


John II Surrendering Charles VII Allardice 


22 


Almces, Dancing in a Harem 


Tanner 


1540 


Cairo 


Tiebout 


1613 


Egyptian Barber 


Gridley 


536 


Egyptian Lady 


Gridley 


537 


Mamelukes, Arms of the 


Gridley 


534 


Sheiks, Assembly of 


Tanner 


1534 


Hampton Court 


Childs 


278 


Boston Monthly Mag. 


Hooglaud 


• 704 


(title-page) 






Cherub 


Longacre 


1000 


Osborne Poems (frontispiece) 


Hoogland 


708 


Ashton, J. (advertisement) 


Sparrow 


1490 


Christ in the Garden* 


Boyd 


203 


Maria Maddalena, S. 


Main 


1013 


riutaroh's Lives (Illua.) 


Doolittle 


363-368 


Pneumatic Cistern 






(Yale College) 


Doolittle 


369 


Dorsey (book plate) 


Dorsey 


396 


Richards, Julia 


Dorsey 


395 


Surgical Plates 


Jones 


773 


American Traveller (Views) 


Steel 


1501-1503 


Cabinet of Natural History 






(title-page) 


Tucker 


1718 


Catskill Falls 


Ellis 


445 


Delaware Water Gap 


Ellis 


446 


Lake Scene 


Ellis 


447 


Niagara Falls from Table Rock Ellis 


449 


Passaic Falls 


Ellis 


450 


Philadelphia, Schuylkill River 


Ellis 


451 


Potomac, Falls of 


Childs 


285 


Silver Cascade 


Ellis 


452 


Trenton Falls 


Ellis 


453 


Strong, Caleb 


Smith 


1454 


Sullivan, James 


Fox 


495 


Flowers, Language of 


Drayton 


400 


Frontispiece, Mrs. Marshall's 


Drayton 


398 



Works 
Dartmouth College 



Hill 



675 



332 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 
Duplessis 



DURAND 

Earle, A. 



ECKHOUT 

Edwards 
Elliot 

Ellis 
Ender 
Fairman, G. 



Faithorne 

Farrier 

Fendrich 

Fielding 

Filson 

Fisher, A. 



Flaqo 
Fox, G. 

B. K. 



Fradelle 
Frazer 

FUSELI 



GlMBREDB 

Gonzales 
Graham, G. 



Grain 

Green. 
Greenwood 
Grenier 
Gueirchuno 

or Goerchino 
Guido 



Subject 


Engraver 


Franklin, Ben). 


Durand & Co. 


Franklin, Benj. 


Pelton 


Adams, John Quincy 


Balch 


Algiers 


Earle 


Goletta, Fortress of 


Earle 


Rutledge, Edward 


Unsigned 


Winchester, Elhanan 


Eddy 


Hiram and Solomon 


Neagle 


Sheep 


Maverick 


Washington, First Unitarian 




Church 


Harrison 


Kuakini, Gov., of Hawaii 


Jocelyn 


Glove, The 


Ellis 


Analectic Mag. (title-paged) 




1813, Vol. 1 


Fairman 


Vol. 2 


Fairman 


1819, Vol. 13 


Neagle 


Emporium Arts and Science 




(title-page) 


Kearny 


Masonic Free-Mason'a 




Magazine 


Fairman 


Portfolio Mag. Vol. 2, 1813 


Kneass 


Portfolio Mag., Vol. 1,1816 


Fairman 


Psalm Book, (Illua.) 


Kearny 


Washington, Tomb of 


Murray 


Woman seated by Child 


Fairman 


Milton, John 


Pelton 


Hesitation 


Kearny 


Wall, Garrett D. 


Balch 


Naples, Bay of 


Childs 


Kentucky, (Map) 


Pursell 


Bachrqan, Rev. J. 


Wright 


Escape, An 


Annin & Smit 


Goering, Rev. Jacob 


Wagner 


Mill, Hemp 


Revere 


Bible Plate, Job 


Harrison 


Gilpin Paper Mill, Brandywine Lybrand 


Philadelphia, 




Fairmount Water Works 


Lybrand 


Meditation 


Ellis 


Rhode Island, Shores of 


Childs 


(frontispiece) 




Temple of Nature 


Tanner 


Satan, Head of 


Boyd 


Constitution and Guerriere 


Gimbrede 


Psalm Book, (Illus.) 


Maverick 


African Hospitality 


Gridley 


Certificates, Cincinnati Society Graham 


Emblematic 


Graham 


Detroit 


Bennett 


New York, Lafayette Theatre Eddy 


Anthophile 


Tiebout 


Yale College 


Johnston 


Brave Brother, The 


Ellis 


Holy Family 


Palmer 


Joseph and Pharaoh's Dream 


Boyd 


St. Michel and the Devil 


Seymour 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 333 



Artist 
Hackert 
Hamilton 
Harris 



Harrison 

Hase 
Henard 

Hill, I. W. 

S. 

s. 

J. w. 
Hilton 
Hoffman 



Holbein, H. 

Holman 

Hood 

Hooker 

Hornsby 

Houdon 



Hott 

Huntington 
Ingham 
Inman, H. 



Inskipp 

I8ABEY 

Jackson 

Jansen 

Jewett 

Johns 
Johnston, D. C. 

Joceltn, 8. S. 

N. 

N. 
Joy 
Kelly 
Kidd 



Subject 
Harriers 

Siddons, Mrs., as Matilda 
New York, American Hotel 
Rhode Island and Conn. 

(Map) 
Rhode Island, (Map) 
Clinton, DeWitt, Memorial 
Columbia College 1813 
Overberg, Bernard 
Van Rensselaer, Maj. Gen. 

Stephen 

Albany, from Greenbush.N.Y. Hill 
Boston, View of, from 

Breed's Hill 
Damon and Musidora 
Snipe 
Lazarus 
Philadelphia 

Upper Ferry, Schuylkill 
View near 
Erasmus 

Holman, Eld. J. W. 
Esquimaux 

Newburyporl, Wolfe Tavern 
Potosi, Carnival at 
Franklin, Benj. 
Franklin, Benj. 
Franklin, Benj. 
Franklin, Benj. 
Harrison, Wm. H. 
Nuremberg 



Engraver 
Leney 
Leney 
Maverick 

PI ill 
Hill 

Hill 

Maverick 

Lavigne 

Gimbrede 



Hill 
Hill 

Prud'homme 
Cone 

Unsigned 

Scoles 

Pelton 

Jones 

Kearny 

Hooker 

Neagle 

Tanner 

Tisdale 

Maverick, P. 

Maverick, S. 

Balch 

Humphrys 



Christ Blessing Littte Children Maverick 

Erie Canal, Traveling on Maverick 

Gibson, William Durand 

Hicks, Elias Kearny 

Newsboy Dodson 

Rutger, Henry Wright 

Washington, George Balch 

Washington, Early Days of Humphrys 
Western Souvenir (title-page) 

1829 Childs 

Velvet Hat, The Prud'homme 

Bonaparte, Napoleon Leney 

Wharton, Eliza Eddy 

Drummond, William Birch 

Hobart, John H. Main 

Summerficld, Rev. John Longacre 

Tribunal of the Inquisition Lawson 
Gentleman with Green Glasses Johnston 

Wallack, J. Johnston 

Album, The (title-page) Jocelyn 

Garrison, Win. Lloyd Jocelyn 

Java and Constitution Jocelyn 
Whim Wham, The (caricature) Prud'homme 

Alexander aud Diogenes Kelly 

Paley, Rev. Wm. (title-page) Prud'homme 



Number 

975 

969 

1069 

686 
687 
600 
1038 
910 

512 
598 

671 

673 

1234 

318 



1344 

1200 

769 

796 

719 

1111 

1530 

1694 

1026 

1064 

95 

738 

1037 

1058 

401 

776 

347 

1755 

104 

732 

292 

1236 
967 
409 
155 

1012 
996 
945 
762 
757 
749 
746 
744 

1237 
847 

1232 



334 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct, 



Artist 
Kidder 

Kino, 

S. 
Kirk 



Krimmel, 



H. L. 



Engraver 


Number 


Bowen 


1G4 


Bowen 


184 


Annin & Smith 


72 


Kearny 


775 


Peubody 


1182 


Allen 


29 


Fox 


497 



Subject 
Boston, View of S.E. 
Boston State House, New 
Boston, Tremont House 
Adams, John Quincy 
Adams, John Quincy 
Newport, R. I. 
Cape Planter and Lion 
Curious Ceremony at La Ciotat Seymour 
Disabled Soldier and Mistress Fox 
Doge Marrying Adriatic Tiebout 

Fishing on the, Nile Fox 

Scenes in the Streets of Pekin Seymour 
Turkish Quarrel, Streets of 

Alleppo 
Wraxall, Mr., at Danunora 
Allegorical Subject 
Departure for Boarding School Goodman & Piggot 
Frederick and Ellen Lawson 

Happy Family Lawson 

Milbray, Mr., and Happy Vale Tiebout 



Lawson 
Lawson 

Kneass 



Lawrence, T. 


Grey, Lady, and Children 


Ellis 


436 


or 


Mother, The 


Ellis 


430 


Laurence 


Red Riding Hood 


Longacro 


1002 




Three Sisters, The 


Longacre 


1004 


Le Brun 


Visitation, The 


Neagle 


1134 


Lee 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Cone 


315 




Frankfort, Ky. 


Childs 


277 


Lehman 


Philadelphia 








Upper Ferry Bridge 


Lehman 


954 


Lely 


Selden, John 


Birch 


158 


Lemet 


Townsend, John 


Lemet 


956 


Leonardo 


Last Sifppcr 


Yeager 


1709 




Last Supper 


Neagle 


1090-1123 


Leslie, 


Analectic Mag. (title pages) 








1815 


Stalker 


1491 


C. It. 


Audrey and Touchstone 


Lawson 


915 




Grey, Lady Jane 


Kelly 


833 




Kcnil worth (title-page) 


Annin & Smith 


78 




Minstrel, The 


Ellis 


400 




Mnemonika 


Fairman 


484 




Portfolio Mag. Vol. 3, 1814 


Kneass 


899 




Portrait, A 


Dan forth 


328 




Scott, Sir Walter 


Pelton 


1210 




Uncle Toby and the Widow 


Lawson 


932 


Lewis 


Charleston, S. C, Siege of 


Tanner 


1537 




New York, Island, (Map) 


Seymour 


1404 


Livinoston 


Esquimaux, Hudson Bay 


Tiebout 


1633 


Long 


Long's Expedition (Map) 


Young 


1772 


Lonqacre 


Jackson, Andrew 


Balch 


90 


LOUTHERBOORG or 


Psalm Book, Laus Deo 


Fairman 


487 


De Loutherburg 


Richard I in Palestine 


Cone 


314 


Lyon 


New Haven, Conn, (plan) 


Kensett 


865 


Marillier 


Joseph sold 


Kelly 


852 


Martin 


Bible Plates 








Joshua Commanding the S 


un Kelly 


854 




Franklin, Benj. 


Maverick, S. 


1065 




Franklin, Benj. 


Wagner 


1728 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 335 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Mason 


Jordan, Richard, residence 


Kearny 


777 




St. Mary's Hall, N. J. 


Kearny 


816 


Maverick 


Republique Francaise 


Maverick 


1040 


Mayer 


Rollin's History (title page) 








Vol. I, Vol. II 


Kelly 


842-843 


Merrill 


Exeter, (Plan) 


Peasley 


1180 


Metz 


Benhadud Stifled 


Seymour 


1409 


Monsian 


Prodigal Son 


N eagle 


1128 




Woman of Samaria 


Neagle 


1130 


Miller 


Milwaulde, The 


Bennett 


137 


Mills 


Richmond, Va., Monumental 








Church 


Kneass 


894 


Mondelli 


New Orleans , (Plan and View 


) Bennett 


140 


Monsian 


Prodigal Son 


Neagle 


1128 




Woman of Samaria 


Neagle 


1136 


Morgan, 


Certificates, Fire Insurance 


King 


866 


W. P. 


Certificates, Union Soc. of 








Shipwrights 


Anderson 


53 




New York, (Map, 1817) 


King 


807 


Morse, S. F. 


Brown, Francis 


Pekenino 


1189 




Owyhean Youths 


Jocelyn 


745 


Mortimer 


Swift (Illus.) 


Girnbrede 


515-516 


Morton 


Burgoyne, Surrender of 


Ellis 


432 


Mount 


Painter's Study, The 


Lawson 


934 




Rarlle, The 


Lawson 


937 


MONSON 


Dow, Lorenzo 


Willard 


1739 


MURILLO 


Holy Family 


Otis 


1169 


Nash 


Calais 


Bennett 


126 


N eagle 


Tappan, Wm. B. 


Piggot 


1217 


Neilson 


A rye River 


Childs 


275 


New York Mag. 


Amurath, the Ring of 


Tiebout 


1606 




Babes in the Wood * 


Tiebout 


1610 




Faith 


Scoles 


1336 




Her Sense had Fled 


Scoles 


1338 




Scipio, The Continence of 


Tiebout 


1670 




Suicide 


Scoles 


1372 




Taming of the Shrew 


Tiebout 


1670 


Newton 


Lady and Merlin 


Longacre 


1001 




Love Asleep 


Ellis 


458 


Opie 


Pindar, Peter 


Gridley 


532 


Otis 


Ely, Ezra Stiles 


Steel 


1492 




Harrison, Win. H. 


Hamlin 


552 


Paradise 


Bangs, Nathan 


Paradise 


1175 


Parisen 


Hewlett, as Richard III 


Scoles 


1323 


Partridge 


Ear of Dionysius, Syracuse 


Kearny 


794 


Paul 


Pinckney, Charles C. 


Tiebout 


1598 


Paxton 


Philadelphia, (Plan) 


Strickland 


1520 


Peale, J. 


American Nat. Hist. 

(title-page) 
American Nat. Hist. 


Kearny 


819 




(title-page) 


Tucker 


1717 


T. R. 


Fossil Bones 


Akin 


19 


R. 


Hogau, Rev. Win. 


Harrison 


570 


T. R. 


Indian Lodge 


Young 


1771 




Jackson, Andrew 


Edwin 


420 


Mis-j A. C. 


Judson, Ann H. 


Cone 


312 




Moveable Lodges 


Young 


1971 



336 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Peale, C. W. 


Philadelphia, State House 


Trenchard 


1710 


C. W. 


Universal Columbian Mag. 


Thackara & Vallance 


1580 


C. W. 


Washington, George 


Tiebout 


1600 


Penniman, J. It. 


Allyn House, Plymouth 


Annin & Smith 


74 




Boston, State Street 


Bowen 


185 




Boston, Mass., Medical Col. 


Annin & Smith 


73 




Certificates, Mass. Medical 








Soc. 


Edwin 


424 


/ 


Certificates, Mass. Medical 








Soe. 


Smith 


1449 




Certificates, Salem Charitable 


Annin & Smith 


76 




Osgood Farm, Andover 


Annin & Smith 


75 




Prayer, Book of Common. 


N eagle 


1089 


Percival 


Phillipps, Mr. (asCapt. 








Beldare) 


Gimbrede 


609 


Petrib 


Dublin 


Neagle 


1098 




Emmett, Robert 


Kennedy 


859 


Phillips 


Byron, Lord 


Annin & Smith 


69 




Byron, Lord 


Ellis 


433 


Planton 


Decatur, Stephen 


Goodman & Piggot 


523 


Pope 


Bridge, Flying Lever (Pope's; 


1 Leney 


973 




Bryan, Michael 


Haines 


541 


POBTEB 


Madisonville 


Strickland 


1525 




Victory (naval action) 


Strickland 


1528 




Woman of the Nooaheevan 


Kneass 


902 


PoUBBIN 


Deluge, The 


Boyd 


205 




Deluge, The 


Kearny 


791 


Prinqle 


Pennsylvania, U. S. Ship 


Bennett 


147 


Prout, S. 


Angelo, Castle of 


Chapin 


237 




Civita Castellana 


Chapin 


238 




Lugo, Town and Lake 


Chapin 


239 




Rimini, near Rome 


Chapin 


240 


Purser 


Benares 


Neagle 


1095 




Delhi 


Neagle 


1097 


Pynb 


Microcosm 


Hill 


613 


Quincy 


Quincy, Mass. 


Bennett 


148 


Raignehd, D. 


Certificates, Boston 






or 


House wrights 


Harris 


566 


Raynerd 


Masonic 


Gridley 


638 


Rambbrq 


Luther before Diet of Worms 


Maverick 


1042 


Raphael 


Holy Family 


Tiebout 


1640 




Raphael's Spozalizio 


Pekenino 


1193 




St. Peter and John 


Neagle 


1131 


Rembrandt 


Jacob Blessing Sons of Joseph 


Fairman 


483 




Samaritan, The Good 


Kearny 


797 


Renault 


Yorktown, and Adjacent 








Country 


Tanner 


1638 


Reni 


Dejanira and Nesaus 


Tiebout 


1623 


Reynolds, J. 


Angel in Clouds with Cross 
Bible Plates 


Edwin 


426 




Holy Family 


Smith 


1473 




Samuel 


Cone 


319 




Contemplation(Mrs. Robinson) Birch 


156 


RlCHTER 


Village School in an Uproar 


Ellis 


466 


RlCKERT 


Nazareth, Penna. 


Mumford 


1077 


Rider, A. 


Bible Plates 








Abraham and Lot 


Lawson 


911 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's "American Engravers" 337 



j^rtist 
Rider, A. 



RlNDISBACHER 
RlPPINGILLB 

Roberts 
Robertson 

Robinson 
Rogers 

Rosa 
rowlandson 

Rubens, P. P. 



Salvator 

Savage 
Scheffer 



Schoolcraft 



Schoyer 

SCOLES 

Scot, R. 
Scott, E. 
Seymour, J. H. 

S. 

S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 



Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Christ, Marriage at Cana oi 






Galilee 


Lawaon 


919 


Moses, Finding of 


Lawson 


931 


Ruth Gleaning 


Lawson 


938 


Kidnapping 


Goodman &. Piggot 


526 


Washington Blues 


Nesmith 


1139 


Pinnated Grouse 


Lawson 


935 


Ruined Family 


Paradise 


1180 


Natural Bridge, Va. 


Main 


1014 


Certificate Aesculapiana Soc. 


Anderson 


31 


Certificate N. Y. Grenadiers 


Maverick 


1048 


Foster, Rev. John 


Annin & Smith 


70 


Griffin, E. D. 


Durand 


402 


Spearing a Bull 


Lawson 


940 


Prodigal Son 


Harrison 


578 


Connoisseurs, The (caricature) Charles 


265 


Syntax, Dr., Tour of 


Charles 


267 


Bible Plates 






Descent from the Cross 


Boyd 


206 


Tribute Money 


Murray 


1081 


Tribute Money 


Yeager 


1768 


Fornxent, Helena 


Humphrya 


730 


Holophernes, Death of 


Hoogland 


705 


Saul and the Witch of Endor 


Boyd 


218 


Custis, Geo. W. 


Savage 


1320 


Lafayette 


Campbell 


227 


Lafayette 


Tiller 


1688 


Lafayette 


Throop 


1589 


Ash Furnace for lead 


Stout 


1518 


Native Copper 


Balch 


111 


Potosi, View of 


Stout 


1516 


Thomson's Poems, (title-page) Woodruff 


1750 


New York Government House Scolea 


1341 


Philadelphia, Penna. Hospital Scot 


1384 


Sergison, Warden 


Haines 


542 


Adam 


Seymour 


1407 


Buffalo, Killing a 


Hill 


606 


Indian Lodge War Dance 


Childs 


279 


Indian Lodges 


Hill 


604 


Indian Portraits 


Hill 


605 


Kakabikka, Falls of 


Hill 


602 


Mississippi, Maiden's Rock 


Hill 


612 



Shaw, J. 



Childs 


Hill 


Hill 


) Hill 


Childs 


Hill 


Hill 


Hill 


Maaon 


Hill 


Hill 


Hill 



593 

288 
618 
609 
621 
279 
619 
620 
608 
1020 
644 
648 
645 



338 



American Antiquarian Society 



Artist 
Shaw, J. 



Sheffer 

ShEI'EUD 
.Si MONDE 
or 

SlMOND 

Singleton, H. 



S LA TEH 

Small 
Smilie 

SmIKKK, R. 



Smith, J. H. 



Subject Engraver 

Lottery Advertisement Neagle 

Lottery Advertisement Kearny 

Lottery Advertisement Hurnphrys 

Lynnhaven Bay Hill 

Man and Boy leading Horses H uinphrys 

MeBean Creek, Georgia Hurnphrys 

Norfolk, from Gosport, Va. Hill 

Nurth River, View on Hill 

Oyster Cove Hill 

Passaic Falls, N. J. Hill 

Passaic River, below falls Hill 
Petersburg, Va., Boiling's Dam Hill 
Philadelphia 

Schuylkill, View near Falls Hill 

Schuylkill, View above Falls Hill 

Piano Forte Advertisement Hill 
Ross, Gen. (view where he fell) Hill 

Savannah, Burning of Hill 

Savannah, Bank Mason 
Spirit Creek, near Augusta, Ga. Hill 

St. Anthony Falls Hill 

Washington, Tomb of Hill 

West Point, Monument near Hill 
Wissahickon, View on the, 

Penna. Hill 

Village Baptism Lawaon 

London Neagle 
Bible Plate, 

Moses, Finding of Leney 
Certificate, U. S. Military 

Philosophical Soc. Leney 

Carlornan, Death of Bowes 

Charles VI, in the Forest Galland 
France, History of (frontispiece) Bowes 

Joan of Arc Galland 

Lendemond, Interview Galland 

Louis VII, Repulsing Saracens Galland 

Medicis, Catherine of Bowes 

Ossian, (Illus.) (title-page) Maverick 

Phillippa, Queen, interceding Bowes 

Swift (Illus.) Neagle 

Richmond, Rev. Legh Balch 

Baltimore, Md., Masonic Hall Strickland 

Brownwood Female Institute Rawdon & Wright 

Cromwell, Oliver Ellis 
Cromwell Suppressing Mutiny Ellis 

English Kings Ellis 

McCrea, Death of Miss Jane Annin 

Russell, Lord W. Childa 
Young, Edward, Illus. for 

Works Neagle 

Baltimore, Md. Neagle 

Barnes, Rev. Albert Smith 

Boston, View of Kelly 

Catskill Mountain House Smith 

Circumcision Anderson 

Commerce, Wreck of Brig Anderson 



1920.] Index to Stauffer y s " American Engravers" 339 



Aritst 




Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Smith, J. R 




Mary Magdelene ^ 


Seymour 


1417 






New York 


Neugle 


1108 






Cooke's Tomb, St. Paul's 


Smith 


1402 






High School 


Maverick 


1049 






Maiden Lane 


Maverick 


1051 






State Prison 


Hoogland 


707 


! 




Noah, Murdecai M. 


Gimbrede 


508 






Philadelphia, View of 


Neagle 


1110 






Riley's Narrative (Illus.) 


Tanner 


155G 






Washington, D. C. 


Neagle 


1114 






Willshire, Mr., (first interview) Tanner 


1550 


Spencer 




Morgan, Win. 


Balch 


100 


Sproule 




Montreal (View) 


Leney 


979 -984 


Stansbury 




New York, Navy Yard, 










Brooklyn 


Rawdon & Clark 


1258 


Stephanoff 




Hampton Court 


Bennett 


134 


Stone 




Washington, President's House Stone 


1511 


Stothard 




Ai, Battle of 


Seymour 


1408 






Andr6, Place of Trial, etc. 


Unsigned 


1778-1779 






Bible Plate 










Elijah Mounting to Heaven 


Seymour 


1413 






Cowper's Poems, (Illus.) 


Tanner 


1539 


* ** 




Don Quixote, (Illus.) 
Happiness, Search after 


Tanner 


1543 






(frontispiece) 


Tanner 


1547 






Traveler, The 


Seymour 


1422 






Washington, George 


Kearny 


778 


Strickland, 




Burns, Robt., Monument 


Tucker 


1711 




G. 


Decatur, Stephen 
Emporium Arts and Science 


Lewis 


991 






(title-page) 


Kneass 


880 






Frontispiece, (A Building) 


Kneass 


883 






Knickerbocker 


Kneass 


888 




W. 


Laurel Springs (Naval Ports) 


Strickland . 


1522 




G. 


Philadelphia 










2nd and Race Sts. 


Tiller 


1693 




W. 


Benezet House 


Unsigned 


1785 




W. 


Friend's Asylum 


Strickland 


1524 




W. 


Masonic Hall 


Kneass 


870 




W. 


Schuylkill Bridge 


Strickland 


1527 




W. 


U. S. Mint 


Hay 


594 




G. 


Portfolio Mag. Vol 6, 1815 


Kneass 


900 




W. 


Printing Press 


Anderson 


03 






Wheat Drill 


Anderson 


04 


Stuart, G. 




Adams, John 


Balch 


89 






Jefferson, Thos. 


Balch 


97 






Madison, James 


Balch 


98 






Monroe, James 


Balch 


99 






Shippen, Wm. 


Haines 


543 






Tappan, Mrs. Sarah 


Jocelyn 


748 






Washington, George 


Dodd 


343 






Washington, George 


Balch 


103 


Stubs or 




Arabian Godolphin 


Cone 


310 


Stubbs 




Lion and Horse 


Tiebout 


105 


Stutson , 




Washington, Memory of 


Hill 


022 


Sully, 




Analectic Mag. (title-pages) 










1814 


Maverick 


1030 



/ 



340 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Guu.v, T. 


Archery 


Childs 


274 


T. 


Despair 


Murray 


1083 


T. 


Lace Cap, The 


Dodson 


345 


T. 


Lebeid, Arabian Poet 


Leney 


905 


T. 


Miranda 


Dodson 


346 


T. 


Portfolio Mag. Vol 8, 1819 


Murray 


1079 


SVENIN, P. 


-Amusement on the Ice 


Kneass 


875 




Cossack, The 


Kneass 


878 




Kremlin, The 


Kneass 


889 




PashkofT, Gen. Mansion of 


Kneass 


895 




Peter, The Great (Monument) 


Kneass 


897 


SWANEVELT 


If agar and the Angel 


Hill 


023 


Thesaert 


Piano, The 


Longacre 


1003 


TnOMAB 


Aurora Village, N. Y. 


Yeager 


1760 


Thurston 


Neptune and Time 


Akin 


17 


Tiebout 


Despair 


Tiebout 


1025 


Tisdale, E. 


Christianity, Triumph of 


Tiebout 


1078 




Columbian Library (title-page) Tiebout 


1077 




Hero and Leander 


Leney 


97G 




Missolonghi, Fall of 


Balch 


110 




Naval Temple (title-page) 


Heed 


1205 




New York Theatre 


Allen 


24 


Titian 


Jesus at Emrnaus 


Harrison 


579 


Todd 


Mobile 


Bennett 


138 


Tower 


Croton Aqueduct 


Hill 


599 


Traquair 


Kitchen Stove 


Kneass 


887 


Tresham 


St. Augustine before Ethelbert Kearny 


815 


Troye 


Medley and Groom 


Childs & Tucker 


280 


Trumbull 


Ellsworth, Oliver 


Maverick 


1025 


Turner, J. M. 


Temple of Egina 


Kelly 


845 


Underwood, T. 


Biography of Signers 
(titlerpagiO 


Kearny 


818 




Dante 


Lang 


907 




Mauch Chunk 


Steel 


1498 


Uwins 


Shakespeare, Win. (frontis- 








pieces, titles, etc.) 


Ellis 


402 




Shakespeare, Wm. (etc.) 


Boyd 


219 




Shakespeare, Wm. (etc.) 


Childs 


290 




Shakespeare, Wm. (etc.) 


Kearny 


820-829 


Vallance 


Certificate, Dispensary of 








Philadelphia 


Vallance 


1720 


Van Dyck 


St. Martin dividing his Cloak 


Boyd 


210 


Van Merck e 


Italian Boulevard 


Kelly 


839 


Vauthier 


Bonaparte, Napoleon 


Maverick 


1029 


Von Blon 


Kosciusko's Monument 


Hill 


007 




Marlborough Mill, Md. 


Hill 


014 


Veronese 


Perseus and Andromeda 


Tiebout 


1000 


W. R. 


Letters of Junius 


Pekenino 


1190 


Wadsworth 


Montmorenci, Falls of 


Jocelyn 


751 


Wall, W. G. 


Baker's Falls 


Hill 


626 




Edward, Fort 


Hill 


629 




Fishkill 


Hill 


627 -628 




Glenns Falls 


Hill 


632 




Hadleys Falls 


11 ill-Smith 


633-634 




Hudson 


Hill 


635 




Hudson, View near 


Hill 


636 




Luzerne, Little Falls 


Hill 


637 



1920.] Index to Stauffer's " American Engravers" 341 



r 



Artist 


Subject 


Engraver 


Number 


Wall, W. G. 


Miller, Fort 


Hill 


G30 




Montgomery, James 


Hill 


G31 




Newburg 


Hill 


038 




New York 








City Hall 


Hill 


617 




Governor's Island 


Hill 


039 




Palisades 


Hill 


640 




Sacandaga 


Hill 


641 




Sandy Hill 


Hill 


642 




West Point, Monument near 


Hill 


643 


Walteb 


Washington Capitol 


Steel 


1500 


Walton 


Saratoga, Congress Hall 


Rawdon, Wright 


1260 


Wabd 


Natural Bridge, Va. 


Bennett 


139 


Warrren 


Baltimore, Md., Washington 








Monument 


Freeman 


502 


Watson 


Thomson, Andrew 


Pelton 


1211 


Webster 


Davis, Dick (at school) 


Lawson 


921 


Wesner ; ' • 


Charleston, S. C, Medical 








College 


Wood 


1745 


West, B. 


Belshazzar's Feast 


Neagle 


1115 




Christ Blessing Little Children Kearny 


788 




Christ Healing the Sick 


Tucker 


1712 




Christ Healing the Sick 


Kearny 


809 




Endor, Witch of 


Neagle 


1435 




Last Supper 


Tiebout 


1650 




Last Supper 


Smith 


1474 


Westall, R. 


Bible Plates 








Annunciation 


Tanner & Co. 


1566 




Ruth Gleaning 


Tanner & Co. 


1565 




Cottage, The 


Kearny 


790 




Country Clerygman 


Field 


491 




Cowper's Poems, (title-page) 


Goodman & Piggot 


527 




Ivanhoe (Illus.) 


Kearny 


800 




Ivanhoe (title-page) 


Annin & Smith 


77 




Pilgrim's Progress 


Kearny 


811 




Thomson's Poems, (frontispiece) Scoles 


1345 




Waller's Poems ( " 


) Longacre 


998 


Wheeler 


Houston, Gen. Saml. 


Paradise 


1176 




Houston, Gen. Saml. 


Unsigned 


1822 


Whittock 


Christ 


Ellis 


455 


Wuelpley 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Osborn 


1166 


Wilcox 


New York, City. Hall 


Prud'homme 


1229 


Wilkin 


Unknown Man 


Bridport 


222 


Wilson 


Trapper's Return, The 


Murray 


. 1080 


Wistar 


Anatomical Plates 


Scot 


1377 


Witherington 


Aged Mendicant 


Kearny 


779 


Wright 


Clinton, George 


Tiebout 


1592 


ZOCCHERA 


Mary Queen of Scots 


Annin & Smith 


71 



1920." 



Index 



343 



INDEX 



Abbott, Agnes A., 277. 

Abbott, Charles B., 277. 

Abbott, Charles H., 277. 

Abbott, Francis P,. 277. 

Abbott, Mary P., 277. 

Adams, George B., obituary of F. B. 
Dexter, 184. 

Adams, John Q., 280. 

Adams, Samuel, 41, 42. 

Aiken, John A., member, elected, 
157. 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 190; gift, 
f ■** and legacy, 195. 

Alden, John, 280. 

Alleghany College, 252, 2G1. 

Allen, Charles B., 276. 

Allen, David W., 276. 

Allen, Ethel J., 276. 

Allen, George 11., 276. 

Allen, George R., 276. 

Allen, John, printer, 198, 199. 

Allen, Katharine, legacy, 196. 

Allen, Maria C, 276. 

Allen, Richard L., 276. 

Almanacs, additions, 200; "List of 
N. Y. Almanacs, 1694-1850," 
200. 

American Antiquarian Society, 
meetings, and members present, 
1,155, elected, 2,157, entertained, 
3,158; dome covered with copper, 
2,160; early American portraits, 
and reproductions desired, 6; 
special gifts, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 197, 204; 
Council reports, 4, 159; Proceed- 
ings in arrears, 8; fellowship to 
Clark Univ., 158; repairs upon 
building, 160; funds for stack ad- 
dition, 161; bicentenary landing 
of the Pilgrims, 162; first build- 
ing, 166, 251, and cost, 176; 
enlargement, 169, 178, and cost, 
179; grounds, 170, 179, and 
chronology of, 172; second build- 
ing, 171; Treasurer's report, 187; 
Librarian's report, 197; need of 
shelf-room, 205; list of donors, 
206; I. Thomas on object, 260. 



"American Mercury," Hartford, 
file acquired, 202. 

American Revolution, a Loyalist's 
views, 24. 

"American Union," Boston, file 
acquired, 202. 

Appleton, Nathan, gift, 194. 

Armstrong, Christian, 266. 

Armstrong, John, 265, 266. 

Armstrong, Mary, 265. 

Armstrong, Rebecca, 266. 

Artist Index to Stauffer's "Ameri- 
can Engravers, " 295. 



B. 

Bailey, Frank W., 259. 

Balch, Thomas W., gift, 196. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., gift, 195. 

Bancroft, Aaron, 163, 164, 165, 
175, 176, 177. 

Bangs, Benjamin, 271. 

Bangs, Cornelia J., 271. 

Bangs, Edward, 172. 

Bangs, Edward D., 176; legacy, 194. 

Banner, Peter, architect, 167. 

Bass, Christian, 264, 266. 

Bass, Mary, 264, 266. 

Bass, Rebecca, 261, 266. 

Bass, Samuel, 264/ 266. 

Bates, Albert C, gift, 201. 

Baxter, James P., Secretary for 
Foreign Correspondence, 157; 
gift, 196. 

Beals, Edward M., 276. 

Bcals, Edward M., Jr., 276. 

Beals, Madelaine T., 276. 

Belcher, Rev. Joseph, 263. 

"Bellows Falls Gazette, " file ac- 
quired, 202. 

Bennett, Barbara, 276. 

Bennett, Caroline, 272. 

Bennett, Edmund H., 272. 

Bennett, Edmund N., [1], 272. 

Bennett, Edmund N. [2], 276. 

Bennett, Mary A., 272, 275. 

Bennett, Roger W., 276. 

Bennett, Rosamond T., 276. 

Bennett, Samuel C, 272, 276. 

Bennett, Samuel C, Jr., 276. 



344 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



,'' 



Bennett, Thomas D., 276. 

Bentley, Rev. William, 172. 

"Berkshire Herald," Lenox, file 
acquired, 202. 

Bigclow, Abijah, 175, 177; letters, 
203. 

Bigclow, Francis H., 259, 260, 262. 

Bigelovv, John P., legacy, 195. 

Bigelow, Ruth, 273. 

Bigelow, Timothy, 165. 

Billings, Henry, portrait of I. 
Thomas, 255, 256, 261 , 262. 

Birch, Thomas, painter, 296. 

Birch, William, painter, 296. 

Bishop, J. W., Company, 160. 

Bi\by, William K., gift, 6, 188. 

Blackman, Ebenezer, 264. 

Blakeslee, George H., 158; Council- 
lor, 156. 

Bliss, Eugene F., gift, 195. 

Bookbinding Fund, 190. 

Bookplates, J. P. Woodbury, 
French proofs, and other addi- 
tions, 204; Marshall collection, 
205. 

Boone, Nicholas, 199. 

Boqueraz, Jeannie, 275. 

Boqueraz, Marie L., 275. ■ 

Boqueraz, Roger, 275. 

Borgia, Francisco, - "Vida del P. 
Francisco de Borja, " 1592, 62, 
with translation, 65; title-page, 
opp. 64. A 

Boston, architect of Park St. Church, 
and Old South parsonage, 167. 

Boston, Columbian Museum, 255, 
256. 

Boston, Grand Royal Arch Chapter, 
253. 

Boston Museum, 256, 261. 

Bowditch, Charles P., gift, 196. 

Bowen, Clarence W., gift, 6, 188, 
196, 204; Vice-President, elected, 
156; raises Building Fund, 161. 

Bowen, Daniel, 255. 

Bowman, George E., on Mayflower 
compact, 280. 

Bradford, John, printer, 200. 

Bradford, William, "History of 
Plymouth, "280, 287, 291. 

Briggs, Almira, 273. 

Briggs, Henrietta W., 273. 

Briggs, Henry, 273. 

Brigham, Clarence S., 160, 259; 
Bibliography of American News- 
papers, Pt. XII, 81; Councillor, 
elected, 156; Publication Com- 
• mittee, 157; obituaries of T. McA. 
Owen, 181, J Schouler, 182, W. D. 



Lyman, 184; Librarian's report, 

197. 
Brodeau, Anna Maria, 34 
Brooke, Edith H.S., 274. 
Brooke, Somerset S., 274. 
Brooke, Rev. Stopford, 274. 
Brown, William, 252. 
Brownell, Harriet, 268. 
Brownell, Thomas C, 268 
Buckingham, Joseph T., 255. 
Building Fund, established, 161; 

gifts to, 189. 
Bullock, A. George, gift, 195. 
Bunyan, John, "Sighs from Hell," 

198. 
Burroughs, Elizabeth, 264. 
Burroughs, Rev. George, 264. 
Burton, Clarence M., gifts, 196. 
Buttolph, Nicholas, 198. 

C. 

"Cadmus," 35. 

"Canadian Bookplates, List of," 

204. 
Carey, Bernard, loyalist, 19. 
Carver, John, 282, 287, 291. 
Catlin, George, portraits by, 297. 
Centennial Fund, 191; additions, 

189. 
Champlin, Christopher G., legacy, 

194. 
Chandler, George, Fund, 190; gift, 

195. 
Chandler, Theophilus, portrait, 6, 

204. 
Chandler, Mrs. Theophilus (Frink), 

portrait, 6, 204. 
Chandler, Rev. Thomas B., 6, 204. 
Chandler, Winthrop, portraits by, 

6, 204. 
Chapin, Howard M., appointed 

teller, 156. 
Charters, granted to the colonies, 

285. 
"Christian Advocate," N. Y., file 

acquired, 202. 
Cioffi, Clementina, 273. 
Clark University, A. A. S. fellow- 
ship, 158. 
Clason Architectural Metal Works, 

160. 
Claviere, Etienne, letter from W. 

Thornton, 48. 
Clay, Henry, letter from W. Thorn- 
ton, 57. 
Clinton, De Witt, portrait, 297. 
Clough family, manuscripts, 203. 
Codman, Stephen, 176. 



1920. 



Index 



345 



Colcgrove, Louise, resignation, 8. 

Collection and Research Fund, 190 

Colton, Reuben, 11. 

Columbian Institution, 38. 

Conant, Edith W., 270. 

Conant, Edmund B., 275. 

Conant, Ira M., 275. 

Conant, Mary W., 276. 

Conant, Robert H., 275. 

Conant, Ruth, 275. 

Conant, William M., 275. 

Conant, William M., Jr., 270. 

Constitution, interpretation, 292. 

Cooper, Leslie B., 274. 

Copley, John S., 296. 

Corbacho, Jorge M., member, 
elected, 157. 

Corey, Mrs. Deloraine P., gift, and 
legacy, 196. 

Couch, Alice L., 273, 276. 

Couch, Caroline A., 276. 

Couch, Cecil T., 276. 

Couch, Darius N. [1],273. 

Couch, Darius N. [2], 276.. 

Couch, Leonard C., 273, 276: gift, 
158,259,262. 

Crafts, Eben, mansion, 167. 

Cristy, Austin P., gift, 195. 

Crocker, Alice L., 273. 

Crocker, Arthur M., 272. 

Crocker, Elizabeth A. B., 269. 

Crocker, Ellen, 270. 
Crocker, Frances C, 272. 
Crocker, Frances T., 261, 269, 271. 
Crocker, George A., 269, 272. 
Crocker, George A. Jr., 272. 
Crocker, George G., 270. 
Crocker, Harriet B., 269. 
Crocker, Isaiah T., 269. 
Crocker, Jacob R., 272. 
Crocker, Louisa M., 269. 
Crocker, Lucille R., 273. 
Crocker, Mary A., 269. 
Crocker, Mary C, 270, 273. 
Crocker, Nina B., 273. 
Crocker, Robert I., 272. 
Crocker, Sally, 270, 272. 
Crocker, Sally A., 269. 
Crocker, Samuel L. [1], 259, 269, 

270. 
Crocker, Samuel L. [21, 270, 273. 
Crocker, Samuel L. [31, 273. 
("rocker, William A., 258, 269. 
Crocker, William B., 269, 272. 
Crocker, William B., Jr., 272. 
Crocker, William R., 272. 
Crombie, Calvin, 271. 
Crombie, Catherine, 271. \ 
Crombie, Naomi, 271. 



"Cumberland Gazette," 200. 

Cunningham^ Henry W., Council 
report, 1; nominating committee, 
156; Councillor, 156; gifts, 195, 
197. 

Gushing, Livingston, 273. 



Darby, Calvin, 166, 177. 

Davis, Andrew Mc P., 4; gifts, 5, 

188, 195, 196; death announced, 

10; obituary, 12; Fund, 191. 
Davis, Charles H., gift, 195. 
Davis, Edward L., Fund, 190; 

gifts, 191, 195. 
Davis, Horace, gift, 195; legacy, 196. 
Davis, Isaac, gifts, 191, 195. 
Davis, Isaac and Edward L., Fund, 

190. 
Davis, John and Eliza, Fund, 5, 

190. 
Davis, John C. B., gift, 195. 
Davis, Samuel, 165. 
Doming, A., 268. 
Dc Puy, Henry F., Early Account 

of Jesuit Missions in America, 62. 
Dewey, Francis II. [1], Fund, 190; 

legacy, 195. 
Dewey, Francis H. [2], Councillor, 

156; gift, 196. 
Dexter, Franklin B., death an- 
nounced, 159; obituary, 184; gift, 

196. 
Dickinson, John, 33. 
Dill, Anne, 265. 
Dill, Joseph, 265. 
Dill, Mary, 256, 265, 266. 
" Diverting Historys, " 198. 
Dodd, Robert, 63. 
Dodge, Mrs. Eliza D., Fund, 191; 

legacy, 195. 
Doty, J., letter to W. Thornton, 42. 
Doyle, Margaret B., painter, 297. 
Doyle, William M. S., 252, 255, 

297; portrait of I. Thomas, 254, 

259, 261, 262, 297. 
Dresser, Frank F. 158. 
Dumaine, Christopher, 277. 
Dumaine, Cordelia, 277. 
Dumaine, Elizabeth, 277. 
Dumaine, Frederic C., 277. 
Dumaine, Frederic C, Jr., 277. 
Dumaine, Harriette R., 277. 
Dumaine, Mary T., 277. 
Dumaine, Pierre, 277. 
Dunmore, John Murray, Earl, 18, 

20, 24. 



346 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



E 



Edcs, Henry H., 11; appointed 
teller, 156; Councillor, 156; gift, 
196. 

Edmonds, John II., nominating 
committee, 156; Publication Com- 
mittee, 157. 

Edwin, David, engraver, 255. 

Eliot, John, tribute to W. Hubbard, 
281. 

Ellis, Charles M., 274, 

Ellis, George E., Fund, 190; legacy, 
195. 

Ellis, Helen, 274. 

Ellis, William T., 274. 

Engravers, Artist Index to Stauffer's 
" American Engravers, " 295. 

Eustis, George, 264. 

Evans, Charlotte M., 275. 

Everett, Edward, gift, 194.. 



F. 



Faber, John [11, 296. 

labor, John [2], 296. 

Fanning, David H., gift, 161, 188, 
196. 

Farwell, John W., entertains mem- 
bers of Society, 3. 

Fellows, Alice, 272. 

Fielding, Mantle, "American En- 
gravers," Artist Index, 327. 

Fiske, Oliver, 165. 

Fitch, John, 35. 

Fleet, Thomas, printer, 199. 

Florida, Early Account of Jesuit 
Missions in America, 62. 

Folsom, George, gift, 194. 

Ford, Worthington 0., 21; Secretary 
for Domestic Correspondence, 
157. 

Fortune, 290. 

Fowle, Dorothea W., 266. 

Fowle, Isaac, 266. 

Fowle, Mary, 259, 264, 266. 

Fowle, Rebecca, 264. 

Fowle, Rebecca T., 266. 

Fowle, Zechariah, printer, 264, 265. 

France, American relations, 27; 
emancipation society, 41, 42, 48. 

Francis, Cecilia M., 276. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 252. 

French, Charles E., legacy, 195. 

French, Edwin D., bookplate proofs 
acquired, 204. 

Frink, Rev. Thomas, 204, 



G. 



Gage, Homer, Auditor, 157, and 

report, 194. 
Gage, Thomas Hovey, Artist Index 

to Stauffer's "American En- 
gravers," 295. 
Garver, Austin L., gift, 196. 
Gaskill, George A., appointed teller, 

157. 
Gay, Emma A., 275. 
Genealogy, large additions, 8, 197. 
Germaine, George Sackville, Lord, 

21. 
Gerrish, Samuel, 199. 
Gibbs, George, 264. 
Goffe, Eliza, letters, 203. 
Goffe, Rev. Joseph, letters, and 

journal, 202. 
Goodrich, or Goodridge, Sarah, 

portrait of I. Thomas, 254, 255, 

258, 262. 
Goodwin, Isaac, 165, 177, 178, 251. 
Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, patent for 

New England, 288, 289. 
Gorham, William H., 274. 
Grant, Fidelity, 264. 
Green, Andrew H., legacy, 195. 
Green, John, gift, 194. 
Green, Samuel A., Fund, 191; gift, 

196; bequest, 5, 8, 196, 197. 
Green, Samuel S., gift, 195. 
Green, Timothy, 199. 
Greene, Richard W., gifts, and 

death noted, 8, 9; obituary, 14. 
Greene, Mrs. Richard W. (Wash- 
burn), gift, 8. 
Greenwood, Ethan A., 255,256,297; 

portrait of I. Thomas, 252, 256, 

258, 261. 
Guild, Edith T., 274, 277. 
Guild, George D., 274. 
Gutridge, Susanna, 263. 



H. 

Hall, G. Stanley, Councillor, 156. 
Hamilton, James, Second Marquis 

of, 290. 
Harding, Chester, painter ,297. 
Harding, Henry, portrait of 

I.Thomas, 252, 261. 
Hardy, Charles K., portrait of 

I. Thomas, 253. 
Harris, Thaddcus M., 165. 
Harrod, Stanley, gift, 204. 
Haven, Mrs. Frances W., Fund, 191 ; 

legacy, 195. 



1920.] 



Index 



347 



Haven, Samuel F., Fund, 190; 

legacy, 195. 
Hawkesworth, Eleanor E., 275. 
Haynes, George II., Publication 

Committee, 157, 160. 
Hedge, Barnabas, 103, 164. 
Heizer, Rev. Cyrus W., 275. 
Henderen, Gerard C, 277. 
Hcnnen, Alfred, 63. 
Henry, Patrick, 25. 
Hill, Benjamin T., Auditor, 157, 

and report, 194. 
Hill, John, 198, 199. 
Hill, Thomas, "Young Secretary's 

Guide," 198. 
Hoffman, Samuel V., gift, 196. 
Hubbard, William, on Mayflower 

compact, 281. 
Hudson, Thomas, 296. 
Hughes, Hugh 203. 
Hunnewell, James F., Fund, 191; 

gift, 195. 
Hunt, Gaillard, William Thornton 
t y and Negro Colonization, 32. . 

Huntington, 'Henry E., 63. 
Hutching, James R., printer, 266. 

I. 

Incunabula, "Census of 15th Cen- 
tury Books," 201. 
Inman, Henry, painter, 296. 

J. 

Jackson, Elizabeth, 276. 

Jackson, John, 263. 

Jefferson, Thomas, Letter from 

John Randolph, 1779, 17. 
Jenkins, Lawrence W., Recording 

Secretary, pro tern, 2. 
Jenks, Henry F., death announced, 

9; obituary, 16. 
Jenks, William, 165. 
Jennison, Samuel, 165. 
Jesuits, Early Account of Missions 

in America, 62. 
Jones, William R., engraver, 254, 

261,262. 
Joyce, Clarence M., 275. 

K. 

Keayne, Robert, Case between R* 
Sherman and Capt. Keayne, 217' 
with copy of Ms. in A. A. S., 
231. 

"Kentucky Almanac, " 200. 

Keppels, Augustus, Viscount, 
Channel battle, 27. 



Kimball, Moses, 255, 256. 

Kimble, Barbara, 275. 

Kimble, Fred W., 275. 

King, George B., 252. 

Kinney, Benjamin H., bust of 

I. Thomas, 256, 262. 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln N., gift, 196. 
Kirkland, Mrs. Alice, 263. 
Kirkland, Philip, 263. 

L. 

Lane, Caroline W., 275. 

Lane, Elizabeth, 275. 

Lane, George, 275. 

Larned Samuel, 10. 

Lawrence, William, gift, 196. 

Lear, Tobias, 36. 

Learned, [Ebenezer], "Appraisal of 
the Armes and Accoutrement," 
1775, 203. 

Leicester Academy, 253, 261. 

Lennox, Duke of, aee Stuart, 
Ludovick. 

Lenox, James, gift, 194. 

Le6n, Nicolas, 204. 

Lettsom, John C, emancipationist, 
39. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 190. 

Life Membership Fund, 190. 

Lincoln, Levi [2], 163, 164, 165, 169, 
174, 175, 176, 178, 251; Legacy 
Fund, 190; gift, and legacy, 194. 

Liftcoln, Merrick, member, elected, 
2. 

Lincoln, Nancy, gift, and legacy, 
195. 

Lincoln, Waldo, presides, 1,155; 
illness, 5; tribute to A. Mc F. 
Davis, 10; President, 156; en- 
tertains members, 158; Council 
report, 159; announces deaths of 
T. M. Owen, J. Schouler, W. D. 
Lyman and F. B. Dexter, 159; 
gifts, 195, 197. 

Lincoln, Mrs. Waldo (Chandler), 
gift, 197. 

Lincoln, William, librarian's report, 
169. 

Litigation, A. Famous Colonial 
Case, 217, with copy of Ms. in 
A. A. S., 231, and Bibliography, 
250. 

Little, Charles C, gift, 194. 

Lombard, Rev. Herbert E., 204. 

London Company, 285, 286. 

"London Gazette," file acquired, 
202. 

Longfellow, Stephen, diaries, 200. 



348 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Lord, Arthur, Mayflower Compact, 
278. 

Loud, Grace M., 275. 

Lowell, Rev. Charles, 165. 

Loyalists, Letter from J. Randolph 
to Thomas Jefferson, 1779, 17; 
"Royal Commission on Losses 
and Services," 19. 

Lyman, William D., death an- 
nounced, 159; obituary, 184. 



M. 

McAdie, Alexander G., appointed 

teller, 157. 
Maccarty, Nathaniel, 174, 176; 

legacy, 194. 
McCulloch, Hugh, 265. 
McFarland, William, legacy, 194. 
MacGowan, Elmer A., accountant's 

certificate, 194. 
Mackall, Leonard L., Letter from 

John Randolph to Thomas Jef- 
ferson, 1779, 17. 
McKeough, Francis, 268. 
McKeough, John 268. 
MacMillon, Hannah, 264. 
McMullin, Latham, 275. 
McMullin, Virginia, 275. 
Madison, James, assists colony of 

free negroes, 42, 51. 
Maine, first almanac, 1787, 200. 
Malbone, Edward G., painter, 296. 
Manuscripts, various, presented, 

202. 
Marchant, Edward D., portrait of 

I. Thomas, 253, 259, 261, 262. 
Marsh, Henry A., gift, 195. 
Massachusetts, division of the Legis- 
lature, 217 ; negative vote, 224. 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 

165. 
Massasoit, 292. 
Masten, Elizabeth, 272. 
Mather, Cotton, on Mayflower 

Compact, 293. 
Mather, Samuel, 266. 
Mather, Valeria, 267. 
Mather, William G., member, 

elected, 157. 
Matthews, Albert, 279. 
Maverick, Rebecca, 263. 
Mayflower, The Compact, 278; 

passengers, 289. 
Mencndez de Aviles, Pedro, 05. 
"Mercurio Peruano," file acquired, 

9. 
Merriam, Daniel, legacy, 196. 



Merrick, Pliny, 267; gift, 194. 

" Methodist Magazine, " 296. 

Millbury, Olive Branch Lodge, 253, 
261. 

Miller, Samuel F., on power of 
constitution, 

Minot,AgnesO.,277. 

Minot, Francis, 277. 

Minot, George R., 277. 

Minot, Mrs. George R., 258, 262. 

M orison, Samuel E., nominating 
committee, 156. 

Morse, Samuel F. B., painter, 297. 

Mourts "Relation," earliest refer- 
ence to Mayflower compact, 279, 
283,291. 

Munro, Wilfred H., 158. 

Munson, Samuel L., gift, 6, 188, 196, 
200. 

Murray, Beatrice, 277. 

Murray, James A. II., "New Eng- 
lish Dictionary," 197. 



N. 



Navy, British, 26, and French, 26, 28. 

Neagle, John, painter ,296. 

"Neal's Saturday Gazette," Phila., 
file acquired, 202. 

Negro Colonization, William Thorn- 
ton and, 32. 

Nelson, , 268. 

New England, Council for, 288, 289; 
patent, 1621,290. 

New England Museum, 255, 261. 

"New England Weekly Review," 
Hartford, file acquired, 202. 

New York, "List of N.Y. Almanacs, 
1694-1850, " 200. 

New York, City, plan vicinity, 1776, 
203. 

New York Museum, 255. 

" New York Tribune, " file acquired, 
202. 

Newell, Harriet, portrait, 297. 

Newman, Thomas, 264. 

Newspapers, S. American files ac- 
quired, 9; libel, 30; Bibliography, 
Pt. XII, 81 ; files acquired, 201. 

Newton, Rejoice, 174, 177, 178. 

Nichols, Charles L., illness, 2, 5; 
Recording Secretary, 157; gifts, 
158, 195; Portraits of Isaiah 
Thomas with some notes upon his 
descendants, 251. 

Norcross, Grenville H., appointed 
teller, 2, 157; gift, 196. 



348 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct., 



Lord, Arthur, Mayflower Compact, 
278. 

Loud, Grace M., 275. 

Lowell, Rev. Charles, 165. 

Loyalists, Letter from J. Randolph 
to Thomas Jefferson, 1779, 17; 
"Royal Commission on Losses 
and Services, " 19. 

Lyman, William D., death an- 
nounced, 159; obituary, 184. 



M, 



McAdie, Alexander G., appointed 

teller, 157. 
Maccarty, Nathaniel, 174, 176; 

legacy, 194. 
McCulloch, Hugh, 265. 
McFarland, William, legacy, 194. 
MacGowan, Elmer A., accountant's 

certificate, 194. 
Mackall, Leonard L., Letter from 

John Randolph to Thomas Jef- 
ferson, 1779, 17. 
McKeough, Francis, 268. 
McKeough, John 268. 
MacMillon, Hannah, 264. 
McMulIin, Latham, 275. 
McMullin, Virginia, 275. 
Madison, James, assists colony of 

free negroes, 42, 51. 
Maine, first almanac, 1787, 200. 
Malbone, Edward G., painter, 296. 
Manuscripts, various, presented, 

202. 
Marchant, Edward D., portrait of 

I. Thomas, 253, 259, 261, 262. 
Marsh, Henry A., gift, 195. 
Massachusetts, division of the Legis- 
lature, 217 ; negative vote, 224. 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 

165. 
Massasoit, 292. 
Masten, Elizabeth, 272. 
Mather, Cotton, on Mayflower 

Compact, 293. 
Mather, Samuel, 266. 
Mather, Valeria, 267. 
Mather, William G., member, 

elected, 157. 
Matthews, Albert, 279. 
Maverick, Rebecca, 263. 
Mayflower, The Compact, 278; 

passengers, 289. 
Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, 05. 
"Mercurio Peruano, " file acquired, 

9. 
Merriam, Daniel, legacy, 196. 



Merrick, Pliny, 267; gift, 194. 

" Methodist Magazine, " 296. 

Millbury, Olive Branch Lodge, 253, 
261. 

Miller, Samuel F., on power of 
constitution, 

Minot, Agnes O., 277. 

Minot, Francis, 277. 

Minot, George R., 277. 

Minot, Mrs. George R., 258, 262. 

Morison, Samuel E., nominating 
committee, 156. 

Morse, Samuel F. B., painter, 297. 

Mourts ''Relation," earliest refer- 
ence to Mayflower compact, 279, 
283,291. 

Munro, Wilfred IT., 158. 

Munson, Samuel L., gift, 6, 188, 196, 
200. 

Murray, Beatrice, 277. 

Murray, James A. II., "New Eng- 
lish Dictionary," 197. 



N. 



Navy, British, 26, and French, 26, 28. 

Neagle, John, painter ,296. 

"Neal's Saturday Gazette," Phila., 
file acquired, 202. 

Negro Colonization, William Thorn- 
ton and, 32. 

Nelson, , 268. 

New England, Council for, 288, 289; 
patent, 1621,290. 

New England Museum, 255, 261. 

"New England Weekly Review," 
Hartford, file acquired, 202. 

New York, "List of N.Y. Almanacs, 
1094-1850, " 200. 

New York, City, plan vicinity, 1776, 
203. 

New York Museum, 255. 

" New York Tribune, " file acquired, 
202. 

Newell, Harriet, portrait, 297. 

Newman, Thomas, 264. 

Newspapers, S. American files ac- 
quired, 9; libel, 30; Bibliography, 
Pt. XII, 81; files acquired, 201. 

Newton, Rejoice, 174, 177, 178. 

Nichols, Charles L., illness, 2, 5; 
Recording Secretary, 157; gifts, 
158, 195; Portraits of Isaiah 
Thomas with some notes upon his 
descendants, 251. 

Norcross, Grenville H., appointed 
teller, 2, 157; gift, 196. 



1920.] 



Index 



349 



0. 



Oliver, Vere L., "History of 
Antigua," 197. 

Olney, Agnes, 258, 274, 277. 

Olney, Mary, 274, 277. 

Olney, Richard, 274. 

Owen, Thomas McA., death an- 
nounced, 159; obituary, 181. 



P. 



Paine, Bessie S., 272. 

Paine, Frances T., 272. 

Paine, Frederick W. fl], 169, 178. 

Paine, Frederick W. [2], 272. 

Paine, LillieC., 272. , 

Paine, Mary P., 272. 

Paine, Nathaniel [11, 165. ' 

Paine, William, 172. 

Paine, William It., 271. * 

Paradise, John, painter, 296, 

Paradise, John W., painter, 296. 

Park, Mrs. Agnes, 271. * 

Park, John, 271. 

Park, Lawrence, 259. 

Park, Mary A., 271 

Parsons, Usher D.,. gift, 194. 

Patrick, Dinsmore, 276. 

" Patriot and Democrat, " Hartford, 
file acquired, 202. 

Peale, Anna C, painter, 297. 

Peale, Charles W., painter, 297. 

Peale, James, painter, 297. 

Peale, Ralph, engraver, 297. 

Peale, Raphael, painter, 297. 

Peale, Rembrandt, painter, 297. 

Peale, Titian, draughtsman, 297. 

Pegram, Elizabeth H., 272. 

Peirce, Mrs. Elizabeth (Goffe), 
gift, 202. 

Peirce, John, patent to, 290. 

Pendleton, William, lithograph of 
I. Thomas, 254, 262. 

Pennsylvania, newspapers, bibliog- 
raphy, 81. 

Phillips, Samuel, "A Word in 
Season," 198. 

Pickering, Timothy, portrait, 297. 

Pilgrim Society at Plymouth, or- 
ganization, 164, 165. 

Pilgrims, A. A. S. observance of 
200th anniversary of their land- 
ing, 162; The Mayflower Com- 
pact, 278. 

" Polyanthos, " 255. 

Porto Rico, proposal of colony for 
free negroes, 53. 



Portraits, early American, desired 
by A. A. S., 6; additions, 158, 204; 
Portraits of I. Thomas, 251. 

Power, Jack, 25. 

Prescott, Samuel J., 172. 

Prescott, Winward, "List of Cana- 
dian Bookplates, " 204. 

Publishing Fund, 190. 

Purchasing Fund, 191. 

Putnam, Herbert, 3. 

Q. 

Quackenbush, Isabel, 277. 
Quevedo, Samuel A. K., death an- 
nounced, 159. 



Randall, Rev. Abraham, 268. 

Randall, Abraham G., 253, 268. 

Randall, Alice N., 276. 

Randall, Charles C, 276. 

Randall, Clara E., 253, 258, 261, 
262, 269. 

Randall, H. Leroy, 276. 

Randall, Mary T., 253, 258, 261, 
262, 269. 

Randolph, Mrs. Ariana,-23. 

Randolph, Edmund, 17. 

Randolph, John, loyalist, Letter to 
Thomas Jefferson, 1779, 17; 
Character, 18. 

R.awdon, Ralph, engraver, 297. 

Reeder, Mary A., 270. 

Reeder, Nathaniel, 270. 

Reese, Leah, 272. 

Reeve, Tapping, portrait, 297. 

Rcid, Mrs. Whitelaw, gift, 19. 

Ribadeneyra, Pedro de, "Vida del 
P. Francisco de Borja," 1592, 
62, with translation, 65; title- 
page, opp. 64. 

Rice, Franklin P., 9, 160. 

Rich, Robert, Earl of Warwick, 290. 

Robbins, Chandler, 280. 

Robbins, Edward H., 165. 

Robinson, Fred N., member, 
elected, 157. 

Robinson, John, on "body politic," 
287 

Roby, Mary, 264. 

Rugg, Arthur P., Vice-President, 
156; gift, 188, 196, 197; A 
Famous Colonial Litigation, 217, 
with copy of Ms. in A. A. S., 231, 
and Bibliography, 250. 

Russell, Benjamin, 165, 172, 176. 



350 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Salisbury, Stephen [1|, erects sec- 
ond building A. A. S., 171; gifts, 

194; legacy, 195. 
Salisbury, Stephen [2], portrait, 5; 

Legacy Fund, 190; gifts, and 

legacy, 195. 
Savage, Edward, painter, 255, 25G. 
Scammell, Alexander, plan vicinity 

N. Y. City, 1770, 201-5. 
SchoiT, Stephen A., engraver, 255, 

201,202. 
Schotiler, James, death announced, 

109; obituary, 182. 
Sharp, Granville, friend of negroes, 

39. 
Sharpies, James, pastel artist, 259, 

200, 202. 
Shaw, Robert K., appointed teller, 

2. 
Shea, John G., 05. 
Sheffield, Edmund, Lord, 290. 
Shepley, George L., member, 

elected, 2. 
Sherman, Richard, Case between R. 

Sherman and Capt. R. Keayne, 

217, with copy of Ms. in A. A. S., 

231, and Bibliography, 250. 
Sierra Leone, colony for free negroes, 

39. 
Sikes, Reuben, 175, 177. 
Silhouettes, artistry t . , 252. * 
Simmons, Elizabeth C, 253, 257, 

258,201,202,207,208. 
Simmons, Isaiah, 267. 
Simmons, Isaiah T., printer, 257, 

207. 
Simmons, Levi, 200, 200. 
Simmons, Mary T., 258, 207, 208. 
Skeel, Mrs. Emily E. (Ford), gift, 

189. 
Sloane, Margaret D., 258, 201, 202, 

272. 
Sloane, William, 258, 259, 272. 
Smeathman, Henry, originator of 

Siena Leone, 40. 
Smith, Buckingham, 05. 
Smith, Edgar W., 273. 
Smith, Emma C, 273. 
Smith, Frank B., his Artist Index 

to StaufTer and Fielding, 295. 
Smith, Henry W., engraver, 255, 

258, 202. 
Smith, John R., engraver, 255, 201, 

202. 
Smith, Justin II., gift, 190. 
Smith, Percy G., 273. 
Smith, Samuel C, 273. 



Snelling, Nathaniel G., 173. 

Society of Iconophiles, etching of 
I.Thomas, 250, 202. 

Soper, Stephen T., 205. 

South America, books and news- 
papers acquired, 9. 

Sow Case, A Famous Colonial Liti- 
gation, 217. 

Special Gifts Fund, 191. 

"Spectator," N. Y., file acquired, 
202. 

StaufTer, David McN., "American 
Engravers," Artist Index, 295. 

Stephenson, Nathaniel W., member, 
elected, 157. 

Stokes, Isaac N. P., gift, 197. 

Stuart, Gilbert, artist, 290. 

Stuart, Ludovick, Duke of Lennox, 
290. 

Sullivan, John, 203. 

Sully, Thomas, artist, 290. 

"Sun", N. Y., file of weekly, ac- 
quired, 202. 

T. 

Taft, Jane A., legacy, 190. 

Taft, William II., Councillor, 150. 

Tarleton, Albert G., 208. 

Tiirleton, Cornelia F., 208. 

Tarleton, James, 208. 

Tarleton, Jane 208. 

Tarleton, John, 208. 

Tarleton, Moses, 208. 

Tarleton, Thomas, 208. 

Taussig, Catherine C, 277. 

Taussig, Frank W., 277. 

Taussig, Helen B., 277. 

Taussig, Mary G., 277. 

Taussig, William G., 258, 202, 277. 

Taylor, Charles II. , Jr., 251; gifts, 

197,201. 
Taylor, Jacob, Almanack, 1744, 200. 
Tenney, Joseph A., Fund, 191; 

legacy, 195. 
Thayer, Nathaniel, gift, 194. 
Thomas, Ada, 273. 
Thomas, Agnes P., 271, 274. 
Thomas, Alice, 203, 270. 
Thomas, Amos, 205. 
Thomas, Amy R., 273, 270. 
Thomas, Ann, 203. 
Thomas, Augusta, 271. 
Thomas, Augusta W., 257, 207, 

270. 
Thomas, Benjamin F., [1], 208, 271; 

Fund, 191; gift, 194; legacy, 195. 
Thomas, Benjamin F [2], 271. 
Thomas, Benjamin F. 13), 257, 275. 



1920.1 



Index 



351 



Thomas, Bertha W., 273, 276. 

Thomas, Caroline, 257, 258, 261, 
207, 269. 

Thomas, Catherine C, 271. 

Thomas, Charlotte, 275. 

Thomas, Dorcas, 263. 

Thomas, Dorothy, 263. 

Thomas, Edward I., [1], 268. 

Thomas, Edward I. [2], 270, 273. 

Thomas, Edward W., 268. 

Thomas, Elias, 258, 262, 264. 

Thomas, Elizabeth, 263, 264, 265, 
275, 277. 

Thomas, Elizabeth A., 270. 

Thomas, English, 263. 

Thomas, Evan, 263. 

Thomas, Frances C, 258, 267, 269. 

Thomas, George [1], 263. 

Thomas, George [2], 263. 

Thomas, Gertrude, 275. 

Thomas, Grace, 275. 

Thomas, Hannah W., 158, 257, 259, 
262, 267, 270. 

Thomas, Helen, 271, 274, 275. 

Thomas, Henry C, 270. 

Thomas, Isaac R., 258, 259, 262. 

Thomas, Isaiah [1], 6, 163, 164, 165, 
172, 264, 265; pastel portrait, 158; 
Diary, 165, 172, 174, 175, 177, 
252; erects first A. A. S. building, 
166, 251, and gifts, 168, 169, 201, 
and bequests, 169, 177, 194, with 
letter to, 173, and object, 260; 
Portraits of, 251, with some 
notes upon his descendants, 263; 
interest in free-masonry, 253; 
will, 257, 260. 

Thomas, Isaiah, [2], 256, 266, 267. 

Thomas, Isaiah [3], 257, 267, 270. 

Thomas, Isaiah [4], 271, 275. 

Thomas, James, 263. 

Thomas, Jane, 263. 

Thomas, John, 265. 

Thomas, John P., 271. 

Thomas, Joshua, 264, '265, 266. 

Thomas, Katherine T., 274. 

Thomas, Love, 263. 

Thomas, Marian, 275. 

Thomas, Martha, 263. 

Thomas, Mary, 258, 264, 271, 277- 

Thomas, Mary A., 256, 260, 266. 

Thomas, Mary C, 270. 

Thomas, Mary E., 275. 

Thomas, Mary L., 270. 

Thomas, Mary M., 271, 274. 

Thomas, Mary R., 267. 

Thomas, Mrs. Mary (Weld), 257, 
267. 

Thomas, Maverick, 263. 



Thomas, Mercy, 264. 
Thomas, Molly, 275. 
Thomas, Moses, 264. 
Thomas, Peter [1], 263, 264. 
Thomas, Peter [21, 264. 
Thomas, Peter [3J, 264. 
Thomas, Peter [4], 264, 265. 
Thomas, Pliny M. [1], 270. 
Thomas, Pliny M. [2], 271. 
Thomas, Rebecca, 263. 
Thomas, Susanna A., 264, 265. 
Thomas, William [1], 264, 266. 
Thomas, William [2], 268, 271. 
Thomas, William [3], 257, 271, 275; 

gift, 194. 
Thomas, William R., 257, 270, 274. 
Thomas, William T., 257, 274. 
Thomas family, Direct descendants 

of I. Thomas, 263. 
Thornton, William, and Negro 

Colonization, 32; education, 33; 

"Cadmus," 35; inventor, 35; 

designs Capitol, 36; writings, 36; 

intimacy with Washington, 37; 

"Public Education," 37; public 

activities, 38; dictionary, 42; 

letter to E. Claviere, 48, to Henry 

Clay, 57. 

Tiffany, P. Dexter, gift, 194. 

Tilghman, Tench, 21. 
Torrey, Ebenezer, gift, 194. 
Tortola Island, 32, 40. 
Trumbull, Haillet D., 274. 
Turner, Charles, 280. 
Tuttle, Julius H., Publication Com- 
mittee, 157. 
Twing, Mary, 265. 

U. 

Updike, D. Berkeley, gift, 203. 
Utley, Samuel, Councillor, 156; gift, 
195. 



"Vermont Gazette," Bennington, 

file acquired, 202. 
Virgin Islands, 32. 
Virginia, "Considerations on the 

Present State of ," 22. 
Virginia Company, 286, 289. 

W. 

Wait, Thomas B., printer, 200. 

Waitc,EmmaF.,8. 

Wall, Alexander J., "List of New 

York Almanacks, 1694-1850," 

200. 



352 



American Antiquarian Society 



[Oct. 



Ward, Artcmas, gift, 203. 
Ward, Joseph, painter, 200. 
Warwick, Earl of, See Rich, Robert. 
Washburn, Charles F., Fund, 101. 
Washburn, Charles G., Councillor, 

150; gifts, 195, 107. 
Washburn, John D., 8. 
Washington, George, spurious 

hitters, 20; relations with W. 

Thornton, 30. 
Washington, Lewis, 37. 
Washington, Lund, 24. 
Washington, D. C, Thornton's 

architectural designs, 30, 37. 
Waterston, Robert C., gifts, 195. 
Webber, Katharine, 204. 
Webster, Daniel, 164, 105. 
Wooden, William li., gift, 105 
Weld, Edward, 207. 
Weld, Hannah, 257. 
Weld, Mary, 207. 
West Indies, adverse to colony of 

free negroes, 42; Jesuit mission, 

65. 
Whitin, Albert H., gift, 19G. 
Whitney, James L., Fund, 191; 

legacy, 196. 
Wilbur, James B., member, elected, 

2; appointed teller, 150. 
Wilcox, John A. J., engraver, 256, 

262. 



Williams,' Henry, portrait of I. 

Thomas, 251, 255, 250, 201, 202, 

200. 
Williams, Samuel, 207. 
Winship, George P., 3, 65; Council- 
lor, 156; "Census of 15th Century 

Books, "201. 
VVinthrop, John, summary of the 

case between R. Sherman and 

Capt. Keayne, 1642, 217, with 

copy of Ms., 231. 
Woodbury, John, gift, 204. 
Woodbury, John P., French proof 

bookplates to A. A. S., 204. 
Woodward, Samuel B. ; Treasurer, 

157, and report, 187; gift, 195. 
Worcester Academy, first building, 

170,171. 
Worcester, Morning Star Lodge, 

founded by I. Thomas, 252, and 

portrait of, 261. 



Y. 

Young, Alexander, on Mayflower 

compact, 270. 
Young, Sir George, on settlement 

of free negroes, 47. 



Zahner, Louis C, 276. 
Zeagurs, Dorcas D., 33. 



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